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  1. 1. “Embedded Technologies to Secure three fundamental tradeoffs: costs, privacy, and centralization of control. By addressing these the Supply Chain from End-to-End” key issues we can reframe many pivotal Dr. Bahar Barami, Senior Economist technology deployment challenges, and attempt ( 617-494-2150, to integrate the seemingly divergent objectives Volpe Center, SOLE 2004 Norfolk, and priorities of the private and public decision makers. VA, September 2, 2004 First let’s begin by asking what we mean by The juxtaposition of “embedded technologies” “embedded.” It is hoped that it would not evoke and “securing the supply chain” in the title of this notions such as an embedded reporter in the paper evokes an intrinsic contradiction. You battlefield, an embedded software application, or would ask: isn’t supply chain management the an intelligent agent. Although in its common domain of the private sector? Wouldn’t securing usage the concept is associated with a design- it through embedded technologies conjure up based infusion of technologies in the sinister images of the Big Brother with hidden infrastructure, or with a virtual embedding of surveillance cameras and monitoring devices? algorithms and autonomous response capabilities, This arbitrary distinction between supply chain this is not the concept I have in mind. Nor do I management and homeland security is widely use the concept as a method of replacing the held. It perpetuates a model of the world built regulatory structure with tax breaks and around decision-making stovepipes; a world investment incentives. This last connotation is where security is the domain of the public sector, how some technology analysts may have and supply chain management that of the private interpreted the statement of the Deputy Secretary sector. of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Gordon England, when he called for using In this paper I suggest that in today’s complex “embedded economic incentives as a stimulant to global economy, where uncertainty is the norm, encourage homeland security measures.” security and supply chain efficiencies are so According to this view, “embedded incentives” inexorably intertwined that it is no longer would be seen as “market-based” processes – defensible to stovepipe strategies into separate rather than “regulatory requirements” – that spheres of public and private. The seemingly would “help private companies and local opposing forces of “market” and “governmental” government agencies to develop interests represent only different points on a risk methodologies….and obtain the most effective spectrum that spans across order and chaos; counter-terrorism technologies.”i This incentive efficient supply chain logistics and disruptive model is not very different from the models used catastrophic events. Along this spectrum, public in the past two decades to relax the prevailing and private entities operate with different command-and-control regulatory requirements. priorities, but not divergent goals. Security and But a tax-based incentive model is not the supply chain objectives alike need to be firmly approach I find needed to reframe the way we codified in the business and governmental deploy technologies. processes. A more visionary concept of the embedded I suggest that because of the intertwined nature of security may have been suggested by Deputy the supply-chain and homeland security Secretary England when he likened it to the objectives, investing in embedded dual-use infusion of total quality management (TQM) in surveillance and tracking technologies is a better the U.S. auto manufacturing industry, observing approach to managing uncertainty. Embedded that: “People talk about the number of containers technologies have fewer inefficiencies than the we inspect, and you’re left with the impression “bolted on” fixes commonly employed, though that if you’re successful, you’d be inspecting they still pose many intractable challenges. The 100% of the containers. But the reality is, if key challenges of promoting the concept relate to you’re very successful, you don’t inspect any of Bahar Barami Preliminary Conference Copy
  2. 2. them… It is like inspecting quality into a car. First, let’s examine how the private sector You are not going to do it. If you are successful manages its infrastructure and supply chains. in containers, you would know what’s in each Supply Chain Management has been defined as: one, it would be sealed, and you would know “A set of approaches utilized to efficiently where it was delivered….you’ll inspect none of integrate suppliers, manufacturers, warehouses, the containers.”ii This latter vision of embedded and stores, so that merchandise is produced and security is more in line with what I have in mind distributed at the right quantities, to the right about a set of processes and technologies that are locations, and at the right time, in order to fully encoded and integrated into the strategies minimize system-wide costs while satisfying we pursue to sustain the nation’s critical service level requirements.” iii Logistics managers infrastructure and ensure the competitiveness of have similarly formulated the best ways to the supply chains. optimize the processes and operations. iv These accepted definitions closely echo the military I propose a definition of “embedded security” as models for managing logistic flows from “factory a strategy based on a systemic restructuring of to the foxhole” and from “fort to port.” The security in all processes, designs, rules of concerns of the civilian supply chain manager for operation, and related regulations. The concept in-transit visibility of the supplies – from “the would signify structural changes in how security shipper’s loading dock to the customer door” – countermeasures are codified and implemented. are no different from the concerns of our Embedded technologies viewed in this way could homeland security agents who monitor the flows potentially transform how we manage our supply of containerize cargo across international chains and secure our infrastructures. The borders. concept – and the concomitant technologies and processes – would be gradually encoded in the What are the technologies that help supply chain fabric of the nation’s critical infrastructure assets. managers track their supply flows to ensure cargo integrity and on-time delivery, and validate the With over 70% of the nation’s infrastructure accuracy of the information? assets in private ownership, the intersection of the public interests and private assets is vast. If Today’s enterprise logistics management and its public entities own only about a third of the associated techniques – Enterprise Resource critical infrastructure assets, how do we deal with Planning (ERP), Sense and Respond (SAR) the spillover effects of security threats into the adaptive enterprise models, pull logistics, private arena? What resources need to be collaborative manufacturing alliances, etc. – use available to the private sector to manage and an array of advanced technologies and software protect the assets valued at over $7 trillion? Who to reduce inventory control costs, increase the should pay for them? What are the limits of the speed of supply movements, and improve service private rights and public interests? How much and customer response. ERP is essentially about technology is enough? Can we successfully asset visibility and agile response: managers want resolve the conundrum of the public interests and to know the where/when/what/how much private rights by codifying new approaches to involved in the processing and distribution of the technology deployment in the laws and processes materials and assets. With the mantra of faster, governing them and embedding them in the better, cheaper –borrowed from our defense physical infrastructure? strategists of a couple of decades ago – our supply-chain logistics managers are using Much of the physical embedding of the technology to automate the functions relating to technologies has already happened. But it has the capture of information on cargo and happened haphazardly and in an ad hoc fashion. inventory. They have deployed a panoply of Reframing the issues would help address the “bolted-on,” but often not “embedded,” process more systematically. technologies – computerized databases and information, communications and sensing systems equipped with radio frequency 2
  3. 3. identification (RFID), GPS and other sensors – to readers and toll systems. Tracking the track shipments, manage inventory, and locate deployment of integrated ITS technologies in 78 assets and cargo in-transit. These technologies, of the largest metropolitan areas shows that some along with “intelligent adaptive” software 90% of the emergency management vehicles in systems for demand forecasts, have allowed ERP these metropolitan areas are under computer- managers to avoid risks of unpredictable aided dispatch; some 85% of the fixed-route shortages, bottlenecks, and oversupplies. As one transit vehicles are equipped with automatic analyst has put it, ERP managers have essentially vehicle location (AVL); some 81% of the toll created a system that serves an “uncertainty collection lanes have electronic toll collection absorption” function. v (ETC) capability; and some 70% of the signalized intersections are under centralized or The ERP technology most commonly associated closed loop with end-to-end supply tracking is RFID. With a current market size of about $1 billion – for a The vast ITS network of sensors and system that includes transponder tags, and communications devices installed today is used networked readers and data processing systems – almost exclusively for traffic management, RFID application areas are expected to grow at safety, and emergency response functions. 20% percent per year in the near future. Until However, there are some potentially significant recently, the application areas were limited to applications of ITS technologies for security, tagging cargo containers and conveyances for including the use of the existing instrumented inventory control and asset identification. As the infrastructure for preventing disasters and price of a tag drops – from $5-$10 a few years responding to emergencies. Researchers at the ago to less than $1 today – RFID is likely to University of California at Davis have created an replace barcode for supply chain tracking. In Intelligent Vehicle Infrastructure (IVI) that June 2003, Wal-Mart announced it would require utilizes the region’s extensive ITS-enabled its top 100 suppliers to install RFID in the goods vehicle-road-driver “system of systems.” Among sent to its distribution centers starting in January the devices developed at the university are the 2005. A few months later, Sun Microsystems, “Smart Loop,” a signal that identifies exact Inc. announced that it would open an RFID test attributes of a vehicle, complementing the video center where Wal-Mart suppliers could test their cameras for tracking a vehicle, and a “Video RFID solutions to guarantee compliance with the Image Processing” system for identifying Wal-Mart standards. Also, at the beginning of potential threats to the infrastructure. By using 2003, Gillette Inc., announced the purchase of these ITS-based devices, UC-Davis has been able 500 million RFID tags from Alien Technology, to integrate security with the regional traffic saying that it planned to use the tags with the management operations and track the vehicles “smart shelf” technology for pilferage prevention crossing the U.S-Mexico border. vii as well as inventory control. However, because of the latest market fluctuations (and the privacy Many of today’s supply chain technologies are concerns discussed below,) Wal-Mart had to either dual-use or driven by the military logistics scale down its 2003 plans, announcing that the goals. For instance, in September 2003, DOD 2005 U.S. initiative would be launched within a announced that it will require its suppliers to put limited Texas market. passive RFID tags on the lowest possible shipping element operationally feasible – whether Pervasive Intelligent Transportation Systems product/part or case and pallet – by January 2005. (ITS) applications in our highways and vehicles Other dual-use technology markets that were have also contributed to today’s technology- formerly limited to military applications are also intensive infrastructures. With congressionally growing rapidly. The total market for Global authorized spending of over $600 million in the Positioning System (GPS) satellites used as past five years, the US DOT has deployed navigation devices for locating and tracking technologies that range in application from traffic assets is estimated at $16 billion, though the split congestion monitoring to electronic license plate among commercial, military, and consumer- 3
  4. 4. product uses is not known. Portable Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are another security Another factor further fueling the blurring of the technology likely to emerge as a major public-private line has been the recent reversal in commercial market. These remote–controlled the direction of the flow of dual-use technologies drones the size of a model airplane are essentially between the military and civilian sectors. After aerial robots capable of carrying out missions the end of the Cold War, strategies for cutting autonomously without human command or defense spending led to concerted efforts to lower intervention. Increasingly, UAVs are capable of procurement and supply costs by using flying longer missions, carrying more sensors, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products for and collecting more data. While full-size UAVs military use. Today, the trend is in the opposite have been in military use for decades, the direction. Competitive pressures on private portable ones – small enough to fit into a companies to cut costs have led to a major shift briefcase and snapped together in five minutes – in the private sector attitude towards military are relatively new and have a wide appeal among technologies, says the manager of the Montana civilian users, for both private uses and public State University TechLink Center in charge of security purposes. Workplace identification and facilitating technology exchanges between the biometric devices – initially developed for access DOD and the private sector. He points out that control to military and government facilities – are many firms have concluded that adopting devices also growing rapidly in civilian and commercial developed by the military can be cheaper than applications and are estimated at about $1 billion developing them in house, a shift in part driven in size. by the fact that the products have already passed many demanding performance tests. ix These technology growth trends suggest a sustained process of embedding an array of Two factors have been contributing to the rapid tracking and surveillance technologies in the growth in the markets for supply chain tracking nation’s critical infrastructure. These same and surveillance technologies: plummeting prices technologies helped galvanize the revolution in and fusion capabilities. military affairs (RMA) in the 1970s, with the deployment of advanced satellite, radar, and Plummeting prices is the most immediate factor computing technologies that transformed the contributing to a growing embedding of tracking global war-fighting capability away from nuclear technologies. RFID tag prices have dropped to as to advanced missile technology. The three low as $0.50 or $0.10 a piece. As prices have underlying capabilities of the RMA – precision, come down, both commercial and government remote deployment of firepower, and advanced security applications have grown. Security computing – are the underpinnings of today’s applications for RFID in the public arena have security and supply chain technologies. grown partly because lower tag prices have enabled ports, airports, and transit agencies to The growing proliferation of these embedded track objects and vehicles that pose a potential technologies has to a large extent blurred the security threat. This trend is illustrated by the lines between the public and the private. When large number of airports across the country that tallying the nation’s security expenditures, we see have begun deploying RFID for tracking that a growing segment of the outlays are made passenger baggage. McCarran International by the private sector. But we have not begun to Airport in Las Vegas, for example, announced in fully sort out the public and private sources of November 2003 that it was conducting tests on these outlays. By one estimate, the total some 20 million tags expected to be put to use homeland security outlays – by federal, state, per year, at a cost of $0.20 per tag. In biometrics local, and private entities – have grown from $5 as well, where products were first used for access billion in 2000, to between $85 billion to over control and personnel screening at government $100 billion in 2004. The same source forecasts facilities and for security of computer networks, that homeland security outlays are likely to grow prices have declined and commercial application as high as $210 billion by 2010. viii areas are growing. As prices for biometric 4
  5. 5. devices have declined, new markets have also infrastructures that “are aware, actively developed. For example, introduction of adapt, preserve their function, and protect inexpensive standardized components such as their users.” IRIS relies on tools that develop DSPs (digital signal processors) used with many intelligent systems, fusing them with real- biometric devices has stimulated demand for time bio-detectors, and a wide-band biometrics and helped with its growing market intelligent sensor Web. These networks of penetration in the civilian markets. sensors can be built around buildings and infrastructures, or around a region covered A second factor galvanizing the growth of with an information web of ubiquitous tracking and surveillance technologies has been sensors, resulting in a system of buildings or the development of capabilities that fuse the even cities that are instrumented to make forces of information technology with those of them interconnected, and able to share nanotechnology, biotechnology, and robotics. information and help with decision-making, Cutting edge developments in nano- and bio-tech adaptation and response. xi and in artificial intelligence have not only created new opportunities for the growth of tracking and  Developments in nanotechnology have also surveillance operations, but have also stimulated helped with proliferation of embedded new applications in fusion of RFID, making it sensors and tracking technologies. Advances even more pervasive: in deployment of cheap, reliable, and low power micro-electronics have allowed  Fusion of robotic devices with RFID, GPS cameras, processors, and power supplies to and other sensors has allowed robots today to be installed in a wide array of civilian and perform hazardous tasks and conduct security defense-related applications. Applications of sweeps in addition to many other civilian multiple sensors in Video Surveillance and dual-use operations. A robot can effectively Monitoring (VSAM), for instance, take replace human operators by automating or advantage of these nano-devices. Variations augmenting the human tasks which are in VSAM applications have resulted in the “dangerous, difficult, dull, or demeaning,” as development of a “Forest of Sensors” at the the director of the General Robotics, MIT Artificial Intelligence lab. The trees in Automation, Sensing and Perception Lab at the Forest of Sensors are small disposable the University of Pennsylvania has described autonomous vision modules (dVAM) it. x Consider a commonly used robotic currently being tested in security applications crawler, equipped with wide angle zoom for performing surveillance and making cameras, sensors, and Pentium 3 processor critical visual observations from locations too brains connected to an Ethernet hub, that is dangerous for personnel. xii capable of operating autonomously from a distance and relay intelligence to the local  Fusion of bio-tech sensors and nano devices command center. Recently, several of these has given rise to a host of technologies such radio-controlled robots – equipped with as ZigBee that foretell potentially radical chemical-agent detectors, GPS and digital structural changes in how technologies are compasses, were dispatched to search for embedded. ZigBee is a technology that WMD in Iraq and transmit radio signals back coordinates communications among to the command center. thousands of tiny sensors that can detect and transmit information about motion, heat,  Application of artificial intelligence to the chemical composition and particle content. It design of security-embedded infrastructures puts under a single standardized control is another facet of today’s emerging interface an array of infra-red remote control technology-fusion capabilities. At Sandia devises, so that they can interconnect into a National Laboratories, researchers have network, with protocols based on the IEEE developed Intelligent Robust Infrastructure 802.15.4 standards. ZigBee offers the Systems (IRIS) in an effort to build potential to unify methods of data 5
  6. 6. communication for sensors, actuators, that would withstand severe disruptions. The appliances, and asset tracking devices. concepts of “robust” and “resilient” “Smart Dust” is one application of these nano infrastructures are often used together in sensors, allowing the construction of a reference to design-basis security provisions that reliable and affordable network backbone are integrated with transportation and logistics that uses much lower power and bandwidth operations, and add to the hardiness of the than average sensors, with longer battery life infrastructure and ability to resume service after a and lower cost, offering immense disruptive event. Researchers at the Institute for opportunities for a wide array of applications Civil Infrastructure Systems (ICIS), New York in security as well as household and supply- University, are investigating the elements of a chains. xiii resilient infrastructure, including the concept of “structure monitoring,” which creates a system Finally, how do we reframe the issues and for “sensing” the relevant structures through the challenges? How can we go from “bolted-on” to use of built-in fiber-optic sensors. The sensors embedded technologies? monitor the facilities’ structural changes to see if the structure is deteriorating or how it could I suggest that the concept of a “layered defense in respond to adverse events. xv The concept can depth” can serve as a unifying framework for unify the panoply of technology applications – examining the opportunities offered by the forests of sensors, “smart dust” networks, etc. – emerging nano-, bio-, and robotics technologies that are currently in use to prevent potentially to develop integrated networks. These enabling counterproductive outcomes when deployment technologies, when fully integrated and decisions are made ad hoc and without embedded in the critical infrastructure, could integration. potentially secure the homeland as well as the supply chains. The defense in depth is a useful Do the technologies and processes reviewed in concept for incorporating multiple levels of this paper have the potential to be fully embedded interventions that overlay the chain of embedded and codified in the fabric of the disruptive events at multiple points and reduce nation’s critical infrastructure assets? Is RFID – the probability of a single-point failure. It would or any other combination of dual-use bio- or involve the strategic application of risk-driven nano-tech technologies used for supply-chain and countermeasures through the deployment of security – poised to be a ubiquitous technology, multiple technologies for sensing and detecting. embedded in the infrastructure from end-to-end? The concept has been explored at George Regardless of whether any of the technologies Washington University by a group of researchers will dominate – and perhaps it is still too early at who have formulated a framework for managing this point to speculate on any – we need to the risks of a maritime attack at a port. Such a address three key challenge: framework would call for security to be incorporated in the evolution of each subsystem  One challenge has to do with making the within a port, emphasizing that to build security “business case” for RFID or any other into a nation’s ports and waterways retroactively, tracking technology. The business users of the system would have to go beyond protecting RFID have acknowledged the benefits at the assets. Instead, it would identify the extent to operational level but have failed to make a which the subsystems have been driven solely by business case for the “network level” economic efficiency, and instigate systemic application benefits. The benefits from interventions to correct for the imbalance. xiv deployment of dual use and supply-chain specific technologies have been undeniable. A layered system of defense-in-depth offers a The private supply chain managers have useful framework for deployment of embedded made a business case for investment in RFID dual-use technologies to support private supply- and ERP systems by quantifying the chain activities and, in addition, help create operational efficiency benefits from robust, resilient, and survivable infrastructures deploying the ERP technologies: lower labor 6
  7. 7. cost and greater speed and accuracy of pivotal to any technology evaluation. An shipment processing and inventory control. impact assessment should balance the public The supply chain managers have also security interests against privacy rights of the benefited from greater visibility of the citizens. Privacy concerns are likely to supplies that have allowed better forecasting further complicate the assessment of capability, and have reduced both embedded technologies for two other downstream fluctuations in manufacturing reasons: they could impede the free flow of suppliers and upstream demand volatility. xvi data and inter-sector information-sharing; But how can a business case be made for an and further curtail the willingness of firms to investment when the benefits are not deploy such technologies or join the network. necessarily captured by the firm alone, but rather accrue to the users external to the firm, Concerns about privacy have already cast to the network as a whole, or to the society? doubts about the extent to which RFID will be used at the product level, as illustrated by Compounding the difficulty of the network- the case of the Italian clothing producer, level benefit capture is that it has not been Benetton. Early in 2003, Benetton hired clear to many ERP managers that such vast Philips Semiconductor to tag a complete line amounts of information are needed for of its clothing at more that 5,000 stores managing supply flows.xvii Further globally. Philips had planned to ship 15 complicating the balance of costs and million chips for use in labels to be attached benefits is that the full benefits of network to clothing during manufacture. The tagged connectivity may be harder to realize because items would be placed in shipping boxes that the data ownership issues have prevented would also be tagged. By doing this, complete data sharing. Because assessing the Benetton wanted to be able to track the broad-based benefits is more difficult than clothes from the point of manufacture to sale. the firm level benefits, network level benefits As it was originally designed, the chips are often undervalued. Conversely, assessing would remain active even after the clothes the direct, internal costs is a lot easier than were sold, so that the returns could be calculating the external costs. Consequently, tracked. Overall efficiency would also external costs – security threats, increase since the inventory control would be environmental costs, congestion costs, etc. – done remotely, and the individual scanning are likely to be underestimated. Unless we of the items would not be needed. The understand what the full costs and benefits of project was discontinued after a flood of these technologies are, we won’t have a clear protest and consumer boycotts driven by idea of where these capabilities will take us. fears that the movements of the wearer of the Without a good framework for assessing the clothes would be tracked permanently. costs and benefits, we’re going to fall prey to either out of control spending – because of Extreme suspicions of the adverse effects of the exaggerated benefit estimates – or decide surveillance technologies conjure up on a total rejection of all new technologies doomsday scenarios – “nanobots” and because of irrational fears about their autonomous robots run amok, and spy disruptive effects. gadgets built into our clothes, buildings, and ultimately in our brains. These fears are  The second challenge has to do with privacy counterproductive. Rather than make us concerns, but in a broader sense it also relates more adept at evaluating the consequences of to how we assess the benefits and costs of a any technology, they would prevent us from technology. The privacy issue is at the core objective and dispassionate evaluation of of the tradeoffs we have to weigh when their impacts. evaluating the feasibility of deploying any advanced technology system. Assessing the  The third challenge has to do with the full impact of the loss of individual rights is growing complexity and centralization of the 7
  8. 8. critical infrastructure components. To the extent that the increased technology intensity of the infrastructures can lead to a greater reliance on large and centralized networks, the system vulnerability to cascading failures could potentially grow. Researchers in resilient infrastructures have found that reducing reliance on large networks, and building more distributed networks and matrix systems, can create infrastructure systems with a potential for less severe disruption. Greater reliance on distributed technologies, greater use of alternative sources of energy and solar power, and a move towards less intensive land-use are steps that are likely to make urban infrastructures relatively less vulnerable to disruption. Advances in nano technologies suggest that one way to address this potential problem would be to develop distributed energy production and communications systems that are portable, close to the users, and capable of autonomous operation. xviii To conclude, I’d like to close with a reference to the “environmental model” for embedded technologies. The sea change in the U.S. corporate approach to responding to environmental regulations suggests that the model has to a large extent been effective in embedding the issue of external costs into our business culture. It has not been perfect, but the change has gone to the core of how we include air quality and environmental considerations into the business decision-making, guiding business activities at points extending from production centers to distribution networks – from “cradle to grave.” A solid legal framework to enforce a set of regulatory requirements, open technology standards, and technology investment incentives driven by business processes and not tax advantages, have helped embed, though admittedly imperfectly, environmental costs into our business calculus. Security has the potential to be codified in the fabric of business logistics on the basis of a similar model. End Notes 8
  9. 9. i Molly Peterson, “Homeland official foresees security embedded in “fabric of society,” National Journal’s Technology Daily, April 23, 2003, ii “Security Becomes Embedded,” Business Week On Line, April 28, 2003. iii David Simchi-Levi, Philip Kaminsky, Edith Simchi-Levi, “Designing and Managing the Supply Chain: Concepts, Strategies, and Case Studies, Irwin McGraw Hill, 2000. iv The Council of Logistics Management has defined logistics as: “The process of planning, implementing and controlling the efficient, cost effective flow and storage of raw materials, in-process inventory, finished goods, and related information from point-of-origin to point-of-consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements.” v Edmund W. Schuster, et. al, “The Prospects for Improving ERP Data Quality Using Auto-ID”, Paper to be published in The Cutter Journal: Information Technology and their Pursuit of Quality, 2004. vi ITS Joint Program Office, Tracking the Deployment of the Integrated Metropolitan Intelligent Transportation Systems Infrastructure in the USA: FY 2000 Results, July 2001. vii Ahmed Benouar, Center for ITS Commercialization, University of California, TRB presentation, January 15, 2002. viii Homeland Security Research Corporation (HSRC), 2003. “Homeland Security Industry – Trends.” ix Business Week, “War, Technology’s Proving Ground,”, April 9, 2003. x Robotics Trends, September 06 and September 12, 2003. “Vender Spotlight – Security & Defense.” xi Gerold Yonas, “Some Thoughts on the War on Terrorism,” Advanced Concepts Groups, Sandia National Labs, Presentation at MIT, February 11, 2002. xii See MIT’s web site for Forest of Sensors, xiii See “Home networking with ZigBee, April 20, 2004, xiv John Harrald, Hugh Stephenes, Johann Rene vanDort, “A Framework for Sustainable Port Security,” Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, Volume 1, Issue 2, 2004. xv Rae Zimmerman, “Building Resilient Infrastructure to Combat Terrorism: Lessons from September 11,” Lecture at MIT’s Technology and Policy Program and Engineering Systems Division, November 14, 2002. xvi Larry Lapide, “RFID: What’s in it for the Forecaster?”. The Journal of Business Forecasting, Summer, 2004. xvii Professor Yossi Sheffi, “RFID and the Innovation Cycle,” MIT Center for Transportation and Logistics, April 2004. xviii Rae Zimmerman, Op. Cit.