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Institutional challenges for the creation of social protection interventions and rural development in Africa

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Alejandro Grinspun's (FAO) presentation at LASA on 27 May 2019.

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Institutional challenges for the creation of social protection interventions and rural development in Africa

  1. 1. TITLE Retos institucionales para la articulación de intervenciones de protección social y desarrollo rural en África Alejandro Grinspun LASA Congress Boston, 27 May 2019
  2. 2. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia
  3. 3. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods Program description
  4. 4. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP Program description
  5. 5. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP • Poor and vulnerable households with OVCs aged 0-17 • Any community member (60% were CGP beneficiaries) Program description
  6. 6. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP • Poor and vulnerable households with OVCs aged 0-17 • Any community member (60% were CGP beneficiaries) • Poverty-targeting, followed by community validation • Self-selection Program description
  7. 7. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP • Poor and vulnerable households with OVCs aged 0-17 • Any community member (60% were CGP beneficiaries) • Poverty-targeting, followed by community validation • Self-selection • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by local agents hired by MoSD, registry maintained by NISSA • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by CRS Program description
  8. 8. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services
  9. 9. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers
  10. 10. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted
  11. 11. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs
  12. 12. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs • No recertification in either program
  13. 13. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs • No recertification in either program • No exit strategy in either program
  14. 14. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • Improve food security, nutrition and resilience • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP • Poor and vulnerable households with OVCs aged 0-17 • Any community member (60% were CGP beneficiaries) • Poverty-targeting, followed by community validation • Self-selection • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by local agents hired by MoSD, registry maintained by NISSA • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by CRS Program description
  15. 15. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • Improve food security, nutrition and resilience • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP • About 8 million beneficiaries (85% in public works, 15% direct cash recipients) • Poor and vulnerable households with OVCs aged 0-17 • Any community member (60% were CGP beneficiaries) • Poverty-targeting, followed by community validation • Self-selection • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by local agents hired by MoSD, registry maintained by NISSA • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by CRS Program description
  16. 16. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • Improve food security, nutrition and resilience • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP • About 8 million beneficiaries (85% in public works, 15% direct cash recipients) • Poor and vulnerable households with OVCs aged 0-17 • Any community member (60% were CGP beneficiaries) • Food insecure households in targeted districts (deemed to be highly food insecure) • Poverty-targeting, followed by community validation • Self-selection • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by local agents hired by MoSD, registry maintained by NISSA • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by CRS Program description
  17. 17. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • Improve food security, nutrition and resilience • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP • About 8 million beneficiaries (85% in public works, 15% direct cash recipients) • Poor and vulnerable households with OVCs aged 0-17 • Any community member (60% were CGP beneficiaries) • Food insecure households in targeted districts (deemed to be highly food insecure) • Poverty-targeting, followed by community validation • Self-selection • Geographic, followed by community-based targeting of households based on food insecurity criteria • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by local agents hired by MoSD, registry maintained by NISSA • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by CRS Program description
  18. 18. Lesotho Ethiopia • Reduce malnutrition, improve the living standards and health status, increase school enrolment among OVC • Increase food consumption and diversify livelihoods • Improve food security, nutrition and resilience • 27 000 households in 40 community councils (out of 64) in all ten districts (2016) • About 7 000 households in 5 councils enrolled in CGP • About 8 million beneficiaries (85% in public works, 15% direct cash recipients) • Poor and vulnerable households with OVCs aged 0-17 • Any community member (60% were CGP beneficiaries) • Food insecure households in targeted districts (deemed to be highly food insecure) • Poverty-targeting, followed by community validation • Self-selection • Geographical, followed by community-based targeting of households based on food insecurity criteria • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by local agents hired by MoSD, registry maintained by NISSA • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by CRS • Beneficiary enrolment / registration conducted by social workers and development agents at local level • Beneficiary registry maintained by MoA for public works beneficiaries and MoLSA for cash transfer recipients Program description
  19. 19. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash or food, combined with ante and post-natal and nutrition counseling, and nutrition-sensitive agriculture • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs • No recertification in either program • No exit strategy in either program
  20. 20. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash or food, combined with ante and post-natal and nutrition counseling, and nutrition-sensitive agriculture • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Cash benefits delivered by MoF or mobile payment • Food transfers delivered by MoA • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs • No recertification in either program • No exit strategy in either program
  21. 21. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash or food, combined with ante and post-natal and nutrition counseling, and nutrition-sensitive agriculture • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Cash benefits delivered by MoF or mobile payment • Food transfers delivered by MoA • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Unconditional for labor-constrained households • Nutrition and health monitoring for pregnant and lactating women, and malnourished children under 5 • Work requirement for households with labor capacity • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs • No recertification in either program • No exit strategy in either program
  22. 22. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash or food, combined with ante and post-natal and nutrition counseling, and nutrition-sensitive agriculture • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Cash benefits delivered by MoF or mobile payment • Food transfers delivered by MoA • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Unconditional for labor-constrained households • Nutrition and health monitoring for pregnant and lactating women, and malnourished children under 5 • Work requirement for households with labor capacity • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs • Conducted by local Community Care Coalitions, Social Protection Committee or Food Security Task Force • No recertification in either program • No exit strategy in either program
  23. 23. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash or food, combined with ante and post-natal and nutrition counseling, and nutrition-sensitive agriculture • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Cash benefits delivered by MoF or mobile payment • Food transfers delivered by MoA • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Unconditional for labor-constrained households • Nutrition and health monitoring for pregnant and lactating women, and malnourished children under 5 • Work requirement for households with labor capacity • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs • Conducted by local Community Care Coalitions, Social Protection Committee or Food Security Task Force • No recertification in either program • Every 4-5 years • No exit strategy in either program
  24. 24. Program description Lesotho Ethiopia • Quarterly cash payments, based on number of children • Homestead gardening, nutrition information, savings & lending groups, market clubs and referral to services • Cash or food, combined with ante and post-natal and nutrition counseling, and nutrition-sensitive agriculture • Cash at pay points + bank, mobile payments in few sites • Cascading training by CRS staff to lead farmers, field agents and community health workers • Cash benefits delivered by MoF or mobile payment • Food transfers delivered by MoA • Unconditional, but with strong messaging at pay points • Unconditional, self-targeted • Unconditional for labor-constrained households • Nutrition and health monitoring for pregnant and lactating women, and malnourished children under 5 • Work requirement for households with labor capacity • Communication about CGP conducted by MoSD agents • Outreach, information & promotion by CRS, other NGOs • Conducted by local Community Care Coalitions, Social Protection Committee or Food Security Task Force • No recertification in either program • Every 4-5 years • No exit strategy in either program • Graduation pathways for public works beneficiaries
  25. 25. Evolution of CGP and SPRINGS 2005 2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 2016: 27,000 CGP households 2009: 1250 CGP households June 2016: Start of 2nd phase of SPRINGS (expansion to 2 more CCs) 2015: Start of 1st phase of SPRINGS (ICWHR) in 3 CCs 2005–2009: EU project in response to OVCs & HIV/AIDS epidemic 2012–2014: Expansion of CGP, now fully financially supported by Govt. of Lesotho Sept 2018: End of SPRINGS 2015 -2016: El Niño shock
  26. 26. Institutional architecture: national level
  27. 27. Impacts of CGP and CGP + SPRINGS
  28. 28. Challenges to greater articulation • CGP + SPRINGS consist of 2 different programs, with complementary goals, under the responsibility of different institutions  Type 1 or Type 3, depending on existence of (1) spaces for articulation, (2) efforts to establish inter-institutional coordination for synergy • Funding for SP outpaces funding for AG and comes mostly from government • No mechanism for overall coordination of social protection • Single registry for social assistance beneficiaries • Role of MoA in the implementation of complementary programs • Communication: Fear of loss of CGP transfers if beneficiaries join SPRINGS • Staff capacity and availability of resources
  29. 29. Ethiopia: Institutional and policy context • Extraordinary economic performance – 9.1% GDP growth p.a. in real terms between 2000-16 • SP codified in 1995 Constitution and key policy frameworks • Spending on SP averaged 1.4% of GDP vs 1.6% for agriculture  Productive safety nets accounted for >70% of SP spending between 2013 and 2016 • Growth of SP spending in real terms, but continued heavy reliance on donor financing • Bulk of SP spending goes to FA1 (Productive Safety Nets), but real value of spending on PSNP has declined steadily • Sharp decline of ODA + sluggish performance of revenues  limited fiscal space for SP • Federal structure, combined with weak and uneven capacities in regions and districts
  30. 30. Evolution of the PSNP 2005-2006 Transition from relief 2007-2009 Consolidation phase 2010-2014 Expansion phase 2015-2020 Transition to system Phase I Phase II Phase III Phase IV Districts 234 318 318 350 Beneficiaries 7 192 7 574 6 607 7 997 • Public Works 5 983 6 301 5 464 6 870 • Direct Support 1 208 1 272 1 143 1 127
  31. 31. Program eligibility, benefits and conditions Household deemed food insecure Not eligible Eligible for the PSNP Adult labor available and more than sufficient to cover full household needs HH categorized as PW client and entitled to 6 months of cash, with a cap of 5 per hh Adult labor available, but insufficient to cover full household needs HH categorized as PW client, but work capped at max 15 days per month Pregnant or lactating women and primary caregivers of malnourished children <5 transition to TDS status No adult labor available HH categorized as PDS = UCT for 12 months, with a cap of 5 per hh
  32. 32. Impacts of PSNP / IN-SCT Mother-child sample PW households with members transitioning to TDS status
  33. 33. Institutional architecture – Federal
  34. 34. Institutional architecture – Regional
  35. 35. Institutional architecture – District
  36. 36. Challenges to greater articulation • PSNP is a single program combining SP and RD. Its various components require close intersectoral coordination between different institutions for implementation (Type 4)  unique case given MoA’s role • Growing domestic financing, but heavy reliance on donor funds, shrinking as % of GDP • Evidence of fragmentation  Horizontal: roles of MoA and MoLSA, RPSNP + UPSNP + Emergency, donors (USAID)  Vertical: Federal structure, devolution to regional BoLSA and varying administrative, organizational and institutional capacities • Intra- e interinstitutional articulation: Little articulation within MoA itself, but intense efforts at coordination across entities at every level • Separate registries for PW and DS beneficiaries; lack of computerized MIS • Staff capacity at local level (e.g. # of SWs per kebele)

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