-Overview of St Andrews and the case for change
-The wider context of improvement
Changing the business
Definitions and methods
Daily kaizen tools
Universe of work
Outline of today’s session
• Overview of St Andrews and the case for change
• The wider context of improvement
– Changing the business
– Definitions and methods
• Daily kaizen
– Kaizen theory
– Daily kaizen tools
• Visual management
• Daily huddle
• Universe of work
• Q & A
• The University was formally
constituted by the issue of a
papal bull in 1413.
• Almost 8,000 students.
• 47% students from outside
• 98% retention rate.
• St Andrews is ranked 2nd in
Scotland and 19th in the UK
for overall research
performance, assessed by
quality of publications,
impact and the
environment in which
research takes place.
UK University Rankings
3. Imperial College
4. St Andrews
3. St Andrews
5. Imperial College
7. London school of economics
So why change?
We face some opportunities
– Estate (for example conference facilities).
– Physical assets (for example IT outsourcing deals).
– Intellectual property (for example patents).
– New markets (for example summer schools).
So why change?
We face some challenges
– Fragmentation (for example data centre
– Devolved control (for example budget).
– Complexity (for example IT supporting schools,
units and commercial services).
– Funding (for example REF).
So why change?
HEIs are not great at differentiation
– Where does the institution derive its identity?
– Where does it invest the most and receive the greatest
– What is the University’s unique core business?
– How is the market changing around us?
Do we need to change in answer to these fundamental
But what does this mean?
• It means we can improve.
• It means we need to improve.
• And begs the question…how do we improve?
• Especially with a high level of devolution
where change struggles to be mandated from
• The way the business normally/currently
achieves its strategic objectives.
• Also referred to as ‘running the business’
• The totality of an organisation’s investment
(or segment thereof) in the changes required
to achieve its strategic objectives.
• A temporary, flexible, organisation structure
created to coordinate, direct and oversee the
implementation of a set of related projects
and activities in order to deliver outcomes and
benefits related to the organisation’s strategic
• A temporary organisation that is created for the
purpose of delivering one or more business products
according to an agreed business case.
– It is temporary in that it has a defined beginning and end in time, and
therefore defined scope and resources.
– It is unique in that it is not a routine operation (i.e. BaU), but a specific
set of operations designed to accomplish a singular goal. A project
team often includes people who don’t usually work together.
– The need for change is identified by comparing business as
usual performance to the achievement of strategic objectives.
– Changes are planned through portfolio management and
delivered via projects and programmes of varying size, nature
– This delivery changes our BaU and results in the realisation of
benefits that allow us to achieve strategic objectives.
Fundamentally, projects and programmes are the means by which
a business adapts what it does in order to meet the challenges of
its competitive environment. And portfolio management is the
planning of those.
• Portfolio management (e.g. MOP)
• Programme management (e.g. MSP)
• Project management (e.g. Traditional/Agile/St Andrews Lean)
• Fixed features
• Variable time/resource/quality
• One deployment
• Fixed time/resource/quality
• Variable features
• Deploys iteratively
– St Andrews Lean
• Process improvement
• Maximise value/remove waste
• Deploy immediately
• Culture change
• Today we are not looking at portfolio, programme and project
management (i.e. ‘big change’)
• We are looking at Daily kaizen (i.e. ‘small change’)
• But, they are related to one another in many ways, not least:
– Neither are BaU
– Both require planning and delivery
– Both use the same finite resource
– Both aim to deliver benefits that enable the achievement of strategic
• Japanese kaizen consultants don’t like the word
Lean (and they don’t hide it).
• They refer to kaizen.
• Some translate ‘kaizen’ as:
– Continuous improvement (taken from the words ‘Kai‘
that means continuous and ‘zen‘ that means
– Change for the better (‘kai‘ to mean change and ‘zen‘
to mean good, or for the better)
showing his liking for
‘Lean’ and process
• Always looking for better ways to do
Respect for People
• “make every effort to understand each
other… [to] maximise individual and
W&J - 2 Fundamentals
W&J - 5 Principles/8 wastes
1. Maximise VALUE (incl. TIMWOODS)
2. Understand work as a PROCESS
3. Create smooth FLOW
4. Respond to PULL
5. Aim for PERFECTION
Toyota/Shingijutsu – Focus on waste
Muda = 7 wastes
Mura = Unevenness
Muri = Unreasonableness
Monden’s challenging translation
Professor Monden, says in Toyota Production System (first edition, 1983, page
“…although cost-reduction is the system’s most important goal, it must
achieve three other sub-goals in order to achieve its primary objective.
1. Quantity control, which enables the system to adapt to daily and monthly
fluctuations in demand in terms of quantities and variety;
2. Quality assurance, which assures that each process will supply only good
units to subsequent processes;
3. Respect-for-humanity, which must be cultivated while the system utilizes
the human resources to obtain its cost objectives.
Professor Monden, goes on to say:
“It should be emphasized here that these three goals cannot exist
independently or be achieved independently without influencing each other
or the primary goal of cost reduction.
It is a special feature of the Toyota production system that the primary goal
cannot be achieved without realisation of the subgoals and vice versa.
All goals are outputs of the same system; with productivity as the ultimate
purpose and guiding concept, the Toyota production system strives to realise
each of the goals for which it has been designed.”
Monden’s challenging translation
• The scope of shopfloor kaizen includes the removal
of waste and the reordering of value adding steps.
It does not include the redesign, removal or
addition of value adding steps.
• Often the addition of new value (for example
redesigning a car) involves significant stakeholder
engagement, requirements gathering, market
Value vs waste
• The point of shopfloor kaizen then, is to:
– Remove waste (muda, mura, muri)
– Establish/improve the standard work
– Support/encourage a culture of waste
Manufacturing v HE
• Manufacturing production lines:
– Process does not equal the service which does not equal the product.
• HE ‘production lines’:
– Often the process does equal the service which does equal the product.
• To increase complexity, HE staff (operators):
– Run the process
– Design the process/service/product
– And sometimes are the owners.
• This raises an interesting question?
– Can we manoeuvre shopfloor kaizen to not only look at waste removal but
also look at redesigning, removing or adding value?
• Visual management
– Kaizen action sheet (KAS)
– Kaizen board
• Daily huddle
– Complexity model
• Improvement time
– Universe of work
Daily kaizen - tools
Kaizen action sheet
• Helps the team to decide what they can tackle
themselves using simple problem solving.
• Encourages adoption of a structured approach to
• Enables all work group members to contribute to
improvement activity in real time.
KAS in practice
• A low-tech format to capture small improvement
opportunities and ideas in words and pictures.
• Identifies and captures waste removal/improvement
opportunities that fall below the radar.
• Reviewed at Daily huddle meetings.
• Simple and hand-written
• Includes key information in words and pictures
• Sheets are attached to the kaizen board
• Means of communicating and
sharing key team-focused
information, including team startegy,
KPIs, and performance improvement
• Provides the focus for the Daily
huddle and is designed/maintained
by the team.
• A short, all staff mandatory meeting to focus the
team on what’s important and how they will work
together to achieve outcomes.
• Builds team ethos and provides the forum to identify
improvement opportunities (small and big).
• Held standing in front of the kaizen board.
• Maximum of 10 minutes.
Daily huddle can cover…
• How are we all?
• Cover for absences
• Kaizen board
• Kaizen action sheets
• Review of Performance Measures
• Quality issues
• Housekeeping reminders
• Critical Institution news
• Transition of small change
• Skills training plans
• Dept. performance/status
• Key customer reviews
• General instruction initiatives
• Status and plans for long term
process improvement issues
Description A = 0 B = 10 C = 20 D = 40 Select
Assess how the solution will
The organisation’s exposure to risk
and the impact if errors were
found in the solution
No impact Minor impact to
Minor impact to
major impact to
Major impact to
Each stakeholder may represent a
group of people either internal or
external to the organisation
Applications and data:
Assess integration of solution
1 key system
and no data
2 key systems
and no data
3 key systems with
1 data interface
> 4 key systems
with 1 data
Cost Up to
£500,000 to £2m > £2m D 40
Project completion time Up to 1 month > 1 month up to
> 6 months up to
> 12 months C 20
Governance and lifecycle
determined by complexity
Complexity score Sponsor Project board
Level of project
Reporting Project lifecycle
360-480 Board level Y Senior PM Fortnightly using
210-350 Divisional level Optional PM Monthly using
50-200 Department level N Junior PM Ad hoc using
N Any member of
Daily kaizen - PDCA
Daily huddle is ‘in’ the genba - “The
• See the facts.
• See where the work happens.
• The office
• The team
• The systems (applications, shared drives, desktops)
For both ‘small’ and ‘big’ change/projects, Deming’s cycle
If successful, capture new standard.
If not, re-visit root cause.
Monitor effectiveness of the
Identify the problem,
Measure the problem
Implement the change
(keeping a record as you go)
Here is Edward Bear, coming downstairs now, bump, bump, bump, on the back of his head
behind Christopher Robin.
It is, as far as he knows, the only way of coming downstairs, but sometimes he feels that
there really is another way, if only he could stop bumping for a moment and think of it.
A. A. Milne
Daily kaizen management
• For daily kaizen, management is local and
follows the Toyota shop floor model:
–Team leader (20%)
How to implement daily kaizen?
“Management have to recognise the need for
significant change and must be willing to change
everything. The top leader is the change owner and
must be fully committed.”
Chihiro Nakao, FOM
How to implement daily
• Implementing these tools is itself changing the
business and needs to be managed
• Drop the idea into a complexity model and
determine the correct approach to ensure
Why do daily kaizen?
"People need aligned and purposeful goals alongside the
ability to affect change and see progress. Basically, give staff
the ownership to innovate but also the feedback
mechanisms that show them if their ideas are working. Not
forgetting the safety to take risks, make mistakes and grow.”
Mike Martyn, Shingo Prize winner