JIT-Lean Production.ppt


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  • Jidoka is Japanese for “Stop everything when something goes wrong”, a form of stopping quality problems at their source. Poka-Yoke is Japanese for failproofing: Examples are gasoline nozzles, VCR cassettes (they are ejected if inserted incorrectly), inkjet cartridges, etc.
  • JIT-Lean Production.ppt

    1. 1. Just-in-Time/Lean Production A repetitive production system in which the processing and movement of materials and goods occur just as they are needed!
    2. 2. Pre-JIT: Traditional Mass Production
    3. 3. Post-JIT: “Lean Production” Tighter coordination along the supply chain Goods are pulled along — only make and ship what is needed
    4. 4. JIT Goals (throughout the supply chain) <ul><li>Eliminate disruptions </li></ul><ul><li>Make the system flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce setup times and lead times </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate waste </li></ul>
    5. 5. Waste <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Waste is ‘anything other than the minimum amount of equipment, materials, parts, space, and worker’s time, which are absolutely essential to add value to the product.’ </li></ul><ul><li>— Shoichiro Toyoda President, Toyota </li></ul>
    6. 6. Forms of Waste: <ul><li>Overproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Waiting time </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Product Defects </li></ul>
    7. 7. Inventory as a Waste <ul><li>Requires more storage space </li></ul><ul><li>Requires tracking and counting </li></ul><ul><li>Increases movement activity </li></ul><ul><li>Hides yield, scrap, and rework problems </li></ul><ul><li>Increases risk of loss from theft, damage, obsolescence </li></ul>
    8. 8. Building Blocks of JIT <ul><li>Product design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modular design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Process design </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel and organizational elements </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing planning and control </li></ul>
    9. 9. Process Design <ul><li>“ Focused Factories” </li></ul><ul><li>Group Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Simplified layouts with little storage space </li></ul><ul><li>Jidoka and Poka-Yoke </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum setups </li></ul>
    10. 10. Personnel and Organizational Elements <ul><li>Workers as assets </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-trained workers </li></ul><ul><li>Greater responsibility at lower levels </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders as facilitators , not order givers </li></ul>
    11. 11. Classic Organizational View
    12. 12. JIT Organization View
    13. 13. Planning and Control Systems <ul><li>“Small” JIT </li></ul><ul><li>Stable and level schedules </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed Model Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“Push” versus “Pull” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kanban Systems </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Kanban <ul><li>Uses simple visual signals to control production </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>empty slot in hamburger chute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>empty space on floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>kanban card </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Kanban Example Workcenter B uses parts produced by Workcenter A How can we control the flow of materials so that B always has parts and A doesn’t overproduce?
    16. 16. Kanban card: Signal to produce When a container is opened by Workcenter B, its kanban card is removed and sent back to Workcenter A. This is a signal to Workcenter A to produce another box of parts.
    17. 17. Empty Box: Signal to pull Empty box sent back. Signal to pull another full box into Workcenter B. Question: How many kanban cards here? Why?
    18. 18. How Many Kanbans? y = number of kanban cards D = demand per unit of time T = lead time C = container capacity X = fudge factor
    19. 19. Example <ul><li>Hourly demand = 300 units </li></ul><ul><li>Lead time = 3 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Each container holds 300 units </li></ul><ul><li>Assuming no variation in lead-time or demand (x = 0): y = (300  3) / 300 = 3 kanban cards </li></ul>
    20. 20. Extending the pull system
    21. 21. Note: <ul><li>For a kanban system to work, we NEED CONSISTENT demand across the work centers </li></ul><ul><li>How do we ensure this? </li></ul>
    22. 22. Mixed Model Sequencing Largest integer that divides evenly into daily requirement is 10: A: 40 / 10 = 4 B: 40 / 10 = 4 C: 10 / 10 = 1 Mixed model sequence: A-B-A-B-A-B-A-B-C 10 200 C 40 800 B 40 800 A Daily Requirement Monthly Demand Product
    23. 23. Implementing JIT What about automation?
    24. 24. Putting the Squeeze on Resources