309 - Admissions in HE Nigeria

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309 - Admissions in HE Nigeria

  1. 1. ADMISSIONS INTO HIGHER INSTITUTIONS IN NIGERIA: ISSUES, TRENDS AND CHALLENGES By Omojola Awosusi, Ph.D. Registrar, Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti. Nigeria. Email: jolaawosusi@yahoo.com Tel: +2348033957175 Being the text of a Paper presented at the AUA Conference held at the University of Manchester UK 2nd – 4th April, 2012.1
  2. 2. 1. Introduction 2. History of Higher Education in Nigeria 3. Distribution of Higher Education in Nigeria 4. Establishment of Joint Admissions and Matriculations Board and the Issues Involved 5. Admission system in Nigeria Higher Education: The Trend 6. Quality Assurance system of JAMB 7. Challenges facing Admission system 8. Coping Strategies and the trend 9. Recommendations2 10. Conclusion
  3. 3.  Definition of Concepts  What is Admissions?  Shakespeare : “The world is a stage. It has its entrances and exits”  What is Higher Education Institution?  Citadel of Learning3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5. •150 million People•923,768 Square Kilometres•About 450 languages•3 Principal Ethnic Nationalities•Literacy Rate – 68%•33.2% Youths (Age: 15-34)•GDP: per capita : USD 2,500• Independence: 1st October, 1960• Member of Commonwealth 5
  6. 6. 2.  1943 – Yaba Higher College - For Technical/Professional Education First Generation Universities  1948 - University College, Ibadan4
  7. 7. 2.4
  8. 8. .  First Generation Universities  1960 – University of Nigeria, Nsukka  1962 – University of Ibadan University of Ife University of Lagos Ahmadu Bello University  1973 - University of Benin4
  9. 9. 2. 4
  10. 10. University of Ilorin Usmanu Dan Fodiyyo University University of Jos Bayero University University of Maiduguri University of Port Harcourt University of Calabar4
  11. 11. A. State Universities – From 1979 * Rivers State University of Science and Technology – 1979 * Ekiti State University - 19824
  12. 12. 2. • Federal Universities of Science and Technology • Federal Universities of Agricultures • State Universities of Science and Technologies • State Universities of Education • National Open University • Specialized Academies – NDA, Language Villages etc4
  13. 13. • 1993 Decree – National Minimum Standards and Establishment of Institutions Amendment Decree • Deregulation of Higher Education • Establishment of Private Universities, Polytechnics and Colleges of Education4
  14. 14. Ownership Number Percentage Federal 36 30.8 State 36 30.8 Private 45 38.4 Total 117 1005
  15. 15. Ownership Number Percentage Federal 22 26.1 State 42 50.0 Private 20 23.9 Total 84 100.06
  16. 16. Ownership Number Percentage Federal 20 33.33 State 29 48.33 Private 11 18.34 Total 60 100.07
  17. 17.  1977 - Establishment of JAMB  Issues which brought JAMB * The Northern part of Nigeria less educated than the South * Three out of Six Universities in Nigeria existed in the South West * Majority of those admitted into Universities were from the South West * Incidence of multiple admissions as a result of concessional examination system * Need to Unify entrance examination in line with UK System8
  18. 18.  * Seven Universities established in 1975 across the country, but none in South West Nigeria to create balancing * Introduction of Centralized Admission Board named JAMB8
  19. 19.  1948 – 1977 Concessional Examination System 1978 - 1990 University Matriculation Examination (UME) 1990 - 2005 Polytechnics and Colleges of Education Examination (PCE) added to UME 2005 - Post University Matriculation Examination introduced 2010 - UME and PCE merged to create Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examination (UTME)8
  20. 20. 1. Organised Structure  HQ, Zonal offices  Test Administration  Admission  ICT 2. Intensive Training & Advocacy 3. Community/Institutional Involvement e.g. Stakeholders Meetings involving JAMB, NUC, FME and Heads of Institutions / Registrars of Institutions 4. Multiple Question Types 5. Law Enforcement9
  21. 21.  Admission Criteria  Lack of Adequate access  Focus of Candidates on Universities alone  Massification  Sharp practices  High Examination cost  Cross border option10
  22. 22.  Merit  Catchment Areas  Less Educated Developed States  Others 10
  23. 23. Year Application Admission % Number % Not Admitted Admitted 2000 404,305 60,553 15 85 2001 728,073 92,271 12.7 87.3 2002 896,356 69,594 7.8 92.2 2003 868,451 118,368 13.6 84.4 2004 745,923 125,679 16.9 83.1 2005 404,123 77,955 19.3 80.7 2006 267,032 88,306 33.1 66.9 2007 828,087 116,815 14.1 85.9 2008 957,686 120,195 12.6 87.411
  24. 24. Year Application Admission % Number % Not Admitted Admitted 2000 104,195 39,132 37.6 62.4 2001 178,468 45,743 25.6 74.4 2002 195,151 17,479 8.9 91.1 2003 210,860 72,165 34.2 65.8 2004 - - - - 2005 145,309 24,672 17 83 2006 140,226 130,856 93.3 6.7 2007 130,856 18,267 14 86 2008 230,707 55,255 24 7612
  25. 25. Year Application Admission % Number % Not Admitted Admitted 2000 18,771 9,365 50 50 2001 18,122 12,862 71 29 2002 20,911 2,218 11 89 2003 23,482 12,321 53 47 2004 - - - - 2005 16,518 8,375 51 49 2006 12,693 7,749 61 39 2007 25,910 11,863 46 54 2008 58,698 41,944 72 2813
  26. 26. Focus of Candidates on Universities alone Institutions Applications % Universities 6,100,036 80 Polytechnics 1,335,772 17 Colleges of Education 195,105 3 Total 7,630,913 10014
  27. 27. Universities Polytechnics Colleges of Education 3% 17% 80%15
  28. 28. Institutions Applications % Universities 869,754 63 Polytechnics 403,569 29 Colleges of Education 106,697 8 Total 1,380,020 10016
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  31. 31. Problems of administering examination to multitudes • Stampede • Inability to write exams • Inadequacy of materials • Human capital • Law Enforcement • Control management19
  32. 32.  Examination malpractices  Inducement  Impersonation High Cost of Examination  Application form fee  Transportation  Result checking  ICT Cost20
  33. 33. Exodus of Nigerian students abroad to study  Regional – Ghana  Continental – South Africa  Global a. Europe - UK, Ukraine, Germany, Sweden b. Asia - Malaysia, China, India, Singapore c. North America – USA, Canada.21
  34. 34. • NUC imposed carrying capacity on HE Providers • Constant Review of Methodologies by JAMB • Involvement of HR of Institutions by JAMB to administer Examinations • Introduction of Post UME21
  35. 35. 1. Enlargement of access to Higher Education • Improve/Upgrade existing Universities/Colleges 2. Technology to the rescue - Computer Based Testing (CBT) What is CBT? Paperless examination for  Examination delivery  Taking of examination  Scoring of examination  Release of result22
  36. 36. 23
  37. 37.  Low Exam Delivery Costs  Automated Instant -scoring  Innovative Test Environment  Improved Quality of Information  Reduced cases of malpractices • No leakages of questions • No impersonation  Prompt and Immediate Release of Results24
  38. 38. • Portal provides 24/7 access to scheduling info, allowing candidates to choose the most convenient location to take their exams • Online scheduling and payment system would be deployed • Schedule info would be communicated to the candidates by email/SMS  Exam Centre  Exam Date  Exam Time slot25
  39. 39.  Examiners would populate the Question Bank with large number of questions.  Server uses a sophisticated randomization algorithm based on question delivery criteria set by examiners  Questions would be randomly delivered to each candidate from the question bank  Same number of questions from each section of each subject would be delivered to all candidates26
  40. 40.  Test/Exam would be scored instantly by computer  Compares the test-taker’s choice to the key set by examiner  Scoring is done only when the test-takers indicates he has finished or when exam time elapses  Computer allocates score based on question weight set by examiners  Scores and answers are uploaded unto the server27
  41. 41.  Biometric Technology  CCTV  Restriction of access to Question bank28
  42. 42. A number of Nigerian Universities have embraced CBT fully  Covenant University  Landmark University  American University  University of Ilorin  University of Lagos  Federal University of Technology, Akure Many Universities have adopted varying degrees of computer based testing system. a) Paper Exam finished with OMR scanner e.g. Ekiti State University b) Some Universities use e-examination especially for recruitment test e.g. Federal University Oye – Ekiti.29
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