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  1. 1. IBM Global Business Services IBM Institute for Business Value Supply Chain Management Mastering carbon management Balancing trade-offs to optimize supply chain efficiencies
  2. 2. IBM Institute for Business Value IBM Global Business Services, through the IBM Institute for Business Value, develops fact-based strategic insights for senior executives around critical public and private sector issues. This executive brief is based on an in-depth study by the Institute’s research team. It is part of an ongoing commitment by IBM Global Business Services to provide analysis and viewpoints that help companies realize business value. You may contact the authors or send an e-mail to for more information.
  3. 3. Mastering carbon management Balancing trade-offs to optimize supply chain efficiencies By Karen Butner, Dietmar Geuder and Jeffrey Hittner As the planet heats up, so do regulatory mandates to reduce greenhouse gas emissions worldwide. Much of the opportunity to address CO2 emissions rests on the supply chain, compelling companies to look for new approaches to managing carbon effectively – from sourcing and production, to distribution and product afterlife. The trade-offs in the supply chain are no longer just about cost, service and quality – but cost, service, quality and carbon. By incorporating carbon reduction into their overall SCM strategy, companies can help reduce their environmental emissions footprint, strengthen their brand image and develop competitive advantage. Introduction 3 inevitable. Indeed, under the European Union The volume of global trade has more than emissions trading scheme (EU ETS), such a doubled in the last decade – reaching six setup is already in effect for certain industries. times the rate of growth of the world’s gross Similar schemes are popping up across the domestic product (GDP) during the same United States in separate groups of states and 1 period of time. This phenomenon has been in other major industrial economies worldwide. facilitated by relatively cheap energy, with Going forward, firms should expect to be low attention given to the impact on climate charged for their CO2 emissions. And most change. Consider that the global fleet of certainly, this charge will force a change in oceangoing ships accounts for more CO2 the way companies run their supply chains. emissions than any of all but six countries 2 Common practices of the last century – like worldwide. Yet, none of this environmental long-distance airfreight, small batch size, impact is reflected in shipping prices. just-in-time concepts and energy-intensive With estimated economic damage of about production in countries with low environ- US$85 for each ton of carbon dioxide, mental standards – will likely go by the capping greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions economic and political wayside. Reducing the and putting a price tag on them became supply chain’s carbon footprint will become an inescapable obligation. Mastering carbon management
  4. 4. The choice will be either to delay – or to The goal will be to optimize supply chain prod- embrace – the climate challenge as a ucts, processes, information and cash flow in chance to restructure the supply chain for the face of four main factors, or “trade-offs”: the economic and environmental good. The cost, service, quality and carbon emissions. companies that act now can reap advantages The supply chain, we must emphasize, will not that may be denied to those that wait for the fundamentally change. But with carbon as an regulatory hand. These benefits include the added criterion, the economics behind tradi- mindshare of a growing ethical consumer tional practices will change, and optimizing the market; the attraction and retention of top supply chain will become more complex. talent; and more sustainable growth overall. IBM Global Business Services IBM Global Business Services
  5. 5. Mastering carbon management Balancing trade-offs to optimize supply chain efficiencies Trade-offs to reduce carbon output In component supply, manufacturing/assembly “Green” supply chain management begins and distribution, there are a number of options with recognizing the environmental dimen- for reducing carbon and cost simultaneously sions (such as carbon emissions, demand (simultaneity being, of course, the hallmark of on energy and other natural resources). the best solutions). A trade-off model looks at Succeeding at it will ultimately require supply these areas and considers all of the factors in chain executives and managers to balance the “wheel” – design, packaging, processes, numerous options and master a new chal- components, energy, inventory and transporta- lenge: optimizing supply chain products, tion (see Figure 1). processes, information and cash flows in light These options represent the “levers” avail- of four main factors: cost, service, quality and able to influence cost, quality and service, now, carbon emissions. as well as GHG emissions. The more carbon Options becomes incorporated into these levers, the Different areas of the supply chain present more “seamlessly green” a business can options for becoming more sustainable and appear. This can make products more attrac- managing carbon better. Yet all of these tive to the growing share of ethical consumers areas, as well as various sourcing, produc- in the marketplace today, and the company tion and distribution processes, are typically more appealing to the next generation of closely interconnected and dependent on employees intent on making a positive impact one another. For instance, local SCM opti- on the world around them. For each of these mization efforts may adversely (and often unforeseeably) affect other areas of the FIGURE 1. supply chain – limiting options for improve- A trade-off model takes into account various ment and stymieing the attainment of an options and performance factors. overall optimum result. Packaging options Therefore, carbon management, energy tio n Pr ption op esig ns oc s o D es consumption and other environmental Service CO2 s concerns should be analyzed and tion approached from a holistic viewpoint – evalu- Supply chain Compo options option ent Transporta trade-off ating overall performance goals (cost, service, n Quality s Cost quality and carbon) in terms of their relation- ship to one another. pol Inven rgy icy tor Enetions opt y ion op s Source: IBM Research and the IBM Institute for Business Value. Mastering carbon management
  6. 6. levers, there are examples of options in the Trade-offs in action: Logistics and areas that need to be addressed. These distribution include: A typical SCM challenge is to strike the right • Design: Materials selection; energy effi- balance of transportation, process and inven- ciency; durability; upgradeability; ease of tory policies. CO2 reduction adds another disassembly; recyclability; disposability; factor to this quest (see Figure 2). virtual product development Shipment consolidation • Packaging: Size; reuse/recycling; materials Shipment consolidation is one of the major (corrugated box, Styrofoam, plastic and the opportunities to reduce the carbon footprint. like); documentation/manuals Quantifying the impact of shipment frequency • Processes: Order fulfilment; manufacturing; on cost and carbon can help to establish an transportation; quality control; organizational inventory replenishment policy that addresses management; demand/supply planning business needs and reduces environmental impact. Many current just-in-time and direct • Components: Substitutes, sourcing, location, customer delivery inventory policies require supplier rationalization smaller loads to be shipped more frequently • Energy: Fossil fuel-based (oil, natural gas); (see Scenario 1 in Figure 2). renewable energy-based (ethanol, solar, wind); other (nuclear, geothermal) This heightened service level frequently reduces the inventory pipeline while • Inventory policy: Safety stocks; lot sizes; increasing transportation costs and carbon. planning frequency; replenishment A change in policy – to fewer but larger ship- programs (just-in-time, vendor-managed ments – may be made at the cost of higher inventory, direct store delivery) inventory levels and associated storage, and • Transportation: Modes, shipment frequency, could affect service levels (see Scenario 2 in load consolidation, routing. Figure 2). But increasing energy and carbon costs will likely shift the balance of current policies in this direction. FIGURE 2. Carbon’s impact on shipment scenarios. Vehicle/ Inventory Transportation Carbon in shipment size cost Cost Carbon warehousing Scenario 1 Shipment size High shipment Decreased frequency cost/carbon Increased cost/ Scenario 2 carbon Low shipment frequency Source: IBM Research. IBM Global Business Services
  7. 7. Today, optimizing Sourcing locations Network optimization Supplier distance can impact component cost, Network optimization strategies can be revised the supply chain carbon emission and inventory – all of which to address the additional carbon variable and requires making – and can be quantified to evaluate an organization’s its impact on facility placement, manufacturing, balancing – trade-offs procurement strategy and determine the need distribution and transportation operations. This in key areas. for modification to address environmental can also encompass distribution facilities’ role dimensions. Until now, a typical procurement and sizing, transportation options, sourcing strategy looked at landed cost – the actual, total and procurement policies, and inventory cost of importing an item (vendor expenses, placement. Network optimization models will transportation charges, duties, taxes, broker thus address carbon-based parameters while fees), plus relevant logistics costs (acquisi- simultaneously working to meet objectives tion, storage, movement, disposition of goods). regarding overall costs, inventory pipeline and Taking into account carbon-based risks and service level achievements (see trade-off in costs, “environmental” landed costs may rebal- distribution sidebar). ance local and global sourcing strategies – leading to a new “trade-off point.” The trade-off in distribution: Service and cost versus emissions Modes of transportation Determining ideal warehouse locations for a distri- In addition to reducing transport miles, a bution infrastructure used to be mainly a question company can factor into the equation a focus of service level and cost. However, for some, this on low-carbon transport options – train, plane, decision now takes into account carbon emissions. ship and truck all have different carbon trade- The following examples describe projects that offs between cost, service level and carbon effectively balance carbon with other factors. impact. As governments begin to invest in For a defined service level, an American bath and greener transportation infrastructures and kitchen products manufacturer was able to reduce discourage those modes with greater envi- carbon emissions by percent by relocating its ronmental negative impact, companies can warehouses. While optimizing for emissions alone evaluate a new spectrum of transportation could have achieved up to 0 percent of carbon options. Businesses must take a careful look reduction, that decision would have resulted in a at the inherent fuel economy/emissions levels disproportionately higher relocation cost. of various alternatives – factoring in load plan- For a European white goods distributor, reductions ning for efficient use of vehicles. They must of percent of emissions was achieved with an optimize truck and container size, and weigh optimized distribution network, balanced for all speed limitations against carbon impact, criteria and achieving a 98 percent service level. In vehicle maintenance requirements, driving this case, the trade-off solution is two percentage patterns and even driver training. points short of its maximum achievable level of 4 CO reduction. Mastering carbon management
  8. 8. Policies relating Taken as a whole, these factors – modes for organizations to address this issue in a of transportation, warehouse and supplier number of ways – and fast. There are specific to transportation, locations, shipment frequency and routing steps companies can take to limit GHG processes and – must be re-analyzed against the cost of emissions – from easy-to-implement local inventory should carbon to determine the new optimal trade-off improvements to complex optimizations that consider both business point. Including carbon in the mix will require involve an extended supply chain. The further and environmental deep computing, plus mathematical and these activities extend and integrate across repercussions. analytical capabilities. the supply chain, the greater leverage and control they will have over carbon emissions As a 2008 IBM Institute for Business Value (see Figure 3). Global Corporate Social Responsibility survey shows, a third of today’s companies While an all-encompassing approach may are required by their business partners to have the highest potential for improvement, it adopt or acquire new carbon management also introduces more complexity, more coor- 5 standards. Businesses well positioned for dination effort and more implementation time. the 21st century are those that can quantify “Low hanging fruit,” such as point solutions cost and carbon, and provide partners and for reducing carbon, may have less overall customers with a level of knowledge and improvement potential, but can show an management that can help differentiate them immediate return on investment. These efforts in the marketplace. can even lower certain expenditures to the point of enabling additional, more integrated Five steps to mastering carbon in carbon-reducing investments. We therefore the supply chain recommend a step-wise approach: The fact that carbon trade-offs will compli- cate the supply chain emphasizes the need FIGURE 3. Supply chain carbon mastery model. High Collaborative end-to-end optimization Business value by CO2 reduction Internal, horizontal integration Functional optimization Carbon asset management Little focus on CO2 Low Internal Supply chain penetration End-to-end Source: IBM Institute for Business Value. IBM Global Business Services
  9. 9. 1. Diagnose and assess. can consume huge amounts of energy. 2. Implement asset management and realize Investing in facilities with a low carbon foot- point solutions. print and energy-saving equipment offers an effective first step with a defined return 3. Address emissions in supply chain on investment (see the Catalyst Paper functions. Corporation sidebar). Implementing carbon- 4. Find the optimum solution for integrating based asset management helps ensure that across functions. the most direct savings potential concerning 5. Collaborate with supply chain partners to emission and cost can be realized. realize overall potential. Reducing energy consumption in paper production 1. Diagnosis and assessment Catalyst Paper Corporation, a Canadian pulp Today’s global economy and the interde- and paper company, uses its own by-products pendencies between a company and its (biomass) to power its operations. It also partners (suppliers, contract manufacturers, regains heat from effluence to warm process logistics providers, financial and tax entities, water and thereby further reduce its carbon and customers ) require businesses to gain a emissions. Together with efficiency gains and a holistic understanding of the carbon impact of switch to natural gas, the company has lowered their entire supply chain – from supply strategy, its GHG emissions by 0 percent and its energy to distribution and warehouse management, use by percent since 990. In 00 and 00 to product operations and customer service. alone, the company saved US$. million through Using a carbon diagnostic that evaluates each a percent reduction in fuel consumption. 6 high-level supply chain component according to a simple set of carbon statements and key 3. Functional optimization performance indicators, a company can begin Each supply chain function can make a to define its own maturity level, identify gaps specific contribution to help reduce GHGs. and set target levels. Generally speaking – and depending on the carbon diagnostic results and “green” SCM Priority areas for taking action are determined strategy – the ability to reduce CO2 emis- by combining the results of the assessment, sions is typically greater when measures are the maturity level, the ease of taking action taken early in the process (see Figure 4). and the strategic positioning. The higher the Considerations in product design, customer strategic importance of an activity and the fulfillment and even reverse logistics offer a bigger its performance gap, the more impor- range of functional optimization opportunities. tant it is to take action. When considering any functional optimiza- 2. Carbon asset management tion, there is always the question of whether Much of the potential for directly reducing outsourcing could be an option for helping carbon emissions lies in a supply chain’s to lower carbon emissions. In many parts facilities and assets. Warehousing, machinery, of the supply chain, outsourcing has led to vehicle fleets and data centers, for instance, Mastering carbon management
  10. 10. Targeted, step-by-step FIGURE 4. Environmental optimization potential in supply chain functions. efforts to reduce GHG Strategy emissions can have a Setting goals, integrating with business strategy, focus areas, policies, funding big impact, and offer Service and Product design Planning Sourcing Production Logistics an immediate return end-of-life on investment. • How can product • How can the • How can we • What operations • What distribution • How can field design make total network best measure a strategy (facility network strategy service operations better trade-offs be optimized, supplier’s carbon location, operating (facility locations, reduce carbon between design considering service, impact (product, model) provides sizes, transport footprint with better requirements, cost, “green” trade- packaging, the best trade-off modes) provides routing and parts including carbon offs? upstream logistics) between cost, the best trade-off inventory tracking? footprint? • What is the CO and ultimately service, carbon? of cost, service and • Is there a • What tools and impact from comply with • Is there a role carbon? mechanism to drive practices should various inventory carbon reduction for sustainable • How can packaging continuous design be employed by concepts requirements? factory/facility be reduced and improvement from companies wanting and planning • What sourcing management? recycled? service back to to establish methodologies? strategies will result • Can lean • What is the impact product design and leadership? • Are there in a better trade-off manufacturing of increased load engineering? • What are the opportunities to of cost, service and Six Sigma consolidation, and • Are all strategies carbon impacts reduce cost and level, quality, approaches be used is this practical? employed to reduce throughout the carbon emission at carbon emission? to manage carbon? landfilled materials: • What role can product’s lifecycle, the same time? • How should we • Is there a role for alternative fuel or reuse, refurbishing, and how can they evaluate carbon manufacturing power sources recycling, be minimized offsets? execution software play? secondary upfront through in the management markets? smart design? of carbon? Asset management Sustainable facilities management; green building and energy carbon footprint asset management; asset utilization (Realtime data on energy usage, i.e., carbon dashboard) Finance Paperwork reduction; environmental cost management Asset accounting; environmental tax benefits tracking Source: IBM Global Business Services. more specialization and efficiency (contract 4. Internal horizontal integration manufacturing is one example). However, Depending on the type of supply chain, the these activities are often more geographically most pertinent areas for carbon reduction vary, dispersed – increasing transportation needs. A as does their complexity. With today’s glob- service provider is typically better positioned ally distributed supply chains and customized in terms of scale (and consequently reducing products, that complexity has often increased more greenhouse gases). This is especially to the point where specific functional improve- true for third-party logistics providers, who can ments have a very limited reach. In contrast, a offer carbon-optimized bundling for transpor- horizontally integrated approach across func- tation needs. Although it always needs to be tions permits much greater leverage. evaluated closely – outsourcing of specific Similar to the “design for manufacturability” or supply chain functions may indeed lead to “design for serviceability” concepts, design reduction in the overall carbon output. for environment takes emissions into account. This includes carbon’s impact on sourcing, manufacturing and distribution. Modified 8 IBM Global Business Services
  11. 11. packaging for reducing transportation efforts 5. Collaborative, end-to-end optimization is another commonly practiced approach While internal horizontal integration may for various supply chain areas. The dairy increase leverage, the full potential for foods case (see the Friesland Coberco Dairy reducing emissions can be attained only if all Foods sidebar) is an example that spans all players in the supply chain pull at the same functions, from product design to transporta- string and collaborate on end-to-end optimiza- tion. Late customization, as in this case, can tion (see the Tesco sidebar). mitigate the effect of dispersed operations, but it requires businesses to address carbon Integrated packaging design at Tesco management in an integrated manner across Glass is the biggest single contributor to the supply chain functions. Also, as this example packaging weight that UK retailer Tesco passes shows, integrating carbon management can on to its customers. By prodding the industry strengthen an organization’s brand image. to produce lighter-weight wine bottles, Tesco reduced its annual glass usage from one single Reducing CO2 emissions in this way often supplier by ,00 tons – a percent saving. means balancing the consequences in An estimated ,00 tons of carbon emissions different areas. For example, as discussed in were avoided by importing “new world” wines in the section on trade-offs, one of the possible bulk and bottling them in lightweight glass in the compromises is between production batch UK. Improving product design not only produced sizes and energy-saving transportation savings for the glass manufacturer, it also reduced batches, or inventory levels. the carbon emissions through the entire lifecycle 8 of a glass bottle. An integrated view of a dairy supply chain: Friesland Coberco Dairy Foods Ideally, a lifecycle carbon assessment serves Baby food has lately become a highly diversified to determine a comprehensive approach product. In the past, only three product lines for reducing carbon along the supply chain. existed – one for each age group. Today, a multitude of product varieties is available, In practice, however, end-to-end lifecycle including those for increasing resistance or assessments are often lengthy and costly treating allergies. Netherlands-based Friesland undertakings. Pragmatic approaches that Coberco Dairy Foods produces, packs, ships focus on a few key collaborative steps among and maintains inventory of baby food – all from partners in the supply chain can lead to different locations. To reduce transportation tangible results comparatively fast, and with a efforts, the company is now adjusting its recipes potentially higher return on investment than a and its production processes to create variants single player can achieve. of a basic product. Specific ingredients are added at a late stage in the supply chain. This has the Coordinating inventory and transportation potential to cut needed inventory – and thereby among supply chain partners to reduce transportation – by an estimated ,000 miles carbon impact can dramatically reduce per year, with corresponding carbon reductions. 7 mileage. Combining these efforts with low- emitting transportation options can further 9 Mastering carbon management
  12. 12. Integrating carbon lower carbon output. Following this approach, The ideal solution is to strike the optimal Unilever, together with first- and second-tier trade-off between the desired states of cost, management into SCM suppliers and supermarkets, for instance, iden- service, quality and carbon – a classic opti- strategies and processes tified possible avoidance of 2.7 million miles mization challenge that a combination of can be a best-of-both per year. 9 mathematical analytics, deep computing worlds situation for and industry expertise can help resolve. Another example of collaboration among businesses, consumers For companies that are not yet equipped supply chain partners is returnable pack- to tackle every hurdle, we recommend the – and the environment. aging, which (unlike disposable packaging) intermediate steps discussed above to help is intended for repeated use and can signifi- achieve specific GHG reductions. cantly reduce the impact of packaging-related carbon. This has proven effective for mate- As you begin to tackle the issue of carbon rial supply in automotive and fresh-produce management in your supply chain, there are retailing supply chains. several key questions to think about: Based on a defined environmental strategy, • What is the model, or “heat map,” of your common ground should be cultivated with current carbon footprint? What processes partners – especially in the areas of product within the enterprise and the extended design, packaging and logistics. Once the enterprise are carbon-intensive? Figure 5 opportunities for improvements in carbon depicts a possible carbon heat map based management are clear, collaboration and on the “deconstruction” of a company’s end-to-end supply chain optimization – based business model into discrete processes and on balancing the desired outcomes in cost, functions. service, quality and environment – can create • What are the key green indicators that you a winning situation for all parties. should be measuring? What are the current targets and thresholds for improving and/or Conclusion meeting regulatory requirements? Future regulations will no doubt prescribe ways • What are the critical trade-offs, and the to reduce carbon emissions. By then, the cost constraints and considerations, regarding of compliance – in every way – may be much the reduction of carbon in your supply chain greater. The time to tackle carbon emissions – all while maintaining service and quality, in the supply chain is now, when more options and easing the cost impact? Remember, are still available to gain true and lasting the goal is not to reduce carbon at the cost advantages. This is one of those rare occa- of your traditional supply chain objectives; sions when doing the financially smart thing, it is to make carbon reduction a means for and doing the right thing for consumers and achieving those objectives. the environment are one and the same. • If pursuing a collaborative approach for carbon management, how do you get partners on board, and how will you share risk, responsibility and value? 0 IBM Global Business Services
  13. 13. FIGURE 5. A sample carbon heat map. Consumer Customer Inventory and Business Manufacturing relationship relationship distribution administration Corporate strategy Category/brand Customer relationship Manufacturing strategy Supply chain strategy strategy strategy Corporate planning Supplier relationship Inventory planning Directing management Alliance management Category/brand Customer relationship planning Network and asset planning Corporate governance configuration Production/materials development and Brand PL Assessing customer planning Business performance Distribution oversight management management satisfaction Matching supply and External market analysis Customer insights Manufacturing Controlling demand oversight Marketing Organization and Inbound Outbound process design development and effectiveness transpor- transpor- Supplier control tation tation Legal, tax and Account management regulatory compliance Product ideation Product/component Treasury and risk Concept/product manufacturing management testing Value-added services Financial accounting Assemble/packaging and reporting Product development Distribution center Customer account products Indirect procurement operations service Product management Facilities and equipment Executing Retail marketing Plant inventory management Marketing execution execution management Transportation resources Resource development In-store inventory Consumer service management Manufacturing HR administration En-route inventory procurement Product directory Customer directory management IT systems and operations No carbon impact Moderate carbon impact Source: IBM Institute for Business Value. Some carbon impact Major carbon impact As companies move from a reactive to a differentiation, and strengthen their brand proactive stance in managing carbon, they image. In an age of heightened corporate can convert a cost issue into a growth oppor- scrutiny and social responsibility, the compa- tunity. Taking into account traditional concerns nies that turn the tables on the carbon about quality, service and cost, a compre- challenge could well be the leaders in the 21st hensive carbon-management strategy can century global economy. help organizations develop more sustainable growth opportunities, maintain competitive Mastering carbon management
  14. 14. About the authors Contributors Karen Butner is the Supply Chain Jorg van Geest is a Senior Managing Management Leader for the IBM Institute for Consultant in IBM Global Business Services Business Value and an Associate Partner in and the service line leader for Integrated the IBM Supply Chain Management practice, Supply Chain Planning in the BeNeLux. Jorg with a focus on strategy and transformation can be reached at competencies. Karen has over 25 years of Jad Oseyran is a Supply Chain Management experience in supply chain management busi- Senior Consultant in IBM Global Business ness practices and strategies. She assists Services in the Netherlands. Jad can be clients in the high-tech, retail and consumer reached at products, electronics and transportation Andrew Jackson is the Supply Chain logistics industries – helping them to develop Management Leader in IBM Global Business strategies for transforming their global supply Services, responsible for Northeastern Europe. chain performance. Karen can be reached at Andrew can be reached at andrew.d.jackson@ Dietmar Geuder is a member of the IBM Peter Williams is Chief Technology Officer for Institute for Business Value Supply Chain Big Green Innovations at the IBM Systems and Management Team and a Managing Technology Group. Peter can be reached at Consultant in IBM Global Business Services in Germany. He has extensive experience in supply chain optimization, planning and Edan Dionne is Director for Corporate procurement, with a focus on high-tech and Environmental Affairs at IBM. She can be industrial clients. Dietmar can be reached at reached at Kaan Katircioglu is Research Relationship Jeffrey Hittner is the Corporate Social Manager at IBM Research. Kaan can be Responsibility Leader for the IBM Institute reached at for Business Value. He works with a range of industries and clients to address the emerging About IBM Global Business Services With business experts in more than 160 role of corporate social responsibility in core countries, IBM Global Business Services business strategies. He can be reached at provides clients with deep business process and industry expertise across 17 industries, using innovation to identify, create and deliver value faster. We draw on the full breadth of IBM capabilities, standing behind our advice to help clients implement solutions designed to deliver business outcomes with far-reaching impact and sustainable results. IBM Global Business Services
  15. 15. References 6 Catalyst Paper Corporation. “Environmental 1 World Trade Organization. “International Manufacturing Principles.” Richmont, trade and tariff data.” Geneva, Switzerland. Canada. December, 2007 http://www. . statis_e.htm. Accessed on November socialresponsibility_environment_manufac- 2007; Development Data Group. “2007 turingprinciples.xml World Development Indicators Online.” 7 Duurzame Logistiek. “Basisrecept voor Washington, DC: The World Bank. http:// Babyvoeding.” Delft, Netherlands, December, Accessed 2007 . in November, 2007 . scripts/case.php?pageID=5caseid=60 2 Eying, Veronika, and Jim Corbett. 8 Tesco PLC. “Tesco Corporate Responsibility “Comparing Fuel Consumption, Carbon Review 2007 Cheshunt, UK. May, 2007 .” . Dioxide and Other Emissions from International Shipping and Aircraft: A crreport07/06_wastepackre/packaging. Summary of Recent Research Findings.” htm; TalkingRetail. “WRAP Morrisons and , DLR-Institute of Atmospheric Physics. 2007. Tesco all working to use lighter weight wine bottles.” Swanley, UK. August, Emissions_International_Shipping.html 2007 . 3 Stern, Sir Nicolas. “Stern Review on the industry_announcements/6347/WRAP- Economics of Climate Change.” HM teams-up-with-Morrisons-a.ehtml Treasury, London, UK. October, 2006. 9 Duurzame Logistiek. “Voorraden op en logische plek.” Delft, Netherlands, 4 Results from recent client projects carried November, 2007 http://www.duur- . out with the IBM Warehouse Site Planner. 5 php?pageID=5caseid=181. Accessed in IBM Institute for Business Value 2008 Global November, 2007 . CSR survey. Mastering carbon management
  16. 16. © Copyright IBM Corporation 2008 IBM Global Services Route 100 Somers, NY 10589 U.S.A. Produced in the United States of America 02-08 All Rights Reserved IBM and the IBM logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Other company, product and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others. References in this publication to IBM products and services do not imply that IBM intends to make them available in all countries in which IBM operates. GBE03011-USEN-00