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Education Impacts of Malawi's Social Cash Transfer Programme

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This quantitative study - presented to the Malawi Ministry of Gender, Children, Disability and Social Welfare in September 2019 - helps us understand how the programme can improve child schooling outcomes among recipient families.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Education Impacts of Malawi's Social Cash Transfer Programme

  1. 1. REFERENCE GROUP WORKSHOP SALIMA 4 – 5TH SEPTEMBER, 2019 Education Impacts of SCTP
  2. 2.  BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MALAWI SCHOOL SYSTEM  IMPACT EVALUATION RESULTS OVERVIEW  SCHOOL OUTCOMES  ENROLMENT  REGULAR ATTENDANCE  EFFECTIVE ENROLMENT  SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS  BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OUTLINE
  3. 3. Primary Schools Secondary Schools Number Share (%) Number Share (%) Number of Schools 6,127 100 1,412 100 Public 5,561 90.76 1,066 75.50 Private 566 9.24 346 24.50 Total Enrolment 5,245,008 100 369,773 100 Male 2,662,690 50.77 192,575 52.08 Female 2,582,318 49.23 177,198 47.92 Number of Teaching Staff 77,792 100 14,353 100 Male 43,795 56.30 3280 22.85 Female 33,997 43.70 11,073 77.15 Source: Authors Elaboration based on data from EMIS 2018. A SNAPSHOT OF SCHOOLS AND ENROLMENT
  4. 4. 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Index Trend in Total Enrolment from 1980 – 2017 Index (1980=100) Introduction of free Primary School Source: Authors Elaboration based on data from World Development Indicators. The Big Push in 1994/1995 and the Introduction of MSCTP
  5. 5. Persistent Gender Difference at Secondary Level 0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 2015/2016 2016/2017 2017/2018 Trend in Primary School Enrolment Total Male Female 0 50,000 100,000 150,000 200,000 250,000 300,000 350,000 400,000 2015/2016 2016/2017 2017/2018 Trend in Secondary School Enrolment Total Male Female Source: Authors Elaboration based on data from EMIS 2018.
  6. 6.  BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MALAWI SCHOOL SYSTEM IMPACT EVALUATION RESULTS OVERVIEW  SCHOOL OUTCOMES  ENROLMENT  REGULAR ATTENDANCE  EFFECTIVE ENROLMENT  SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS  BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OUTLINE
  7. 7. .4.6.8 1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Age Baseline Midline Endline Control .4.6.8 1 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 Age Baseline Midline Endline Treatment School Enrolment Impacts (6-17 year olds) Impacts at: -Midline: 11.4 pp*** -Endline: 8.9 pp** No difference between boys than girls
  8. 8. Large positive impacts on school enrollment (endline) 89% 94% 81% 91% 89% 83% 87% 73% 83% 83% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Combined Primary age Secondary age Males Females Treat Control 9 pp*** *10% significance, **5% significance; ***1% significance; NS = not significant 13 pp***8 pp** 9 pp*** 9 pp**
  9. 9. Even larger impacts on ‘regular’ school enrollment (endline) 86% 90% 76% 87% 85% 74% 78% 64% 73% 76% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Combined Primary age Secondary age Males Females Treat Control 13 pp*** *10% significance, **5% significance; ***1% significance; NS = not significant 16 pp***12 pp** 15 pp*** 11 pp***
  10. 10.  BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MALAWI SCHOOL SYSTEM  IMPACT EVALUATION RESULTS OVERVIEW  MEELS 2019 SCHOOL OUTCOMES ENROLMENT  REGULAR ATTENDANCE  EFFECTIVE ENROLMENT  SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS  BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OUTLINE
  11. 11. Enrolment by Age-group, Gender, and Academic year 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6 - 13 years Rate 0.86 0.87 0.86 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.94 0.94 0.94 N 1,384 1,384 2,768 1,281 1,302 2,583 1,187 1,222 2,409 14 - 17 years Rate 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.85 0.87 0.87 0.87 N 607 542 1,149 676 611 1,287 721 685 1,406 18 - 23 years Rate 0.66 0.49 0.59 0.60 0.49 0.55 0.54 0.42 0.48 N 306 240 546 459 378 837 603 493 1,096 Total Rate 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.83 0.82 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.82 N 2,297 2,166 4,463 2,416 2,291 4,707 2,511 2,400 4,911
  12. 12. 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6 - 13 years Rate 0.86 0.87 0.86 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.94 0.94 0.94 N 1,384 1,384 2,768 1,281 1,302 2,583 1,187 1,222 2,409 14 - 17 years Rate 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.85 0.87 0.87 0.87 N 607 542 1,149 676 611 1,287 721 685 1,406 18 - 23 years Rate 0.66 0.49 0.59 0.60 0.49 0.55 0.54 0.42 0.48 N 306 240 546 459 378 837 603 493 1,096 Total Rate 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.83 0.82 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.82 N 2,297 2,166 4,463 2,416 2,291 4,707 2,511 2,400 4,911 Enrolment by Age-group, Gender, and Academic year
  13. 13. 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6 - 13 years Rate 0.86 0.87 0.86 0.90 0.90 0.90 0.94 0.94 0.94 N 1,384 1,384 2,768 1,281 1,302 2,583 1,187 1,222 2,409 14 - 17 years Rate 0.84 0.83 0.83 0.85 0.86 0.85 0.87 0.87 0.87 N 607 542 1,149 676 611 1,287 721 685 1,406 18 - 23 years Rate 0.66 0.49 0.59 0.60 0.49 0.55 0.54 0.42 0.48 N 306 240 546 459 378 837 603 493 1,096 Total Rate 0.83 0.82 0.82 0.83 0.82 0.83 0.82 0.81 0.82 N 2,297 2,166 4,463 2,416 2,291 4,707 2,511 2,400 4,911 Enrolment by Age-group, Gender, and Academic year
  14. 14.  BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MALAWI SCHOOL SYSTEM  IMPACT EVALUATION RESULTS OVERVIEW  MEELS 2019 SCHOOL OUTCOMES ENROLMENT REGULAR ATTENDANCE  EFFECTIVE ENROLMENT  SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS OUTLINE
  15. 15. Regular Attendance by Age-group, Gender, Term and Academic year 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6-13 years 1st term 0.55 0.57 0.56 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.60 0.60 0.60 2nd term 0.55 0.58 0.56 0.57 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.59 0.59 3rd term 0.56 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.60 0.59 0.59 Academic year 0.51 0.54 0.53 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.55 0.55 0.55 14-17 years 1st term 0.58 0.57 0.58 0.57 0.61 0.59 0.60 0.65 0.62 2nd term 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.55 0.60 0.58 0.59 0.63 0.61 3rd term 0.58 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.64 0.61 Academic year 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.56 0.54 0.54 0.60 0.57 18-23 years 1st term 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.60 0.56 0.59 0.64 0.60 0.62 2nd term 0.55 0.53 0.55 0.58 0.59 0.58 0.62 0.60 0.61 3rd term 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.60 0.57 0.59 0.63 0.57 0.61 Academic year 0.51 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.53 0.54 0.60 0.55 0.58
  16. 16. 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6-13 years 1st term 0.55 0.57 0.56 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.60 0.60 0.60 2nd term 0.55 0.58 0.56 0.57 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.59 0.59 3rd term 0.56 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.60 0.59 0.59 Academic year 0.51 0.54 0.53 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.55 0.55 0.55 14-17 years 1st term 0.58 0.57 0.58 0.57 0.61 0.59 0.60 0.65 0.62 2nd term 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.55 0.60 0.58 0.59 0.63 0.61 3rd term 0.58 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.64 0.61 Academic year 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.56 0.54 0.54 0.60 0.57 18-23 years 1st term 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.60 0.56 0.59 0.64 0.60 0.62 2nd term 0.55 0.53 0.55 0.58 0.59 0.58 0.62 0.60 0.61 3rd term 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.60 0.57 0.59 0.63 0.57 0.61 Academic year 0.51 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.53 0.54 0.60 0.55 0.58 Regular Attendance by Age-group, Gender, Term and Academic year
  17. 17. 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6-13 years 1st term 0.55 0.57 0.56 0.58 0.59 0.59 0.60 0.60 0.60 2nd term 0.55 0.58 0.56 0.57 0.56 0.57 0.59 0.59 0.59 3rd term 0.56 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.60 0.59 0.59 Academic year 0.51 0.54 0.53 0.54 0.53 0.53 0.55 0.55 0.55 14-17 years 1st term 0.58 0.57 0.58 0.57 0.61 0.59 0.60 0.65 0.62 2nd term 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.55 0.60 0.58 0.59 0.63 0.61 3rd term 0.58 0.59 0.58 0.58 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.64 0.61 Academic year 0.55 0.54 0.54 0.52 0.56 0.54 0.54 0.60 0.57 18-23 years 1st term 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.60 0.56 0.59 0.64 0.60 0.62 2nd term 0.55 0.53 0.55 0.58 0.59 0.58 0.62 0.60 0.61 3rd term 0.57 0.56 0.56 0.60 0.57 0.59 0.63 0.57 0.61 Academic year 0.51 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.53 0.54 0.60 0.55 0.58 Regular Attendance by Age-group, Gender, Term and Academic year
  18. 18.  BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MALAWI SCHOOL SYSTEM  IMPACT EVALUATION RESULTS OVERVIEW  MEELS 2019 SCHOOL OUTCOMES  ENROLMENT  REGULAR ATTENDANCE EFFECTIVE ENROLMENT  SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS  BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OUTLINE
  19. 19. Effective Enrolment by Age-group, Gender, and Academic year 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6 - 13 years Rate 0.45 0.47 0.46 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.55 0.54 0.54 N 1,361 1,369 2,730 1,245 1,274 2,519 1,128 1,172 2,300 14 - 17 years Rate 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.49 0.47 0.48 0.52 0.50 N 599 535 1,134 669 606 1,275 714 681 1,395 18 - 23 years Rate 0.34 0.26 0.31 0.33 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.24 0.28 N 305 234 539 455 370 825 599 483 1,082 Total Rate 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.47 0.47 0.47 N 2,265 2,138 4,403 2,369 2,250 4,619 2,441 2,336 4,777
  20. 20. Effective Enrolment by Age-group, Gender, and Academic year 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6 - 13 years Rate 0.45 0.47 0.46 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.55 0.54 0.54 N 1,361 1,369 2,730 1,245 1,274 2,519 1,128 1,172 2,300 14 - 17 years Rate 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.49 0.47 0.48 0.52 0.50 N 599 535 1,134 669 606 1,275 714 681 1,395 18 - 23 years Rate 0.34 0.26 0.31 0.33 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.24 0.28 N 305 234 539 455 370 825 599 483 1,082 Total Rate 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.47 0.47 0.47 N 2,265 2,138 4,403 2,369 2,250 4,619 2,441 2,336 4,777
  21. 21. Effective Enrolment by Age-group, Gender, and Academic year 2016-2017 2017-2018 2018-2019 Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 6 - 13 years Rate 0.45 0.47 0.46 0.50 0.49 0.49 0.55 0.54 0.54 N 1,361 1,369 2,730 1,245 1,274 2,519 1,128 1,172 2,300 14 - 17 years Rate 0.46 0.45 0.46 0.45 0.49 0.47 0.48 0.52 0.50 N 599 535 1,134 669 606 1,275 714 681 1,395 18 - 23 years Rate 0.34 0.26 0.31 0.33 0.26 0.30 0.32 0.24 0.28 N 305 234 539 455 370 825 599 483 1,082 Total Rate 0.44 0.44 0.44 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.47 0.47 0.47 N 2,265 2,138 4,403 2,369 2,250 4,619 2,441 2,336 4,777
  22. 22.  BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MALAWI SCHOOL SYSTEM  IMPACT EVALUATION RESULTS OVERVIEW  MEELS 2019 SCHOOL OUTCOMES  ENROLMENT  REGULAR ATTENDANCE  EFFECTIVE ENROLMENT SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OUTLINE
  23. 23. School availability and Distance Primary Secondary Average distance within District 1.74km 6.36km Average distance outside District 11.36km 36.80km District refers to the habitual resident district of the child (i.e. HH location) Fewer Secondary schools and very far from homes.
  24. 24. Majority of the Students are Day Scholars and go School by foot 98% 2% Distribution of Student Type Day scholar Boarder 99% 1% Mode of Transport to School Foot Other
  25. 25. Primary Schools are Government owned
  26. 26. Classrooms and Pupils Primary Schools tend to be overcrowded…
  27. 27. Number of Teachers and Qualified Teachers
  28. 28.  BRIEF OVERVIEW OF MALAWI SCHOOL SYSTEM  IMPACT EVALUATION RESULTS OVERVIEW  MEELS 2019 SCHOOL OUTCOMES  ENROLMENT  REGULAR ATTENDANCE  EFFECTIVE ENROLMENT  SCHOOL CHARACTERISTICS BIVARIATE ANALYSIS OUTLINE
  29. 29. Lack of Clothes reduces Effective Enrolment
  30. 30. Violence has negative impact on boys than girls
  31. 31. Household Chores and Schooling • Hours dedicated to elderly care reduces Effective Enrolment • Cooking and Cleaning activities adversely affect girls than boys • Fetching water seems to be a prerequisite for schooling
  32. 32. Girls who participate in School Assignments more likely to remain enrolled…
  33. 33. Proximity and Safety for Girls
  34. 34. School and Teacher Quality
  35. 35. SCTP Amount affects Enrolment but not other Schooling Outcomes
  36. 36. SCTP Amount and Education Expenditure (1)
  37. 37. SCTP Amount and Education Expenditure (2)
  38. 38. Team: Ashu Handa Frank Otchere Kaku Attah Damoah Maxton Tsoka @TransferProjct transfer.cpc.unc.edu This work is funded by the German Government through KfW THANK YOU.

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