Agenda Morning Afternoon Mindfulness How to become an expert Theory of Mind Sausage Dogs Guide to Life Team Roles Ideal Performance State Mindset Willpower Pre-mortem Psycho-geometrics Leadership Styles Personality Biases Five Factor ModelPersonal Construct Theory Repertory Grid
Let me be really clear, I’m not an expert in what you do. My job is not to tell you what to do. I don’t know what you do. You do. My job is provoke you into asking hard questions of yourself, colleagues, bosses. Self aware decisions and thought through strategies outperform blind stumbling.
MindfulnessMindfulness = Process of drawing novel distinctions Staying in the present Mindlessness = repetition + failure to question Use of conditional ‘could be’ Dr Ellen Langer, Psychologist
Theory of mind False beliefsTheory of mind – ability of an individual to responddifferently according to assumptions about beliefs and desires of another individual, rather than according only to the others overt behaviour
Anyone who rejects meIt might take a while is a fool. I won’t bother but I’ll sort it out. myself with fools. I’m not going to Everyone is going be able to cope. to hate me.
Self belief High Anyone who rejects me It might take a while is a fool. I won’t bother but I’ll sort it out. myself with fools.Introvert Extravert I’m not going to Everyone is going be able to cope. to hate me. Low
Guide to life The secret of life is that there is no secret!Understanding self & others is exactly the same process Your choice - how you interpret what happens to you Meaning structure = how you feel + top priorities Dr Dorothy Rowe, Psychologist
Willpower Marshmallow test (Walter Mischel ) Willpower as a muscle metaphor -can get fatigued, can’t perform indefinitely -self-regulatory depletion = blood glucose -self-regulation comes at a cost -focus one ‘self-regulation’ at a time -self-regulatory exercise strengthens ‘willpower muscle’ -2 weeks of self-regulation by maintaining good postureDr Roy Baumeister, Psychologist
We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence then, is not an act, but a habitAristotle, Greek philosopher
Psycho-geometrics Squares are hard working and dependable Circles are peacemaker Like order & to analyse. and soothers Dislike change Like to nurture othersOrganised, loyal, conservati Triangles are leaders Tend to be generous, ve, can be boring Tend to be ambitious, warm and friendly motivated, decisive Can be talkative and and focused self-critical Can be strong willed and egotistical Squiggles tend to be Rectangles always searching creative, intuitive, witty and pot of gold at end of rainbow motivated They’re inquisitive, exciting, Can be eccentric, impulsive growing and like change and ungovernable Can be confused and unpredictable
Personality Definition A person’s characteristic patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings. The stable and enduring aspects of the individualwhich distinguish them from others, while forming a basis for predicting their future behaviour. A combination of relatively enduring dimensions ofindividual differences on which they can be measured
Extraversion Introvert Extravert* number of relationships a person is comfortable with
Extraversion 2% 14% 34% 34% 14% 2%Introvert ExtravertOrientated towards their own inner world Orientated to the outer world of people,of thoughts, perceptions and experiences. events and external activities. Needing socialNot requiring much social contact and contact and external stimulation.external stimulation. * Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial
Agreeableness Challenger Adapter* number of sources from which one takes ones norms
Agreeableness 2% 14% 34% 34% 14% 2%Challenger AdapterSelf-determined with regard to own thoughts Agreeable, tolerant and obliging. Neitherand actions. Independent minded. May be stubborn, disagreeable nor opinionated.intractable, strong-willed and confrontational. Is likely to be happy to compromise. * Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial
Openness Perseverer Explorer* number of interests one has and the extent to which they are pursued
Openness 2% 14% 34% 34% 14% 2%Perseverer ExplorerInfluenced more by hard facts and tangible Influenced more by ideas, feelings andevidence than subjective experiences. May not sensations than tangible evidence and hardbe open to new ideas, and may be insensitive to facts. Open to possibilities and subjectivesubtleties and possibilities experiences. * Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial
Self Control Focused Flexible* number of goals a person is focused on
Self Control 2% 14% 34% 34% 14% 2%Flexible FocusedExhibiting low levels of self-control and Exhibiting high levels of self-restraint. Not influenced by social norms control. Influenced by social normsand internalised parental expectations. and internalised parental expectations. * Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial
Emotional Stability Reactor Resilient* number and strength of stimuli that trigger negative emotions
Emotional Stability 2% 14% 34% 34% 14% 2%Resilient ReactorWell adjusted, calm, resilient and able to Vulnerable, touchy, sensitive, prone to moodcope with emotionally demanding swings, challenged by emotionally gruellingsituations. situations. * Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial
Always remember that you are absolutely unique. Just like everyone else.Margaret Mead, Anthropologist
Personal Construct Theory Ideographic v nomotheticGeorge Kelly, Psychologist
Repertory Grid1. Think of specific people who occupy important roles in your life (e.g. parents, partner, children, friends, colleagues . . .)2. Write name or initial as an element on the grid3. Select triads. In what way are 2 of the 3 alike and the third is different4. Write down bi-polar constructs5. Mark triad on construct6. Repeat triads/constructs7. Score elements on 1-5 scale on construct8. Look for patterns
10,000 hours The making of an expert -10,000 hours of deliberate practice -Practice designed to improve performance -It can be repeated a lot -Feedback on results continuously available -It’s highly demanding mentally -It’s not much funDr Anders Ericsson, Psychologist
Sausage Dogs Brief1. Using up to 10 twisting balloons design, create and pitch an object which has the personality of the team [20 min]2. Present back to other group Green team Purple team Alison Aled Ffion Carl Lynwen Keith Llyr Myfanwy
Team role Strengths Weaknesses Red-flagsCo-ordinator Set goals, delegates well, Liable to offload work to Takes all credit for team creates environment, others, inclination to be lax effort promotes decision-makingShaper-Driver Challenging, dynamic, Prone to provocation and Inability to back down or let thrives on pressure, tackles frustration. Likely to offend others ‘save face’ issues othersEvaluator-Critic Cool head, objective, good Lacks drive and ability to Cynical, acts as a brake, judgement motivate others prevents changeImplementer Puts ideas into practice, Inflexible, resistant to Obstructs change reliable, efficient, follows change proceduresTeam Builder Cooperative, amenable, Indecisive in critical Avoids conflicts social glue, diplomatic situationsResource Extrovert, enthusiastic, Over-optimistic, loss of Let projects drop, unmindfulInvestigator explorer, good networker enthusiasm for projects of client commitmentsInspector Conscientious, spots Perfectionist, worrier, Obsessive behaviourCompleter errors, delivers on time reluctant to delegateInnovator Creative, imaginative, Not detailed focused, Blind to other inputs, radical, problem solver preoccupied with ideas, not uncooperative practically minded
Team Roles* Norms based on a sample of 1186 professional managerial
Team Roles The Co-ordinator takes the role of chairman, although that may not necessarily be his/her official capacity. He/she presides over the team and co-ordinates its efforts to meet external targets. He/she sets the agenda of the team, selects the problems for the team’s consideration and establishes priorities. The Innovator is the team’s source of original ideas. The Shaper-Driver is the one who takes charge of Although others have ideas too, theirs are the most the specific projects and tasks of the group. His/her Co-ordinator original and radical. They tend to be both intelligent function is to give shape to the team’s efforts and and imaginative and may be the source of entirely to unify the contributions of team members into a fresh ideas and new insights Innovator Shaper-Driver clearly defined action planThe Inspector-Completor is the worrier of the group. The Evaluator-Critic will not often contribute ideasHe/she is not happy until he/she has personally to the group but will see his/her role as that ofchecked every detail and has ensured that nothing Inspector-Completor Evaluator-Critic providing constructive criticism wherever he/shehas been overlooked. Although pedantic in his/her can see a flaw. Although he/she can have aapproach, he/she ensures that careless mistakes are dampening effect on team morale, he/she isnot made by the team. nevertheless a highly valued team member on account of their judgement. Resource Implementer Investigator The Implementer is the practical organiser of The Resource Investigator is the liaison Team Builder the group. He/she is the one who turns decisions person of the team who communicates the and strategies into defined manageable tasks. intentions and requirements of the team to others outside. The Team-Builder is more concerned with the emotional undercurrents of, and the social relationships within the group. His/her role is to promote harmony within the group and to counterbalance discord generated by other members of the team such as the Shaper-Driver or Evaluator-Critic
Mindset Fixed mindset v growth mindsetIntelligence is static v intelligence can be developed Avoid challenges v embrace challengesSee effort as fruitless v see effort as path to mastery Dr Carol Dweck, Psychologist
Pre-MortemRed team Blue teamCarl AledFfion AlisonKeith LlyrLynwen Myfanwy
Pre-Mortem Brief (part 1)1. Imagine a total fiasco with your new commissioned project2. Generate reasons for failure [10 min]3. Consolidate list4. Present back to other group End of part 1 . . . .
Pre-Mortem Brief (part 2)1. Swap over lists2. Decide on top 3 issues of greatest concern3. Develop recommendations to avoid or minimise the problems [10 min]4. Present recommendations back to other group
Managing teams The task of leadership is to create an alignment of strengths, so as to make peoples’ weaknesses irrelevant.Professor Peter Drucker
Leadership Styles Directive Leaders are characterised by having firm views about how and when things should be done. As such they leave little leeway for subordinates to display independence, believing that they should adhere to the methods and schedules as originally laid down. Having a high goal-orientation and being particularly concerned with results the Directive Leader will tend to closely monitor the behaviour and performance of others. This may lead them to be perceived as a little cool and detached. This impression may be reinforced by the fact that they will be lead by their own opinions rather than inviting others to contribute their ideas. Being a particularly self-directed leader may lead to the ideas of others to be excluded from consideration at the expense of their own. However, this will only prove to be problematic should their own judgement and abilities be called into question. Directive Negotiative Leaders motivate subordinates by encouraging Delegative Leaders are characterised by delegating work to them, through incentives etc., to work towards common subordinates. Since their style is not strongly democratic, the objectives. Hence, through a process of negotiation attempts will process of delegation may not involve consultation. As a be made to arrive at some mutually equitable arrangement with result, subordinates will generally be assigned work rather than Negotiative Delegativethe other members of the team so as to motivate them to work in have active input into how projects should be conducted. a particular way. Negotiative Leaders tend to rely on their skills of However, once the work has been assigned only little directionpersuasion to achieve their stated goals. Many Negotiative Leaders will be provided and subordinates will largely be expected to work have well developed image management skills and they typically with the minimum of supervision. Although such a leadership utilise these to moderate their approach according to the style may not be everybodys preference those who are naturally circumstances in which they find themselves. This independent may enjoy the freedom allowed by such managers. capability, coupled with a desire to achieve, can mean that Consultative Participative sometimes they adopt unconventional methods to achieve their desired objectives. The Consultative Leader combines elements of both democratic and Participative leaders are primarily concerned with getting the directive leadership orientations. They value group discussion and tend best out of a team as a whole. Hence, they encourage to encourage contributions from the separate members of the team. contributions from all members of a team and believe that by However, although group discussions will be largely democratic in pooling ideas and coming to a consensus view the best solutions nature, Consultative Leaders typically make the final decision as to to problems will naturally arise. They are unlikely to impress which of the varying proposals should be accepted. Hence, the their own wishes and opinions onto the other members of the effectiveness of this leadership style will be dependent upon the group but see their role as an overseer of the democratic individuals ability to weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each process. This will involve ensuring each member of the group is of the varying ideas produced by the members of the group and their given the opportunity to express their opinion and that no one capacity to encourage them to accept a final decision that may not member imposes a disproportionate influence on group necessarily be that favoured by the majority. decisions.
Subordinate Styles Receptive Subordinates are typically accommodating individuals who are eager to complete the work that is assigned to them in accordance with pre-specified procedures. In this mode, their colleagues will see a more traditional and conventional side to her nature. Quite possibly this means that she will leave the generation of innovative ideas to other members of their team. As a result, the Receptive Subordinate will take the stance that their role is to execute the ideas of others to the best of their ability. Self-Reliant Subordinates tend to be most effective when Receptive working in an environment that allows them freedom toReciprocating Subordinates tend to be individuals with an express their own ideas. They are generally innovativeemotionally mature outlook, who rarely become upset by individuals who are also concerned with achieving results;criticism or setbacks. As such they generally feel comfortable thus, their ideas will typically be imaginative but tailored toabout promoting their own ideas or engaging in negotiations Reciprocating Self-Reliant solving the particular problem in question.with managers concerning the best approach to projects. However, problems may occur if such individuals are requiredHence, they are likely to be most complementary to the to work in environments that require strict adherence toNegotiative Leader and, given that the Reciprocative existing procedures and methods. In such situations Self-Subordinates usually have strong views of their own, any Reliant Subordinates tend to feel that their individuality isexchanges between subordinate and manager will typically be being stifled thus causing them to become discontented and Informative Collaborative irritable. It would therefore be inappropriate to pair themproductive. with a manager with a directive style as this will invariably result in a mismatch of approaches. Informed Subordinates typically produce creative ideas and Collaborative Subordinates believe that the problem-solving power of the team is innovative solutions. Their capacity to subject their own ideas more than that of the individual members included within that team: their primary and those of others to a detailed critical analysis usually concern is that the team as a whole achieves its objective. Collaborative subordinates means that their proposed solutions rarely have any major relish group discussions and will typically propose innovative ideas of their own, as flaws. Managers generally approach Informative Subordinates well as being more than happy to discuss the ideas of others. As strong believers in in the knowledge that their ideas and opinions will be sound constructive criticism, they show little reluctance when it comes to pointing out and informed. Consultative Leaders will value such individuals weaknesses in other peoples ideas; similarly they are usually happy to accept the within their team, viewing them as a useful and reliable criticisms of others. Collaborative Subordinates are at their most effective when source of information. working under managers who share their views about group participation - i.e., those who encourage collaboration rather than those with a more directive style.
BiasesCognitive biases are psychological tendencies that cause the human brain to draw incorrect conclusions Self-serving bias Signal amplification bias Optimistic bias Perceptual salience Motivational bias Loss aversion bias Actor/observer effect Risky shift bias Fundamental attribution error