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Social Protection & Rural Livelihoods

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Alejandro Grinspun's (FAO) presentation at Ethiopia's Social Protection Conference, held in Addis Ababa in May 2019.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Social Protection & Rural Livelihoods

  1. 1. TITLE Social Protection and Rural Livelihoods Alejandro Grinspun National Social Protection Conference UNECA, Addis Ababa, 13-14 May 2019
  2. 2. Source: UNDESA 2017. Source: UNDESA 2017. Demographic changes in selected regions, 1975 – 2055 Total population in sub-Saharan Africa, by age group, 1950 – 2100 Africa’s demographic push
  3. 3. Rural population in Africa, 2015 Evolution of rural population in selected regions, 1950 – 2050 Africa’s rural face Source: UNDESA 2014. Source: UNDESA 2014.
  4. 4. 0 200 400 600 800 EAP SA SSA RoW Number of extreme poor, by regionEmployment in agriculture by region (%) SSA SA EANA LAC E & CA NA Source: Davis et al. 2017. 0 10 20 30 40 50 EAP SA SSA RoW Percentage of extreme poor, by region 1993 2013 Share of income from farm activities among rural households Africa’s rurality and poverty Source: ILOSTAT, 2015. Source World Bank, 2017.
  5. 5. Food security and nutrition 58 studies 33 studies 46programs 25 countries 26programs 15 countries Caloric intake Livestock 30 measures 70+measures Value of food consumed Diet diversity Food insecurity Protein and micronut. intake Food % of total consumption Land Savings Farm productive assets Nonfarm productive assets Productive physical assets Source: Hidobro et al. 2018 1994-2016
  6. 6. Food security and nutrition FOOD CONSUMPTION CALORIES FRUITS & VEGETABLES GRAINS ANIMAL SOURCE FOODS 0 34 20 61 12 6 11 17 32 - 9 - 4 265 43- 19 - 36 Source: Hidobro et al. 2018 ETH ZAM ZAM
  7. 7. Productive asset holdings % OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH FARM ASSETS NUMBER OF AGRICULTURAL ASSESTS % OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH LIVESTOCK NUMBER OF LIVESTOCK % OF HOUSEHOLDS WITH NON-FARM ASSETS SAVINGS LAND 0 9935- 13 44 53 - 6 14 86 - 6 12 108 - 3 7 38 1504920 - 6 3 0 Source: Hidobro et al. 2018 ZAM ZAM ZAM ETH ZAM 97
  8. 8. Transfer Project Country Program Targeting Transfer Evaluation design Survey years Sample size Ethiopia SCTPP (2011) Ultra-poor, labor constrained households Variable / Monthly PSM 2012, 2014 ~3200 hh’s ~10000 ind. Ghana LEAP (2008) Ultra-poor households with (i) single parent with OVC, (ii) elderly poor, (iii) people with severe disability Variable by # of eligible household members / Every 2 months Longitudinal PSM 2010, 2012, 2016 ~1500 hh’s ~6000 ind. Kenya CT-OVC (2004) Ultra-poor households with OVC Flat / Every 2 months DID with PSM 2007, 2009. 2011 1800 – 2300 hh’s 10400 – 12800 individuals Lesotho CGP (2010) Ultra-poor households with children Flat, then variable by # of children / Quarterly RCT 2011, 2013 ~1400 hh’s ~8200 ind. Malawi SCT (2006) Ultra-poor, labor constrained households Variable by household size + top-ups for school attendance / Every 2 months RCT 2013, 2014, 2015 ~3500 hh’s ~16000 ind. Zambia CG-SCT (2010) Households with children under 5 years Flat / Every 2 months RCT 2010, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2017 2300 – 2500 hh’s ~14000 ind. Zimbabwe HSCT (2011) Ultra-poor, labor constrained households Variable by household size / Every 2 months Longitudinal matched case- control 2013, 2014, 2017 2600 – 3000 hh’s 12700 – 14600 individuals Source: Daidone et al. 2019
  9. 9. Smallholder farming, poverty and vulnerability Basic technologies Few animals Limited access to land Limited modern inputs Produce staples Low human capital Agricultural interventions insufficient to increase production
  10. 10. Economic and productive impacts Crop output, value and sales Livestock accumulation Labor use Risk management Self-esteem and social capital Farm inputs and assets Source: Daidone et al. 2019
  11. 11. Social protection and productive support = CASH+ • Cash addresses immediate basic needs and supports livelihoods • Agricultural inputs, assets, training and extension strengthen the productive impact and sustainability of cash transfers
  12. 12. Conclusions • SSA is poised to reap the benefits of its demographic transition and young population structure  unique opportunity • Need to create enough work for its booming population, provide them with services and feed them • Given that Africa will remain largely rural and dependent on agriculture for years to come, investments are needed to increase farm productivity and encourage non-farm diversification and inclusive food systems • Shock-responsive social protection can not only protect basic consumption, but encourage productive investments with spillover effects for beneficiary households and rural economy at large
  13. 13. • SCTs targeted to poorest can have productive impacts • Help households manage risk, increase purchasing power and provide liquidity Conclusions • SCTs reduce burden on social networks and informal insurance mechanisms • No evidence of work disincentives or dependency • Long term effects of improved human capital • Nutritional and health status; educational attainment • Labor productivity and employability • Importance of complementary interventions to enhance multiplier effects of cash in the village economy

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