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417 - What shall we teach them 2012


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417 - What shall we teach them 2012

  1. 1. WHAT SHALL WE TEACH THEM?Add subtitle information here The history of the higher education curriculum Mike Ratcliffe Oxford Brookes University 4 April 2012 Room 4.214
  2. 2. WHAT ARE UNIVERSITIES FOR?Anyone who attends to the history of debates aboutthe values and purposes of universities needs tocultivate a high toleration of repetition.In Britain, though also elsewhere, these debates tendto fall into a particularly dispiriting pattern, which mightbe parodied as the conflict between the ‘useful’ andthe ‘useless’. (Collini, 2012, p 39)
  3. 3. CULTIVATING HUMANITYIt is relatively easy to construct a gentleman’seducation for a homogeneous elite. It is far moredifficult to prepare people of highly diversebackgrounds for complex world citizenship.Nussbaum, M, 1997, Cultivating Humanity, Cambridge MA, Harvard p295
  4. 4. SOCRATESIf I tell you that this is the greatestgood for a human being, toengage every day in argumentsabout virtue and the other thingsthat you have heard me talkabout, examining both myself andothers, and if I tell you that theunexamined life is not worth livingfor a human being, you will beeven less likely to believe what Iam saying. But that’s the way itis, gentlemen…Socrates, quoted in Plato, Apology, quoted in Nussbaum, M, 1997,Cultivating Humanity, Harvard UP, Cambridge MA
  5. 5. PLATO’S EDUCATION FOR THE GUARDIANS(1) Up to 17 or 18, the early training in literature and music and in elementary mathematics will be carried on with as little compulsion as possible.(2) From 17 or 18 to 20, an intensive course of physical and military training will leave no leisure for study.(3) From 20 to 30, a select few will go through the advanced course in mathematics… with a view to grasping the connexions between the several branches of mathematics and their relation to reality(4) After a further selection, the years from 30 to 35 will be given wholly to Dialectic, and especially to the principles of morality. Plato once more insists on the danger of a too early questioning of these principles.(5) From 35 to 50, practical experience of life will be gained by public service in subordinate posts(6) At 50 the best will reach the vision of the Good and thereafter divide their time between study and governing the state as the supreme council Cornford, F, 1941, The Republic of Plato, Oxford, Oxford University Press, p250
  6. 6. A LECTURE BY HEINRICH THE GERMANIN BOLOGNA CIRCA 1380Nobles and persons of elevatedcharisma have the best places...The bearded gentleman in the frontpew might be the tutor of theauditor next to him…Since attention seems greater inthe front two and side pews, theimage intimates that those ofhigher standing pay most attention– a curious notion, today at least.Clark, W., 2006, Academic Charisma and theOrigins of the Research University, Chicago,Chicago University Press, pp70-71 Laurentius de Voltolina,
  7. 7. THE PLACE OF THE ARTS COURSE Faculty DegreesTrivium BAGrammar logic rhetoric MAQuadriviumArithmetic geometry astronomy musicThree PhilosophiesMoral and natural philosophy metaphysicsCanon Law BCL/LLMCivil Law DCL/LLDMedicine MB BCh DMTheology/Divinity BD DD
  8. 8. HIGHER FACULTIESWilliam Brewster licence topractise medicine throughoutEngland, issued to William Brewster,Bachelor of Medicine,by the University of Oxford.Produced in Oxford.17 December 1692
  9. 9. INNS OF COURTOriginally hostels hired from alandlord by a group or societyof ‘Apprentices of the Law’.The ‘societies were notincorporated, their status wassimilar to that of the hall-communities’ [of theUniversities]
  10. 10. FOUNDATION STORIES: GRESHAM COLLEGE1597The College was intended to besupplied with seven Professors insubjects selected by Gresham,with a bias towards those areas ofstudy relevant to the City context.The Corporation was to have thenomination of four of theProfessors: in Divinity, Astronomy,Geometry and Music. TheMercers’ Company was to havethe appointment of the Professorsin Law, Physic and Rhetoric. Sir Thomas GreshamChartres & Vermont, 1998, A brief History of Gresham College,London, Gresham College p6
  11. 11. LAUDIAN REFORMS 1636Archbishop Laud has the statutesof Oxford thoroughly revised.Mallet describes:All these public lectures were tolast three-quarters of an hour.They were to be given in person,not by a deputy, and Professor andReaders who failed to give themhad to pay five or ten shillings as afine.Further rules stipulated thatElaborate and immoderate hairmust never be encouraged
  12. 12. NEW STATUTES FOR DEGREES Faculty DegreesArts/Philosophy BAfirst year: Grammar and Rhetoric MAsecond: Logic and Moral Philosophy, Geometry;third and fourth: Logic and Moral Philosophy, Geometry andGreekfifth (bachelors of first year): Geometry, Metaphysics, History,Greek – and Hebrew if destined for the Church;sixth and seventh: Astronomy, natural Philosophy, Metaphysics,History, Greek, - and Hebrew, if intending divines.Civil Law BCL/LLM DCL/LLDMedicine MB BCh DMTheology/Divinity BD
  13. 13. CURRICULUM AT NORTHAMPTON ACADEMY1643First Year Second Year Third Year Fourth YearLogic Trigonometry Natural History Civil LawRhetoric Conic sections Civil History Mythology andGeography Celestial Anatomy HieroglyphicsMetaphysics Mechanics Jewish Antiquities English HistoryGeometry Natural and Divinity History of Non- Experimental conformityAlgebra Orations Philosophy Divinity Divinity Preaching Orations Pastoral Care etcParker, 1914, 86
  14. 14. DISSENTING ACADEMIES:ACT OF UNIFORMITY 1662That every Dean, Canon, and And if any Schoolmaster or other person,Prebendary of every Cathedral, or Instructing or teaching Youth in anyCollegiate Church, and all Masters, private House or Family, as a Tutor orand other Heads, Fellows, Chaplains, Schoolmaster, shall Instruct or Teach anyand Tutors of, or in any Colledge, Hall,Youth as a Tutor or Schoolmaster, beforeHouse of Learning, or Hospital, and License obtained from his respectiveevery Publick Professor, and Reader in Archbiship, Bishop, or Ordinary of theeither of the Universities, and in everyDiocess, according to the Laws andColledge elsewhere, and every Statutes of this Realm, (for which heParson, Vicar, Curate, Lecturer, and shall pay twelve-pence onely) and beforeevery other person in holy Orders, and such subscription and acknowledgementevery School-master keeping any made as aforesaid; Then every suchpublick, or private School, and every School-master and other, Instructing andperson Instructing, or Teaching any Teaching as aforesaid, shall for the firstYouth in any House or private Family offence suffer three monthsas a Tutor, or School-master, …, Imprisonment without bail or mainprize;subscribe the Declaration or and for every second and other suchAcknowledgement following, Scilicet, offense shall suffer three months Imprisonment without bail or mainprize, and also forfeit to His Majesty the sum of A. B. Do declare … that I will conform five the Liturgy of the Church ofEngland, as it is now by Lawestablished.
  15. 15. A PLACE OF USEFUL LEARNINGJohn Anderson’s Will No one connected in anyProfessors in Arts faculty: capacity with Glasgow University:Physics, Ethics, Logic ‘thus… the almostand Rhetoric, Greek, constant intrigues, whichSenior Latin, Junior Latin, prevail in the Faculty ofCivil History, Mathematics Glasgow College aboutand Chemistry their revenue, and the Nomination of Professors,Further faculties of or their Acts of Vanity, orMedicine, Law and Power, Inflamed by aTheology Collegiate life, will be kept out of Anderson’s University…’
  16. 16. SCOTTISH ENLIGHTENMENT & CRITIQUE OFOXFORDEdinburgh Edinburgh Review 1808Strengths include the international “We believe, however, that it is chieflystanding of the medical faculty; more in the public institutions of England, that we are to seek for the cause ofstudents attending the anatomy class the deficiency here referred to, andin one year than were matriculated at particularly in the two great centres,Cambridge and Oxford combined. from which knowledge is supposed to radiate over all the rest of the island. In one of these, where the dictates of Aristotle are still listened to as infallible decrees, and where the infancy of science is mistaken for its maturity, the mathematical sciences have never flourished; and the scholar has no means of advancing beyond the mere elements of Geometry.”
  17. 17. UNIVERSITY OF BERLIN 1807The pursuit of Wissenschaft in the new Universityof Berlin was to be an ‘unceasing process ofinquiry’‘The progress of science and scholarship isobviously more rapid and more lively in a universitywhere their problems are discussed back and forthby a large number of forceful, vigorous, youthfulintelligences. Science and Scholarship cannot bepresented in a genuinely scientific or scholarlymanner without constantly generating independentthought and stimulation…’‘Never before or since have ancient institutionsbeen so completely remodelled to accord with anidea’ (Flexner) Humboldt, W Von., (1970), On the Spirit and the Organisational Framework of Intellectual Institutions in Berlin, translated by Shills, E., in: ‘University Reform in Germany’, Minerva Vol. 8, 1970, pp 242-250 Flexner, A, (1930), Universities: American, English, German, New York, Oxford University Press, p311
  18. 18. UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA – OPENED 1825 "we wish to establish inthe upper & healthiercountry, & more centrallyfor the state an Universityon a plan so broad & liberal& modern, as to be worthpatronising with the publicsupport, and be atemptation to the youth ofother states to come, anddrink of the cup of knolege& fraternize with us." • Secular • Elective system • Professorial
  19. 19. ‘UNIVERSITY OF LONDON’ 1826For effectively andmultifariously teaching,examining, exercising andrewarding with honours inthe liberal arts and sciencesthe youth of our middlingrich people… anestablishment availing itselfof all the experience andexperiments that can beappealed to for facilitatingthe art of teaching, aUniversity combining theadvantages of public andprivate education, theemulative spirit produced byexamination beforenumbers, and by honoursconferred before the public,the cheapness of domestic Extract from letter of Thomas Campbell to Mr Brougham, published in the Times,residence and all the moral 9 February 1825, quoted in Allchin, W, 1905, An Account of the Reconstructioninfluence that results from of the University of London, London, HK Lewis p3home.
  20. 20. UNIVERSITY OF LONDONIt consists with the liberal principlesof the present age that the projectedCollege should leave its studentsfree to attend whatever classes andin whatever succession they maythink fit. There should be noexcluding laws except on the scoreof infamous character or behaviour.Campbell T, 1825, Suggestions respecting the plan ofa college in London, in New Monthly Magazine, vol 10pp1-11
  21. 21. UNIVERSITY OF LONDONIt was the plan of the University “The Universities of London andthat most of the students should Virginia” Long wrote to Cocke,follow a regular course and “are the same in their generalsubmit to periodic examination, plan... We allow, for instance,upon which should be awarded students to chose their ownprofessors and university classes, but the Council, whocertificates. In the event there correspond to the visitors,prevailed something very like recommend a certain course towhat is known in the United those who enter at an earlyStates as the elective system, period of life.” …and very few troubled to qualify It was intended that a daily reportfor certificates even in those of attendances should be kept,subjects which they chose. and monthly reports sent to parents and guardians, but these rules were not kept. Bellot, 1929, pp179-181
  22. 22. KING’S COLLEGE 1828King’s College‘A college for general education befounded in the metropolis, in which,while the various branches ofliterature and science are made thesubjects of instruction, it shall be anessential part of the system toimmure the minds of youth with aknowledge of the doctrines andduties of Christianity as inculcatedby the United Church of Englandand Ireland.’ D’Oyly, G, 1828, Letter to Right Hon Robert Peel on the Subject of the London University
  23. 23. YALE FACULTY REPORT 1828The two great points to be gained in intellectual culture, are thediscipline and the furniture of the mind; expanding its powers, andstoring it with knowledge. The former of these is, perhaps, the moreimportant of the two. A commanding object, therefore, in a collegiatecourse, should be, to call into daily and vigorous exercise the facultiesof the student. Those branches of study should be prescribed, andthose modes of instruction adopted, which are best calculated to teachthe art of fixing the attention, directing the train of thought, analyzing asubject proposed for investigation; following, with accuratediscrimination, the course of argument; balancing nicely the evidencepresented to the judgment; awakening, elevating, and controlling theimagination; arranging, with skill, the treasures which memory gathers;rousing and guiding the powers of genius. All this is not to be effectedby a light and hasty course of study; by reading a few books, hearing afew lectures, and spending some months at a literary institution.
  24. 24. YALE FACULTY REPORT 1828The two great points to be gained in intellectual culture, are thediscipline and the furniture of the mind; expanding its powers, andstoring it with knowledge. The former of these is, perhaps, the moreimportant of the two. A commanding object, therefore, in a collegiatecourse, should be, to call into daily and vigorous exercise the facultiesof the student. Those branches of study should be prescribed, andthose modes of instruction adopted, which are best calculated to teachthe art of fixing the attention, directing the train of thought, analyzing asubject proposed for investigation; following, with accuratediscrimination, the course of argument; balancing nicely the evidencepresented to the judgment; awakening, elevating, and controlling theimagination; arranging, with skill, the treasures which memory gathers;rousing and guiding the powers of genius. All this is not to be effectedby a light and hasty course of study; by reading a few books, hearing afew lectures, and spending some months at a literary institution.
  25. 25. DURHAM’S CURRICULUM FOR THEARTS COURSEClassical & General Literature Physical & Mathematical SciencesAristotles Ethics. Euclid, i.-vi. xi.Xenophons Memorabilia. ArithmeticThucydidesHerodotus, v. vi. vii. viii. ix. AlgebraÆschylus, Persae, Plane and Spherical TrigonometryAgamemnon, Choephoroe, Analytical Geometry.Eumenides. Conic Sections.Sophocles, Electra,Philoctetes, Antigone.Œdipus Mechanics.Tyrannus. HydrostaticsEuripides, Alcestis, Medea, AstronomyHecuba, Heraclidae.Livy, Second Decade. Differential and Integral CalculusTacitus, History. Newton i. ii. iii. ix. xi. Calendar, 1842, subjects for examination, third year
  26. 26. DURHAM’S CURRICULUM FORENGINEER STUDENTSWho in their final year covered:Arithmetic. Algebra. Euclid. Logarithms. Plane and SphericalTrigonometry. Analytical Geometry. Conic Sections. Theoretical andPractical Mechanics. Differential and Integral Calculus. Dynamics.Hydrostatics. Hydraulics. Pneumatics. Surveying, Levelling, and theUse of Instruments. Practical Mapping and Architectural Drawing,Theory of Perspective and Projections. Hydrostatical and HydraulicalInstruments. The Steam Engine, Optics and Optical Instruments.Astronomy and Astronomical Instruments. Theoretical and PracticalChemistry. Theory of Heat. Metallurgy. Geology. The French andGerman Languages.
  27. 27. THE IDEA OF THE UNIVERSITY:JOHN HENRY NEWMAN 1852John Henry NewmanFirst rector of the CatholicUniversity of Ireland, laterincorporated into theNational University ofIreland as UniversityCollege Dublin‘Knowledge is capable of beingits own end. Such is theconstitution of the human mindthat any kind of knowledge, if itreally be such, is its own reward’
  28. 28. THE IDEA OF THE UNIVERSITY:JOHN HENRY NEWMAN 1852‘A university is according to the usual description, anAlma Mater, knowing her children one by one, not afoundry, or a mint, or a treadmill’A University training “aims at raising the intellectualtone of society, at cultivating the public mind, atpurifying the national taste, at supplying trueprinciples to popular enthusiasm and fixed aims topopular aspirations, at giving enlargement andsobriety to the ideas of the age, at facilitating theexercise of political powers, and refining theintercourse of private life’
  29. 29. HONOURS SCHOOLS & TRIPOS Oxford Cambridge Literae Humaniores (1800) Mathematics (1748) Mathematics (1825) Classics (1824) Natural Science (1850) Moral Sciences (1851) Theology (1869) Natural Sciences (1851) Jurisprudence (1872) Law (1858) Modern History (1872) Theology (1874) Oriental Languages (1886) History (1875) English Language & Literature Semitic Languages (1878) (1893) Medieval & Modern Languages (1886) Modern Languages (1903) Mechanical Sciences (1894) Economics (1905)
  30. 30. A SCIENCE DEGREE FOR THEUNIVERSITY OF LONDONIn fact, a fifth branch of knowledge - Science - the result ofthe search after the laws by which natural phænomena aregoverned, apart from any direct application of such laws toan art - has gradually grown up, and being unrecognisedas a whole has become dismembered.The remedy for these evils appears to us to be, that theAcademic bodies in this country should (like those ofFrance and Germany) recognise Science as a Disciplineand as a Calling, and should place it on the same footingwith regard to Arts, as Medicine and Law...Memorial, Senate Minutes, University of London, 12 May 1858
  31. 31. A SOCIAL SCIENCE DEGREE FOR THE UNIVERSITY OF LONDONFor the benefit of students intending to enter on a Public orCommercial career, or whose inclination leads themtowards Social or Political inquiries your Memorialistsrespectfully recommend to your consideration, the utility ofestablishing a Degree of Bachelor in Moral and EconomicScienceMemorial, Senate Minutes, University of London 20 October 1858
  32. 32. UNIVERSITY OF LONDON 1858Second BA Examination Second BSc ExaminationMathematics & Natural Mathematics & NaturalPhilosophy PhilosophyStatics, Dynamics, Statics, Dynamics,Hydrostatics, Hydraulics Hydrostatics, Hydraulics andand Pneumatics, Optics, Pneumatics, Optics,Acoustics, Astronomy Acoustics, AstronomyAnimal PhysiologyClassics Organic ChemistryThe Greek and Latin Animal PhysiologyLanguages Geology & PalæontologyLogical and Moral Logic & Moral PhilosophyPhilosophy
  33. 33. MILL ON PROFESSIONAL DEGREESUniversities are not intended to teach the knowledge required to fit men forsome special mode of gaining their livelihood. Their object is not to makeskillful lawyers, or physicians or engineers, but capable and cultivated humanbeings …Men are men before they are lawyers or physicians, or merchants, ormanufacturers; and if you make them capable and sensible men, they willmake themselves capable and sensible lawyers or physicians. Whatprofessional men should carry away with them from a university is notprofessional knowledge, but that which should direct the use of theirprofessional knowledge, and bring the light of general culture to illuminate thetechnicalities of a special pursuit.John Stuart Mill, Inaugural Address, St Andrew’s University 1867
  34. 34. ELECTIVE PROGRAMMES:CHARLES W ELIOT… ‘what he wished todo in higher educationwas … [to] shift fromexternal compulsionand discipline tointernal compulsionand discipline.’ Morison, S. E., (1942) Three Centuries of Harvard 1636-1936, Cambridge MA, Harvard University Press p344
  35. 35. ELECTIVE PROGRAMMES:CHARLES W ELIOT‘The endless controversieswhether language, philosophy,mathematics or science suppliesthe best training, whethergeneral education should bechiefly literary or chiefly scientific,have no practical lesson for ustoday.’…‘We would have them all, and attheir best’Eliot, C W., (1869) ‘Inaugural address’, in Addresses at the inaugurationof Charles William Elliot as President of Harvard College, Sever &Francis, Cambridge MA
  36. 36. RESEARCH UNIVERSITIESDaniel Coit Gilman & JohnsHopkins‘The most stimulating influencethat higher education inAmerica has known’Lernfreiheit - freedom to studyLehrfreiheit - freedom to teach/research
  37. 37. THE HIGHER EDUCATION OF WOMEN 1866‘Among the most necessary and the most easily and immediatelyapplicable, is the extension to women of such examinations asdemand a high standard of attainment. The test of a searchingexamination is indispensable as a guarantee for the qualifications ofteachers; it is wanted as a stimulus by young women studying withno immediate object in view, and no incentive to exertion other thanthe high, but dim and distant, purpose of self-culture. ’‘The extension of the London examinations to women need presentno greater difficulties than those which have been already overcomein throwing open the Cambridge local examinations to girls…’‘The conclusion arrived at [is] a large day-school attended byscholars either living at home or at small boardinghouses has aclear advantage, both as regards economy and mental and moraltraining’Davies, E, 1988, Higher Education of Women, London, Hambledon Press
  38. 38. WOMEN AT CAMBRIDGE‘They provide … apublished list … shewingthe place in order ofstanding and merit whichsuch students would haveoccupied if they had beenmen. But they do notpermit the University toactually confer uponwomen the time-honoureddegree of BA or MA, andthey do not admit them tothe standing of Members ofthe University’
  39. 39. ROYAL COMMISSION ON SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION1872... I, myself, and some others,have been for years been inthe position of urging upon theUniversity that they shouldspontaneously come forwardand take the step which is nowproposed, that they shouldinstitute a complete course ofscientific instruction, whichshould be entirely detachedfrom the literary instruction inthe UniversityPattison, M, 1872, Minutes of Evidence, p240
  40. 40. ROYAL COMMISSION ON SCIENTIFIC INSTRUCTION1872Some persons have schemesfor giving degrees in sciencealone, and for giving a medicaldegree without those literaryrequirements that I speak of[especially Greek], as is doneat other universities; but anOxford degree, whether rightlyor wrongly, is thought to have avalue that the degrees of thoseother universities have not, andif you took away the literarypart, I imagine that you wouldtake away that value from thedegree‘Jowett, B, 1872, Minutes of Evidence, p250
  41. 41. TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION IN LONDON CENTRAL INSTITUTION, Exhibition RoadThree Colleges: Royal The object of the Central Institution is to give toCollege of Science, City London a College for the higher technical& Guilds College and education, in which advanced instruction shallRoyal School of Mines be provided in those kinds of knowledge which bear upon the different branches of industry, whether Manufactures or Arts. The instruction to be given will be such as shall qualify persons to become— 1. Technical teachers. 2. Mechanical, civil and electrical engineers, architects, builders, and decorative artists. 3. Principals, superintendents and managers of chemical and other manufacturing works. Laboratory Instruction will be given in Chemistry, Physics, Mechanics and Engineering, and special lectures will be delivered on the Technology of different Trades.
  42. 42. VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 1902The degree of Bachelor of Arts The degree of Bachelor of Sciencewith Honours is granted in the with Honours is granted in thefollowing schools: following schools:Classics MathematicsHistory EngineeringEnglish Language & Literature PhysicsModern Languages & Chemistry Literatures ZoologyPhilosophy PhysiologyArchitecture Geology, mineralogy,Economic & Political Science palaeontology BotanyUniversity College Liverpool, Calendar for the session 1902-1903, University Press of Liverpool pp44-65
  43. 43. MODERN UNIVERSITIES‘To an Englishman, a university ‘The … Englishman … [is]is something very old, very aghast at our newness, ourvenerable, very picturesque, inconspicuousness, our uglyvery large, very select, very mundane surroundings, ourdetached, and, of course, very incompleteness in range oflearned. Those who have had to studies, our poverty in thefight the cause of the new number of learned men, ouruniversities have found poverty in halls of residence, ourthemselves between the upper strange new studies aboutand nether millstones which leather, dyeing, and brewing.’bound this conception of auniversity.’Arthur Smithells -The Modern University Movement –address to the Leeds Art Club in November 1906
  44. 44. CORE CURRICULUM:THE CORE IN A COLUMBIA EDUCATIONThe Core Curriculum is the cornerstone as well as the intellectualsignature of a Columbia education. Students and alumni repeatedlypoint to the Core as not only academically formative, but as personallytransformative. For many students, the most meaningful classroomexperience at Columbia-the insight about themselves that changestheir perspective on life, or the breakthrough understanding aboutsociety that determines their choice of career-happens in the close-knitenvironment of the Core classroom. Students in the Core encountertexts, ideas, and works of art that have deeply influenced the world inwhich we live, and that continue to shape how we think aboutourselves and our society.
  45. 45. GENERAL EDUCATION: CHICAGO 1931 Faced with the difficult cluster of questions which the departmentalization of education raises, the faculty of the College at Chicago has undertaken to determine the essentials of a liberal education and to devise an integrated system of courses to provide them. The programme of the College is consequently not elective. To be eligible for the degree of Bachelor of Arts, the student must pass examinations which test his competence in the basic principles, the major concepts and methods, and the salient facts in natural sciences, the social sciences, the humanities, and mathematics, and his ability to express himself clearly.Faust, C., ‘The Problem of General Education’ in Ward, C et all (1950) The Idea and Practice of General Education - anaccount of the College of the University of Chicago, Chicago, Chicago University Press
  46. 46. ST JOHNS COLLEGE‘Where Great Books are the teachers’‘The first year is devoted to Greek authors and theirpioneering understanding of the liberal arts; the secondyear contains books from the Roman, medieval, andRenaissance periods; the third year has books of theseventeenth and eighteenth centuries, most of whichwere written in modern languages; the fourth yearbrings the reading into the nineteenth and twentiethcenturies.’
  47. 47. CURRICULUM AT KEELEOne of the main objectives which it is hopedto achieve is to give every graduate as widean understanding as possible of the factorswhich have been operative in building upour present civilisation and the forces thatare current in the world today. …It is intended that the foundation studiestaken before specialisation should bepresented as to give a comprehensible andintegrated conception of the basic facts andprinciples of the main subjects…It is desired to break down as far aspossible any clear cur divisions betweendifferent branches of study and ensure thateach student has a sympatheticunderstanding of the functions andimportance of all the main human activities.
  48. 48. THE IDEA OF THE UNIVERSITY: THE ROBBINSPRINCIPLEThroughout our report we have assumed as an axiom that coursesof higher education should be available for all those who arequalified by ability and attainment to pursue them and wish todo so. …If challenged we would vindicate it on two grounds. First conceivingeducation as a means, we do not believe that modern societies canachieve their aims of economic growth and higher cultural standardswithout making the most of the talents of the citizens. …But beyond that, education ministers intimately to ultimate ends, indeveloping man’s capacity to understand, to contemplate and tocreate. And it is characteristic of the aspirations of this age to feelthat, where there is a capacity to pursue such activities, there thatcapacity should be fostered. The good society desires equality ofopportunity for its citizens to become not merely good producers butalso good men and women.
  49. 49. A UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: ROBBINS REPORT 1963253 We have received much evidence that is critical of present first degree courses, and of specialised honours courses in particular. It has come from the schools, from industry, from professional organisations and some from university teachers themselves. The complaints are under two heads: first, that the courses are overloaded and, second, that they are not suitable for many of the students who now take them. We shall discuss these criticisms separately.254 In a period of rapidly changing knowledge there is undeniably a tendency to add new knowledge year by year to an already full curriculum. It is easier to add than to take away. It is difficult to reach agreement as to where to impart less knowledge and where to concentrate more on principles. Especially where an element of professional preparation is involved, the pressure is all the other way. P91-92
  50. 50. A UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: ROBBINS REPORT 1963262 The present distribution of students between different types of honours course is therefore unsatisfactory. A higher proportion should be receiving a broader education for their first degrees. This in itself calls for change. But if greatly increased numbers of undergraduates are to come into the universities in the future, change becomes essential. Indeed we regard such a change as a necessary condition for any large expansion of universities. Greatly increased numbers will create the opportunity to develop broader courses on a new and exciting scale, and we recommend that universities should make such development one of their primary aims263 In many universities the need to offer a more general education has already begun to influence policy, and in recent years there have been many interesting attempts to provide broader courses of one kind or another. Yet the results to date have been comparatively meagre... p93
  51. 51. ANTHONY CROSLAND 1965: THE POLYTECHNICS‘Why should we not aim at … avocationally orientated non-university sector which isdegree-giving and withappropriate amount ofpostgraduate work withopportunities for learningcomparable with those of theuniversities, and giving a firstclass professional training …under state control, directlyresponsible to social needs’Quoted in Hutchins, R., (1968), The Learning ‘The College of Technology, Headington, 1963’ in Henry, E,Society, Harmondsworth, Penguin, p 115 (1981), Oxford Polytechnic, Genesis to Maturity, Oxford, Oxford Polytechnic
  52. 52. CNAA’S GENERAL EDUCATIONAL AIMSThe aims will include the development to the level required for theaward of a body of knowledge and skills appropriate to the field ofstudy and reflecting academic developments in that field.The aims will also include CNAA’s general educational aims: thedevelopment of students’ intellectual and imaginative powers; theirunderstanding and judgement; their problem solving skills; their abilityto communicate; their ability to see relationships within what they havelearned and to perceive their field of study in a broader perspective.Each student’s programme of study must stimulate an enquiring,analytical and creative approach, encouraging independent judgementand critical self-awareness. CNAA Handbook
  53. 53. GENERAL EDUCATION1 An educated person must be able to think and write clearly and effectively.2 An educated person should have a critical appreciation of the ways in which we gain knowledge and understanding of the universe, of society, and of ourselves.3 An educated American, in the last third of this century, cannot be provincial in the sense of being ignorant of other cultures and other times.4 An educated person is expected to have some understanding of, and experience in thinking about, moral and ethical problems.5 We should expect an educated individual to have good manners and high esthetic and moral standards.6 Finally, an educated individual should have achieved depth in some field of knowledge.Rosovsky, quoted in Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, 1977, Missions of the College Curriculum –a contemporary review with suggestions, San Franciso, Jossey-Bass
  54. 54. A UNIVERSITY SYSTEM: DEARING REPORT 1997Breadth and depth of programmes9.3 We have given much thought to the appropriate breadth anddepth of programmes, particularly at the undergraduate level. Thebreadth of programmes was a particular theme for the RobbinsCommittee. It felt that higher education was constrained by atradition of relatively narrow educational experiences, and that itsrequirements drove a similarly narrow focus earlier in theeducational system. We believe that, while many students willcontinue to welcome the opportunity to pursue a relatively narrowfield of knowledge in great depth, there will be many others forwhom this will be neither attractive, nor useful in future career terms,nor suitable. In a world which changes rapidly, the nation will needpeople with broad perspectives.
  55. 55. CURRICULUM REFORM: MELBOURNEThe core principle defining breadth is that students will take 75 points (or one-quarter oftheir degree) from disciplines which are not available within the degree program. …TheCommission’s preferred structure for ‘breadth’ subjects is that students should be able tochoose from a range of subjects and clusters of subjects approved by the ‘core’ programas adding strength to the degree.Despite the variety of content and learning objectives among breadth subjects, all willhave common features. All will be intellectually rigorous and challenging and will allemphasise the acquisition of higher-order thinking skills. In particular, breadth subjectswill provide a special opportunity for University of Melbourne students to developimportant graduate attributes that will allow them to become:• academically excellent;• knowledgeable across disciplines;• leaders in communities;• attuned to cultural diversity; and• active global citizens.
  56. 56. CURRICULUM REFORM: ABERDEENWe propose a set of Graduate Attributes. These are designed so that aUniversity of Aberdeen education will enable graduates to become: – Academically excellent; – Critical thinkers and effective communicators; – Open to learning and personal development; and – Active citizens.…it became clear that there was a widespread view that, during theirdegree study, students should have the opportunity to study materialbeyond their chosen disciplines, which would set their disciplinarystudy within a wider intellectual context. This, it was argued, wouldenhance their disciplinary understanding, produce more informedcitizens and increase employability.
  57. 57. CURRICULUM REFORM: HARVARDProgram in General EducationThe new Program goes into effect for the Class of 2013. The Harvard College Handbookfor Students states: Students must complete one … course in each of the eightcategories in General Education – Aesthetic and Interpretive Understanding , – Culture and Belief, – Empirical and Mathematical Reasoning, – Ethical Reasoning, – Science of Living Systems, – Science of the Physical Universe, – Societies of the World, and – United States in the World.One of these eight courses must also engage substantially with the Study of the Past.
  58. 58. CURRICULUM REFORM:HONG KONG UNIVERSITYHKU’s new undergraduate curriculum will be characterized by sevendistinctive features:(Inter)disciplinary inquiryMultidisciplinary collaborationEnquiry in multiple contextsDiverse learning experiencesMultiple forms of learning & assessmentEngagement with local & global communitiesDevelopment of civic & moral values
  59. 59. THE RISE OF ASIA’S UNIVERSITIESThe leaders of China, in particular, have been very explicit inrecognizing that two elements are missing in their universities –multidisciplinary breadth and the cultivation of critical thinking.It is curious that while American and British politicians worry that Asia,and China in particular, is training more scientists and engineers thanwe are, the Chinese and others in Asia are worrying that their studentslack the independence and creativity to drive the innovation that will benecessary to sustain economic growth in the long run. They fear thatspecialization makes their graduates narrow and traditional Asianpedagogy makes them unimaginative. Thus, they aspire to strengthentheir top universities by revising both curriculum and pedagogy.Richard Levin, 2010, The Rise of Asia’s Universities
  60. 60. WELL-INFORMED STUDENTS DRIVINGTEACHING EXCELLENCEWider availability and better use of information for potentialstudents is fundamental to the new system. Students willincreasingly use the instant communication tools of thetwenty first century such as Twitter and Facebook to sharetheir views on their student experience with their friends,families and the wider world. It will be correspondinglyharder for institutions to trade on their past reputationswhile offering a poor teaching experience in the present.Better informed students will take their custom to theplaces offering good value for money. In this way, excellentteaching will be placed back at the heart of every student’suniversity experience.