Green jobs for Asia/Pacific by Michael Renner - (ppt, 1,338Kb)


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Green jobs for Asia/Pacific by Michael Renner - (ppt, 1,338Kb)

  1. 1. Green Jobs for Asia/Pacific Michael Renner Worldwatch Institute  ILO Research Conference  Niigata, Japan April 21-23, 2008
  2. 2. Green Jobs - A Typology Renewable energy sector; energy performance New Job Creation service companies; mobility services Mining; packaging (materials discouraged or banned) Elimination Net employment effects ? Shifting from fossil fuels to renewables, automobiles Substitution to mass transit, waste disposal to recycling, primary metals production to secondary production Existing jobs greened along with changed workplace Transformation practices and methods. Supply-chain effects (steel for wind turbines) Greening core areas (energy, transport) has potential „Radiating Out‟ to “radiate” across large sections of the economy Source: Renner, Sweeney and Kubit, Green Jobs: Towards Sustainable Work in a Low-Carbon World
  3. 3. Employment Estimates in Renewable Energy Renewable Global Employment Employment in Selected Energy Source Estimates Countries Wind Power 300,000 Germany 82,100 U.S. 36,800 Spain 35,000 China 22,200 Denmark 21,000 Solar PV 170,000 China 55,000 Japan ? Germany 35,000 Spain 26,450 U.S. 15,700 Solar Thermal 624,000 + China 600,000 Germany 13,300 Spain 9,100 US 1,900 Biofuels / 1,174,000 + Brazil 500,000 US 312,200 Biomass China 266,000 Germany 95,400 TOTAL 2,332,000 (includes small hydro and geothermal) Source: Renner, Sweeney and Kubit, Green Jobs: Towards Sustainable Work in a Low-Carbon World
  4. 4. “Shades of Green” Energy Supply / Use Transportation Low-sulfur fuels, etc. Alternative-fuel vehicles Carbon sequestration More fuel-efficient vehicles Renewable energy sources Public transit Greater energy efficiency Walking, biking; shorter distances Manufacturing Materials Management Pollution control (tailpipe) Recycling Clean production (toxics avoidance) Product take-back; remanufacturing Cradle-to-cradle (closed loop) De-materialization Greater durability, repairability Source: Renner, Sweeney and Kubit, Green Jobs: Towards Sustainable Work in a Low-Carbon World
  5. 5. Green Jobs and Efficiency In principle, any job that contributes to reducing environmental impacts (though greater efficiency of energy & materials use) can be seen as a green job. Key questions:  How much more efficient is sufficient? (threshold)  Is what’s considered efficient in one country actually efficient in international comparison?  Can yesterday’s level of efficiency still be regarded as adequate tomorrow? Efficiency is a relative and highly dynamic concept.
  6. 6. Fuel Economy for New Passenger Vehicles Source: International Council on Clean Transportation, 2007
  7. 7. Fuel Efficiency and Jobs in Vehicle Manufacturing European Japan United States Union Passenger Car 2,000,000 952,000 1,095,000 Manufacturing Workforce Vehicles meeting ≤ 120 7.5 % 6.3 % n.a. gram / CO2 standard Vehicles achieving 35 mpg n.a. n.a. 1.2 % or more Jobs in Manufacturing 150,000 62,000 13,000 Efficient Vehicles [direct only] Source: Renner, Sweeney and Kubit, Green Jobs: Towards Sustainable Work in a Low-Carbon World
  8. 8. Drivers and Obstacles Drivers Obstacles Evolving climate science and public Insufficient green R&D / Wrong kind of awareness / pressure R&D (energy) Rising oil prices Insufficient green Investment Consumer incentives / information Continued fossil fuel subsidies / (eco-labeling) multilateral financing Government toolbox (incentives, Limited technology transfer mandates, tax & subsidy policies) Business innovation Lagging skills development
  9. 9. IEA Energy Research,Research, Development & Demonstration (RD&D) Budgets, 1974-2006 IEA Energy Development & Demonstration (RD&D) Budgets, 1974-2006 20 18 Other Tech.s/Research 16 14 Billions of 2006 Dollars Other Power & Storage Tech.s 12 Nuclear 10 8 6 Fossil Fuels 4 2 Renewables Efficiency 0 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 Source: IEA
  10. 10. Green and Decent Jobs? A Schematic Overview Green, but not decent Green and decent Examples: Examples:  Electronics recycling without  Unionized wind and solar power adequate occupational safety jobs  Low-wage installers of solar panels  Green architects Environment  Exploited biofuel plantation  Well-paid public transit workers laborers Neither green nor decent Decent, but not green Examples: Examples:  Coal mining with inadequate  Unionized car manufacturing safety workers  Women workers in cut flower  Chemical engineers industry  Airline pilots  Hog slaughterhouse workers Decent Work