This presentation provides an overview of the MIT expedition’s inventory of the HMP base camp.
This slide provides background on the challenges faced by logistics planners for HMP. First, everything was organized last-minute and subject to change at any time. The weather was the main driver -- the planes cannot fly if the weather is bad (which it often was). We depended entirely on Twin Otter planes (pictured lower right), but their scheduling was also constantly changing due to shifting weather patterns and priorities. The upper right photograph shows us unloading pallets from the large jet -- we hand-sorted everything according to its use (e.g. Greenhouse vs. food). The last major challenge is that there is no careful tracking of anything left on base over the winter. The lower left photograph shows forty or so white coolers full of food, which were left for the winter. The cook brought all new equipment and supplies, because he did not know there were 300 pounds of pasta on base already.
The goals of the MIT team’s inventory effort were two-fold. The first goal outlined what we hoped to do in order to improve logistics management for the HMP camp, while the second goal focused on our efforts to advance our space logistics project. In order to improve HMP logistics (and test our theories about logistics management for remote camps), we strove to provide an inventory of items and also test a tracking system for supplies during the field season and over the winter months. To advance space logistics in general, we wanted to test our class of supply in the field, and obtain an inventory that would show us the types of supplies required for remote base operations at a Mars-analog research base.
The inventory procedures were tested and ironed out during our stay at HMP. We went location-by-location, and took inventory of all items in a given tent, for example. We recorded all relevant information (such as description, mass, size, etc), and also tagged each item with a barcode and an RFID tag. The photograph shows bags of dried fruit tagged with barcodes and RFID.
This screenshot shows the Excel-based inventory. The tabs at the bottom hold various inventory collections, such as food, medical equipment, or items in the mess tent. Across the top are listed the attributes recorded for each item (see next slide for details).
All in all, we recorded around 2300 items in an Excel spreadsheet, which comprises a near-complete inventory of HMP base camp. We added about 400 of these items to a relational database for on-site RFID tracking. Next year, we hope to track the complete inventory. For each item, we listed a number of attributes, having to do with item descriptions, mass/size, shipping/storage conditions, priorities, etc.
The next step is to ask what can be done with this data. Numerous use cases exist; we have chosen a few examples here. Logistics planners might want to know approximately what percentage of all HMP equipment belongs to a particular supply class (such as food), or what percentage of camp equipment is owned by each organization. Camp participants might want to know, in real time, what types of fuel are available on base, or where to find drums of each type of fuel. The motivation for this question is evident in the photograph. It pictures the airport, the incinerator, and several fuel drums scattered about the field. Drums are often not marked with fuel type, and the colors are meaningless, so careful tracking would be of major assistance in this case. In the next few slides, we will provide answers for these use cases.
The pie chart shows our inventory by supply class. The percentages are given in terms of number of line items in the Excel-based inventory. Food, communications equipment, science tools, and health/medical equipment make up the largest percentages of camp equipment.
This pie chart shows the percent of camp equipment (again by line item in the Excel inventory) owned by each participating organization. CSA is the Canadian Space Agency (a sponsor of the project and also the owner of the greenhouse), and SFU is Simon Frasier University (which provides all the communications equipment). Miscellaneous camp equipment not clearly owned by any other organization (including food) was tagged “HMP”, which accounts for the large percentage owned by HMP.
These plots are an example of on-site analysis and tracking. The pie chart shows fuel distribution on base by type (in gallons or lbs). Note that while urine is obviously not a fuel, it is stored in empty fuel drums, so it is tracked here. The bar chart shows fuel containers and their locations on base. This information was quite useful to the HMP leadership this season, because they pay rent on unreturned propane containers. They were glad to be reminded of the twelve empty containers sitting at the airport, and shipped them back to Resolute on the next plane.
The final question for our research was to understand how effective the analogy was between HMP and any potential Martian or Lunar bases. The slide gives the three major differences. In order to understand the comparisons better, we compare the estimates based on Draper/MIT CER surface demand models to the actual inventory at HMP (see next slide).
The plot shows the actual and estimated equipment (in kg) for two supply classes, and their distribution into sub-classes. Key things to note are that the waste management equipment total is fairly close, but the distribution between waste collection system and trash bags is quite different between the Lunar/Mars base model and the HMP actuals. The reason is that a Martian/Lunar base would likely use sophisticated waste collection equipment, and few trash bags. On the other hand, waste collection as HMP was extremely simple, and depended largely on trash bags for all waste collection needs. In terms of food and support equipment, HMP far exceeded estimates, probably because they store so much food over the winter. Furthermore, HMP has quite a luxurious kitchen compared to typical astronaut facilities.
HMP Inventory Presentation for 4-month Review [ppt]
WBS 2.3 HMP Inventory Erica Gralla Sarah Shull September 8-9, 2005 firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com Interplanetary Supply Chain Management and Logistics Architectures Interplanetary Supply Chain Management & Logistics Architectures 2005-2007 MIT JPL USA PSI
Background <ul><li>Challenges for HMP Logistics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized last-minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ever-changing schedules (weather, flights, funding) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items left on base over the winter are not tracked carefully </li></ul></ul>
Inventory Goals <ul><li>Our Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide an inventory of items and implement a tracking system for items during the field season and over the winter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalog classes and sub-classes of supply in the field to obtain a complete inventory and relational database of a Mars-analog research base on Earth </li></ul></ul>
Inventory Procedures <ul><li>Inventoried the following locations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bathroom Tents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MIT Tent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Office Tent (inc. Medical Supplies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Tent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core Tent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mess Tent (inc. food) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comm/Systems Tent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humvee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outdoor Camp Equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tagged items with RFID and barcodes </li></ul>HMP Research Station Layout MESS Office Tent Life Sciences + Medical Ops CORE MARS-1 HUMVEE ROVER Main Entrance Ramp Systems Tent (Comms, Computing) MIT Tent l--------l 3 m Existing Research Tent Future Elements CSA Greenhouse ATV
<ul><li>Tabs for various inventory collections (e.g. food, mess tent, medical) </li></ul>Excel Inventory Spreadsheet
Results <ul><li>Outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>2300 items were cataloged in an excel spreadsheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>~400 of these added to the relational database on-site for RFID tracking (MIT tent, Mess tent) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Listed the following attributes for each item: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name, Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priority Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard Type, Hazard Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perishability Type, Perishability Units, Perishable Parameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage Rate Type, Usage Rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Origin Type, Owner, Storage Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging, Handling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass Units Type, Mass, Size Units Type, Volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost/Value, Number of Items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location, Case ID, and Electronic Product Code (EPC)/Barcode. </li></ul></ul>
Example Use Cases <ul><li>How many items in each supply class? </li></ul><ul><li>What percent of camp equipment is owned by each participating organization? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the fuel availability on base, and where is it located? </li></ul>
Inventory by Supply Class Food Comm Science Health
Mars Analog <ul><li>How analogous is HMP to Martian and Lunar bases, in terms of logistics? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obvious differences include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HMP uses in-situ water resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More frequent flights (resupply) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative ‘luxury’ in cooking/eating arrangements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare estimates based on Draper/MIT CER surface demand models </li></ul></ul>
Comparison to CER-based Estimates <ul><li>HMP waste collection system is simple, and depends largely on trash bags </li></ul><ul><li>HMP has several seasons’ worth of food stockpiled, and a wide variety of kitchen equipment (accumulated over many seasons) </li></ul>
Summary <ul><li>Established a near-complete inventory of HMP base camp </li></ul><ul><li>Validated the supply classes for Moon/Mars exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Provided usable baseline for planning upcoming 2006 field season </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. cook knows what food and supplies are on-base </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Populated relational database to enable RFID tracking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. “how much printer paper is in the MIT tent?” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed procedures for full-scale inventory and tracking of all supplies on an Arctic, Lunar or Martian base </li></ul>