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Cash Transfers & GBV: the Cash Plus Study

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Lusajo Kajula's presentation at a gender-based violence researchers networking meeting in Mwanza, Tanzania in March 2019.

Published in: Government & Nonprofit
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Cash Transfers & GBV: the Cash Plus Study

  1. 1. Cash transfers and gender-based violence: The Cash Plus Study Lusajo Kajula, Ph.D. UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti Presented at GBV Research Networking Meeting March 14, 2019 Mwanza, Tanzania
  2. 2. Social protection Set of programs and policies that aim to reduce poverty, exclusion and vulnerability. Contributory & non-contributory schemes, including: – cash transfers, in-kind transfers – waivers for schooling or health-related fees – insurance schemes Can be – Protective: responding to adversity or shocks experienced by poor households – Preventive: aiming to prevent future harm by bolstering households’ ability to cope with future shocks such as loss of income or unexpected flooding – Transformative: address structural barriers & aim to promote • empowerment, voice and agency among adolescents • tackle harmful socio-cultural practices • improve their strategic position in families and community
  3. 3. Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN)
  4. 4. Cash transfers, violence & youth Cash transfers increasingly implemented by governments to reduce poverty • Economic drivers of GBV pathways (school drop-out, poor mental health, early marriage, HIV risk behaviors) and violence outcomes – Are economic strengthening programs protective? – Key group to breaking the inter-generational cycle of poverty 4 Cash Plus for GBV reduction
  5. 5.  Why doesn’t cash work the same everywhere/on all outcomes?  Would help if we better understand pathways of impact  Can complementary interventions and linkages to services (Cash Plus) facilitate safer adolescent transitions into adulthood? Research gaps
  6. 6. Target population: Male & female adolescents aged 14- 19 years (1,500 youth) Location: 4 districts Mufindi (Iringa) and Rungwe (Mbeya) Partners: Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF), Tanzania AIDS Commission (TACAIDS), MOHCDGEC, UNICEF Program components: The Cash: PSSN households (TASAF cash transfer programme) The Plus: • Livelihoods and life skills trainings • Mentoring, including referrals and productive grant • Linkages to adolescent friendly SRH, HIV and other health and violence response services in the communities Cash Plus – The Intervention
  7. 7.  Knowledge of and access to SRH/HIV services  Gender equitable attitudes • Violence, exploitation victimization, violence perpetration and transactional sex  Sexual debut, marriage and pregnancy • Livelihoods knowledge, skills, aspirations • Economic activity  Stress, mental health, hope, aspirations and risk preferences. Photo credit: A Kirk Adolescent outcomes examined
  8. 8. Midline findings
  9. 9. Summary of midline findings Domain Total number of outcomes Number of statistically significant impacts (full sample) Education 9 1 Economic activities (participation, hours) 17 3 Aspirations (educational, occupational) 10 0 Attitudes (quality of life, self-esteem, social support, locus of control) 5 0 Attitudes on gender 5 1 Contraceptive knowledge 17 3 HIV knowledge 4 1 HIV risk (perceived, tested) 5 SRH visits and reasons for visit 8 1 Total 63 10
  10. 10. Intervention increased economic activities Figure 8.2. Youth participation in any economic activities, by interview wave and treatment status.
  11. 11. Economic activities Qualitative findings elaborate adolescent engagement in business activities before and after livelihood training. Me, before I started training I was cooking buns, but after I started training we were taught simple business plan, I started selling soap, salt and juice. Female, 14 years, Rungwe Participants who reported having started businesses prior to the training cited financial difficulties at home as the main reason for their interest in business starting the same: I mean, you look at how the system of life goes at home, and a person when you reach 16 or 17 years, you must know how life goes. You will be surprised you need money and then you ask from Mama and Mama says she doesn’t have, that’s why you have to evaluate and act. Female, 15 years, Rungwe Despite a lack of quantitative impacts on entrepreneurial aspirations at midline, one male adolescent describes his aspirations that are focused on improving his family’s living conditions in terms of food and shelter: Another thing, if I had at least a little money to roof this house [pointing at their unroofed house] for our mother to live in. She lives there, the situation is difficult but we still depend on her. I have plans to do small business to earn some money, so my younger siblings can eat, live in a good house… (M,19 years, Rungwe)
  12. 12. Protective effects: Youth school dropout between baseline and midline Proportion who dropped out of school by midline, by gender and trea
  13. 13. Intervention increased gender-equitable attitudes, particularly among males GEM Scale, by gender, treatment and time
  14. 14. Conclusion Adolescent Cash Plus intervention is: – Addressing multiple vulnerabilities of adolescents in Tanzania – Informing programs which can run on a government platform – Providing evidence on a pilot with extremely poor, marginalized adolescents After 12 weeks of training, positive impacts on knowledge and attitudes: – Participation in economic activities – More gender equitable attitudes – More knowledge of modern contraceptives – Increased knowledge of HIV prevention Too soon for changes in behavior, to be measured again at endline (May – July 2019)
  15. 15. Acknowledgements • Government partners: – Tanzania Social Action Fund (TASAF) – Tanzania Commission for AID (TACAIDS) – Ministry of Community Development, Gender and Children (MCDGC) • Pilot project & evaluation receive generous support from Oak Foundation, Irish Aid, Sida, and UNICEF • We thank Technoserve and Tamasha for technical assistance in curriculum development
  16. 16. Ahsanteni!

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