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Child Labour in Ethiopia: Are cash transfers making a difference?

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Ervin Prifti's (FAO) presentation at the Transfer Project Workshop in Arusha, Tanzania on 3rd April 2019.

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Child Labour in Ethiopia: Are cash transfers making a difference?

  1. 1. Child labor in Ethiopia: Are cash transfers making a difference? Ervin Prifti Transfer Project Workshop Arusha, April 2-4, 2019
  2. 2. Program and data Social Cash Transfers Pilot Program (SCTPP) in Tigray • 2011-2014 in 2 woredas: Hintalo Wajirat (rural), Abi Abdi (urban) • Fixed monthly sum: USD 7.8 + USD 1.3 for each child + USD 0.5 if the child is enrolled in school + extra for disabled children and elderly • Targeted extremely poor, labor-constrained, female-headed households (70- 80%) • Both protective and promotive objectives. • Complementary services: sensitization - sending children to school • One objective: increase school enrolment and attendance Evaluation study • “Baseline” (2012), follow up (2014) surveys conducted as repeated cross sections • 3668 households, of which 64% in Hintalo • Estimation by reweighted difference in difference with two repeated cross-sections
  3. 3. Outcomes of interest: child work/labor • Hours per day the child spends on several activities • UHS: unpaid household services (chores) • Economic Work • EWB: family’s (non-farm) business or an outside business • EWF: work on the family farm • EWL: livestock herding • HW: total hours worked (chores + economic) • D_CH*: dummy that equals 1 if child engages in child labor
  4. 4. Child labor definition UNICEF’s standard indicator for child labor includes the following: • Age 5 to 11 years: At least 0.14 hour (8 min) of economic work or 4 hours of unpaid household services per day. • Age 12 to 14 years: At least 2 hours of economic work or 4 hours of unpaid household services per day. • Age 15 to 17 years: At least 6.14 hours of economic or unpaid household services per day.
  5. 5. Average outcomes at baseline 3.61 0.24 0.67 0.04 4.55 2.70 0.03 0.10 0.15 2.98 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00 4.50 5.00 Children 5-14 5.03 0.69 0.68 0.19 6.59 5.37 0.12 0.03 0.27 5.78 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 Chores Farm work Livst herding Non farm Tot hours Children 15-17 Hintalo Abi Adi 0.39 0.33 0.28 0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40 Child labor 0.50 0.35 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60
  6. 6. Impacts of cash on child work in Hintalo Wajirat
  7. 7. Chores Non farm Farm Livestock Total hours Child labor Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.8-.6-.4-.20 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.050.05.1.15 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.2-.10.1 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.6-.4-.20.2 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -1.5-1-.50 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.12-.1-.08-.06-.04-.02 -.345 -.108 -.579 .053 -.289 -.157 -.086 -.096 -.624 -.269 -.35 -.519 -.736 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .038 .055 .019 .01 .142 .06 .024 .072 -.016 .069 .001 .017 .044 -.05 0 .05 .1 .15 -.107 -.203 -.038 .119 -.081 -.116 -.033 -.216 -.112 -.093 .08 -.164 -.164 -.2 -.1 0 .1 -.013 -.065 .001 .027 -.204 -.091 .151 .079 -.172 -.109 .078 .124 -.486 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .2 -.41 -.312 -.571 .117 -.396 -.073 .062 -.245 -.604 -.652 -.327 -.633 -1.141 -1.5 -1 -.5 0 -.067 -.067 -.012 -.069 -.072 -.033 -.063 -.068 -.041 -.062 -.073 -.112 -.126 -.12 -.1 -.08 -.06-.04 -.02
  8. 8. Chores Non farm Farm Livestock Total hours Child labor Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.8-.6-.4-.20 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.050.05.1.15 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.2-.10.1 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.6-.4-.20.2 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -1.5-1-.50 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.12-.1-.08-.06-.04-.02 -.345 -.108 -.579 .053 -.289 -.157 -.086 -.096 -.624 -.269 -.35 -.519 -.736 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .038 .055 .019 .01 .142 .06 .024 .072 -.016 .069 .001 .017 .044 -.05 0 .05 .1 .15 -.107 -.203 -.038 .119 -.081 -.116 -.033 -.216 -.112 -.093 .08 -.164 -.164 -.2 -.1 0 .1 -.013 -.065 .001 .027 -.204 -.091 .151 .079 -.172 -.109 .078 .124 -.486 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .2 -.41 -.312 -.571 .117 -.396 -.073 .062 -.245 -.604 -.652 -.327 -.633 -1.141 -1.5 -1 -.5 0 -.067 -.067 -.012 -.069 -.072 -.033 -.063 -.068 -.041 -.062 -.073 -.112 -.126 -.12 -.1 -.08 -.06-.04 -.02
  9. 9. Chores Non farm Farm Livestock Total hours Child labor Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.8-.6-.4-.20 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.050.05.1.15 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.2-.10.1 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.6-.4-.20.2 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -1.5-1-.50 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.12-.1-.08-.06-.04-.02 -.345 -.108 -.579 .053 -.289 -.157 -.086 -.096 -.624 -.269 -.35 -.519 -.736 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .038 .055 .019 .01 .142 .06 .024 .072 -.016 .069 .001 .017 .044 -.05 0 .05 .1 .15 -.107 -.203 -.038 .119 -.081 -.116 -.033 -.216 -.112 -.093 .08 -.164 -.164 -.2 -.1 0 .1 -.013 -.065 .001 .027 -.204 -.091 .151 .079 -.172 -.109 .078 .124 -.486 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .2 -.41 -.312 -.571 .117 -.396 -.073 .062 -.245 -.604 -.652 -.327 -.633 -1.141 -1.5 -1 -.5 0 -.067 -.067 -.012 -.069 -.072 -.033 -.063 -.068 -.041 -.062 -.073 -.112 -.126 -.12 -.1 -.08 -.06-.04 -.02
  10. 10. Impacts of cash on child work in Abi Adi
  11. 11. Chores Non farm Farm Livestock Total hours Child labor Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.8-.6-.4-.20 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.050.05.1.15 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.2-.10.1 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.6-.4-.20.2 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -1.5-1-.50 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.12-.1-.08-.06-.04-.02 .601 1.227 .121 .508 1.181 1.322 .774 .982 .754 1.332 .829 .693 .76 0 .5 1 1.5 -.084 -.152 -.019 .018 .02 -.1 -.082 -.109 -.559 -.037 -.059 -.088 -.857 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .023 .031 .069 .083 .169 .271 .067 .118 .176 .066 .061 .046 .055 0 .1 .2 .3 -.065 -.054 -.063 -.08 -.029 -.066 -.062 -.051 -.1 -.001 -.072 -.01 -1.528 -1.5 -1 -.5 0 .373 .444 .133 .382 .85 .612 .007 .681 1.018 .732 1.249 .744 .707 0 .5 1 1.5 .061 .052 .072 .074 -.004 .046 .084 .064 .046 .085 .05 -.069 .063 -.1 -.05 0 .05 .1
  12. 12. Chores Non farm Farm Livestock Total hours Child labor Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.8-.6-.4-.20 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.050.05.1.15 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.2-.10.1 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.6-.4-.20.2 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -1.5-1-.50 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.12-.1-.08-.06-.04-.02 .601 1.227 .121 .508 1.181 1.322 .774 .982 .754 1.332 .829 .693 .76 0 .5 1 1.5 -.084 -.152 -.019 .018 .02 -.1 -.082 -.109 -.559 -.037 -.059 -.088 -.857 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .023 .031 .069 .083 .169 .271 .067 .118 .176 .066 .061 .046 .055 0 .1 .2 .3 -.065 -.054 -.063 -.08 -.029 -.066 -.062 -.051 -.1 -.001 -.072 -.01 -1.528 -1.5 -1 -.5 0 .373 .444 .133 .382 .85 .612 .007 .681 1.018 .732 1.249 .744 .707 0 .5 1 1.5 .061 .052 .072 .074 -.004 .046 .084 .064 .046 .085 .05 -.069 .063 -.1 -.05 0 .05 .1
  13. 13. Chores Non farm Farm Livestock Total hours Child labor Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.8-.6-.4-.20 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.050.05.1.15 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.2-.10.1 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.6-.4-.20.2 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -1.5-1-.50 Overall Boys Girls Age[5-14] Age[15-17] Lab. Const. Lab. Unconst. F-headefd M-headed Above 0.5 ha Below 0.5 ha Above 1 TLU Below 1 TLU -.12-.1-.08-.06-.04-.02 .601 1.227 .121 .508 1.181 1.322 .774 .982 .754 1.332 .829 .693 .76 0 .5 1 1.5 -.084 -.152 -.019 .018 .02 -.1 -.082 -.109 -.559 -.037 -.059 -.088 -.857 -.8 -.6 -.4 -.2 0 .023 .031 .069 .083 .169 .271 .067 .118 .176 .066 .061 .046 .055 0 .1 .2 .3 -.065 -.054 -.063 -.08 -.029 -.066 -.062 -.051 -.1 -.001 -.072 -.01 -1.528 -1.5 -1 -.5 0 .373 .444 .133 .382 .85 .612 .007 .681 1.018 .732 1.249 .744 .707 0 .5 1 1.5 .061 .052 .072 .074 -.004 .046 .084 .064 .046 .085 .05 -.069 .063 -.1 -.05 0 .05 .1
  14. 14. Take away messages • In rural areas, the SCT lead to a reduction in the share of children involved in child labor, concentrated in better endowed male-headed households. Labor constraints play no role for work decisions. • In urban areas, the SCT does not affect the share of those involved in child labor but it does increase the hours worked for girls in poorly endowed female headed households. Results depend on labor capacity in the household. • Female headed households seem unable to benefit from the SCT in terms of child labor.
  15. 15. Thank you!

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