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Cash Transfers, Productive Investment & Child Work

Jacob de Hoop's (UNICEF Innocenti) presentation at the Transfer Project Workshop in Arusha, Tanzania on 3rd April 2019.

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Cash Transfers, Productive Investment & Child Work

  1. 1. unite for children Cash Transfers, Productive Investment, and Child Work Jacobus de Hoop UNICEF Office of Research – Innocenti & Transfer Project April, 2019: Transfer Project Workshop Malawi, Zambia quantitative findings: With Sudhanshu Handa, Valeria Groppo on behalf of evaluation teams Malawi qualitative findings: With Susannah Zietz and Sudhanshu Handa Tanzania quantitative findings: With Valeria Groppo on behalf of evaluation team Tanzania qualitative findings: With Margaret Gichane and Stephanie Zuilkowski
  2. 2. 2 As we have seen, households invest cash transfers in productive activities. What are the implications for children? Do children support these activities? What does this mean for their development and wellbeing? This presentation: 1. Quantitative RCT evidence: Malawi, Tanzania, Zambia 2. Qualitative photovoice evidence: Malawi, Tanzania
  3. 3. 3 Children support expansion in household entrepreneurial activities Bars represent percentage point impacts. Children up to the age of 17 at endline. 33.9*** 17.5*** 26.9*** 0 10 20 30 40 Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP Household owns livestock 6.8*** 3.8*** 3.9*** 0 2 4 6 8 Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP Child cares for livestock
  4. 4. 4 Similar patterns, but less pronounced, may be observed for non-livestock agricultural activities and non-agricultural business. Adults too, increase work for the household enterprise. Children may compensate by taking over their household chores. There can be offsetting effects. In some instances, children reduce engagement in work outside the household for pay.
  5. 5. 5 Exposure to work-related hazards and participation in work below the minimum working age may increase Bars represent percentage point impacts. Hazards measured in line with UNICEF MICS and Dayıoğlu (2012). Minimum working age set at 12, in line with ICLS recommendations. 4.4** 0.009 0 2 4 6 Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Hazardous work 1.8 4.6** 4.9* 0 2 4 6 Malawi SCTP Tanzania PSSN Zambia MCP Work below min. working age
  6. 6. 6 Other child wellbeing indicators improve. • Strong improvements in education outcomes and children’s material wellbeing • No deterioration in health outcomes Malawi. Photo of youth carrying bricks.
  7. 7. 7 Caregivers and children express nuanced views in qualitative interviews. Yes, economic needs can force children to work and drop out of school. But... • Cash transfers address these economic needs • Caregivers express feelings of guilt and regret when this happens Hazards and (in work outside the household) exposure to poor treatment are commonly mentioned
  8. 8. 8 Tanzania. It is important to learn because without education it is hard to understand things in life.
  9. 9. 9 Tanzania. I took this picture at home to show you that I usually fetch water at home and this is girls’ activity in our household.
  10. 10. 10 Question to the audience: how do you interpret these findings?
  11. 11. 11 Asante Merci Obrigado Thank you Zikomo
  12. 12. 12 Works cited Jacobus de Hoop, Valeria Groppo and Sudhanshu Handa. (Forthcoming). “Cash Transfers, Microentrepreneurial Activity, and Child Work: Evidence from Malawi and Zambia”. World Bank Economic Review. Jacobus de Hoop, Margaret W. Gichane, Valeria Groppo, and Stephanie Zuilkowski. (2019). Cash Transfers, Public Works, and Child Activities: Mixed Methods Evidence from Tanzania. Mimeo. Susannah Zietz, Jacobus de Hoop and Sudhanshu Handa. (2018). “The Role of Productive Activities in the Lives of Adolescents: Photovoice Evidence from Malawi” Children and Youth Services Review, 86: 246-255.