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  1. 1. Supply Chain Strategy Chapter 10
  2. 2. How Supply Chain Strategy fits the Operations Management Philosophy Operations As a Competitive Weapon Operations Strategy Project Management Process Strategy Process Analysis Process Performance and Quality Constraint Management Process Layout Lean Systems Supply Chain Strategy Location Inventory Management Forecasting Sales and Operations Planning Resource Planning Scheduling
  3. 3. Dell, Inc. <ul><li>Dell is a leader because of their fast response time. </li></ul><ul><li>Customer orders are on delivery trucks in 36 hours. </li></ul><ul><li>Their focus is on how fast inventory moves. </li></ul><ul><li>The bulk of its components are housed within 15 minutes of each of its plants. </li></ul><ul><li>As customers place orders, suppliers know when to ship components. </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers restock the warehouse and manage the inventory. </li></ul><ul><li>Careful supply chain management is the key. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Supply Chain <ul><li>Supply chain : The network of services, material, and information flows that link a firm’s customer relationship, order fulfillment, and supplier relationship processes to those of its supplier and customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain management : Developing a strategy to organize, control, and motivate the resources involved in the flow of services and materials within the supply chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain strategy : Designing a firm’s supply chain to meet the competitive priorities of the firm’s operations strategy. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Supply Chain for Services <ul><li>Supply chain design for a service provider is driven by the need to provide support for the essential elements of the various service packages it delivers. </li></ul><ul><li>A service package consists of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>supporting facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitating goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>explicit services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implicit services </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Supply Chain for a Florist Required for facilitating goods Required for explicit services Required for supporting facilities Required for implicit services Home customers Commercial customers Florist FedEx delivery service Packaging Local delivery service Flowers – local/ international Arrangement materials Internet services Maintenance services
  7. 7. Creation of Inventory <ul><li>Inventory : A stock of materials used to satisfy customer demand or to support the production of services or goods. </li></ul>Scrap flow Inventory level Output flow of materials Input flow of materials
  8. 8. Supply Chain © 2007 Pearson Education Tier 1 Tier 2 Supplier of materials Supplier of services Tier 3 Customer Customer Customer Customer Distribution center Distribution center Manufacturer
  9. 9. Inventory Measures of Supply Chain Performance <ul><li>Average aggregate inventory value (AGV) is the total value of all items held in inventory for a firm. </li></ul>AGV = (# of A items)(Value of each A)+(# of B items)(Value of each B)+… <ul><li>Weeks of supply : The average aggregate inventory value divided by sales per week at cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory turnover is annual sales at cost divided by the average aggregate inventory value maintained for the year. </li></ul>Weeks of supply = Average aggregate inventory value Weekly sales (at cost) Inventory turnover = Annual sales at (cost) Average aggregate inventory value
  10. 10. Supply Chain Process Measures © 2007 Pearson Education <ul><li>Percent of orders taken accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Time to complete the order placement process </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction with the order placement process </li></ul>Customer Relationship <ul><li>Percent of incomplete orders shipped </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of orders shipped on time </li></ul><ul><li>Time to fulfill the order </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of botched services or returned items </li></ul><ul><li>Cost to produce the service or item </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction with the order fulfillment process </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory levels of WIP and FG </li></ul>Order Fulfillment <ul><li>Percent of suppliers’ deliveries on time </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers’ lead times </li></ul><ul><li>Percent defects in services and purchased materials </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of services and purchased materials </li></ul>Supplier Relationship
  11. 11. Links to Financial Measures <ul><li>Return on Assets (ROA) : is net income divided by total assets. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing the supply chain so as to reduce the aggregate inventory investment will reduce the total assets portion of the firm’s balance sheet. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Working Capital : Money used to finance ongoing operations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weeks of inventory and inventory turns are reflected in working capital. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing weeks of supply or increasing inventory turns reduces the working capital. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Supply Chain Dynamics <ul><li>Supply chain dynamics can wreak havoc on supply chain performance measures. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions of downstream supply chain members can affect the operations of upstream members. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bullwhip effect : The phenomenon in supply chains whereby ordering patterns experience increasing variance as you proceed upstream in the chain. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Supply Chain Dynamics for Facial Tissue Quantity ordered Time Bullwhip Effect © 2007 Pearson Education
  14. 14. External Value-Chain Linkages First-Tier Supplier Service/Product Provider Support Processes Support Processes Supplier Relation-ship Process New Service/ Product Development Process Order-Fulfill-ment Process Business-to-Business (B2B) Customer Relationship Process Supplier Relation-ship Process New Service/ Product Development Process Order-Fulfill-ment Process Business-to-Customer (B2C) Customer Relationship Process External Suppliers External Consumers
  15. 15. The Customer Relationship Process <ul><li>Electronic Commerce (e-commerce) is the application of information and communication technology anywhere along the value chain of business processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Business-to-Consumer Systems (B2C) allows customers to transact business over the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Business-to-Business Systems (B2B) involves commerce between firms. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The biggest growth area, it is currently about 70% of the regular economy. </li></ul></ul>E-Commerce and the Marketing Process
  16. 16. E-Commerce and the Order Placement Process <ul><li>Cost reduction : Using the Internet can reduce the costs of processing orders. </li></ul><ul><li>Revenue flow increase : Reduction in the time lag associated with billing the customer or waiting for checks. </li></ul><ul><li>Global Access : Available 24 hours a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Price flexibility : Prices can easily be changed as the need arises. </li></ul>The Customer Relationship Process
  17. 17. Order Fulfillment at Dell, Inc. <ul><li>Customers buy from Dell by web site, voice-to-voice, and face-to-face. </li></ul><ul><li>Order information is transmitted to the inventory system. </li></ul><ul><li>Unique product configuration information is contained in the Traveler, a sheet that travels with the system the customer has ordered throughout its assembly and shipping. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Traveler is pulled, all required internal parts and components for a system are picked and put in a tote or kit. (Procedure is called Kitting ) </li></ul><ul><li>A team uses the kit to assemble and initially test the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are thoroughly tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Completed systems are boxed and placed on trucks. </li></ul><ul><li>The entire assemble-to-order cycle takes only a few hours. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dell’s Order Fulfillment Process
  19. 19. The Order Fulfillment Process <ul><li>Centralized placement : Keeping all the inventory at one location such as a firm’s manufacturing plant or a warehouse and shipping directly to customers. </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory pooling is a reduction in inventory and safety stock because of the merging of variable demands from customers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A higher than expected demand from one customer can be offset by a lower-than-expected demand from another. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forward placement is locating stock closer to customers at a warehouse, wholesaler, or retailer. </li></ul>Inventory Placement
  20. 20. The Order Fulfillment Process <ul><li>Vendor-managed inventories (VMI): An extreme application of forward placement involving locating inventories at the customer’s facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Key ingredients are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative effort requires trust & accountability. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost savings is realized by eliminating excess inventory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer service: The supplier is frequently on site for improved response times and reducing stockouts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written agreement on procedures, methods, and schedules are clearly specified. </li></ul></ul>Vendor-Managed Inventories
  21. 21. Order Fulfillment Programs <ul><li>Continuous Replenishment Program (CRP) A VMI method in which the supplier monitors the customer’s inventory levels and replenishes stock as needed. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment ( CPFR ) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) A method for identifying items through the use of radio signals from a tag attached to an item. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart and Gillette are among a number of large retailers, manufacturers, government agencies, and suppliers currently implementing RFID in their supply chains. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Distribution Processes <ul><li>Ownership : Rather than negotiate with a contract carrier , a firm has the most control over the distribution process if it owns and operates it, thereby becoming a private carrier . </li></ul><ul><li>Firms may use a combination of the five basic modes of transportation: truck, train, ship, pipeline, and airplane. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-Dockin g: The packing of products on incoming shipments so that they can be easily sorted at intermediate warehouses for outgoing shipments based on their final destinations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Items are carried from the incoming-vehicle docking point to the outgoing-vehicle docking point without being stored in inventory at the warehouse. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Continuous Replenishment at <ul><li>Each morning Campbell uses Electronic Data Interchange to link with retailers. </li></ul><ul><li>Retailers inform Campbell of demands for its products and the current inventory levels in their distribution centers. </li></ul><ul><li>Campbell determines which products need replenishment based on upper and lower inventory limits established with each retailer. </li></ul><ul><li>Campbell makes daily deliveries of needed products. </li></ul>Campbell Soup
  24. 24. Supplier Selection and Certification <ul><li>Purchasing : The activity that decides which suppliers to use, negotiates contracts, and determines whether to buy locally. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier selection often considers the criteria of price, quality and delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>Green purchasing : The process of identifying, assessing, and managing the flow of environmental waste and finding ways to reduce it and minimize its impact on the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Supplier certification programs verify that potential suppliers have the capability to provide the services or materials the buyer firm requires. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Supplier Relations <ul><li>Competitive orientation views negotiations between buyer and seller as a zero-sum game. Whatever one side loses, the other side gains, and short-term advantages are prized over long-term commitments. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative orientation is where the buyer and seller are partners, each helping the other as much as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Sole sourcing is the awarding of a contract for a service or item to only one supplier. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Electronic Purchasing <ul><li>Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) enables the transmission of routine, standardized business documents from computer to computer. </li></ul><ul><li>Auction : A marketplace where firms place competitive bids to buy something. </li></ul><ul><li>Reverse Auction </li></ul>
  27. 27. Value Analysis <ul><li>Value analysis is a systematic effort to reduce the cost or improve the performance of services or products, either purchased or produced. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Supply Chain Strategies <ul><li>Efficient supply chains focus on the efficient flows of services and materials, keeping inventories to a minimum. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work best where demand is highly predictable. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Responsive supply chains are designed to react quickly. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work best when firms offer a great variety of services or products and demand predictability is low. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Environment & Design Factors Design Factors Efficient Supply Chains Responsive Supply Chains Environment Factors Efficient Supply Chains Responsive Supply Chains
  30. 30. Mass Customization <ul><li>Mass Customization : A strategy whereby a firm’s flexible processes generate a wide variety of personalized services or products at reasonably low costs. Competitive advantages : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing customer relationships . It requires detailed inputs from customers so that the ideal service or product can be produced. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminating finished goods inventory . Producing to a customer’s order eliminates finished goods inventory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing perceived value . It increases the perceived value of services or products. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postponement is when some of the final activities in the provision of a service or product are delayed until the orders are received. </li></ul><ul><li>Channel assembly is when members of the distribution channel act as if they were assembly stations in the factory. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Outsourcing <ul><li>A Make-or-buy decision is a managerial choice between whether to outsource a process or do it in-house. </li></ul><ul><li>Outsourcing : Paying suppliers and distributors to perform processes and provide needed services and materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Backward integration is a firm’s movement upstream toward the sources of raw materials, parts, and services through acquisitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Forward integration is acquiring more channels of distribution, such as distribution centers (warehouses) and retail stores, or even business customers. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Offshoring <ul><li>Offshoring is a supply chain strategy that involves moving processes to another country. Factors that influence the offshoring decision include: </li></ul><ul><li>Pitfalls of offshoring include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulling the plug too quickly. Not making a good-faith effort to fix the existing process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulties integrating processes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tariffs and Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative labor costs </li></ul><ul><li>Logistics costs </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Laws and Unions </li></ul>
  33. 33. Virtual Supply Chains <ul><li>Virtual Supply Chain : Outsourcing some part of the entire order fulfillment process with the help of sophisticated, Web-based information technology support packages. </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced investment in inventories and order fulfillment infrastructure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater service or product variety without the overhead of one’s own order fulfillment process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower costs due to economies of scale. The supplier typically handles more volume than does the firm doing the outsourcing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower transportation costs . With drop shipping in a virtual supply chain, the only transportation cost is shipping the goods from the wholesaler to the customer. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Which Type of Supply Chain? <ul><li>Traditional Supply Chain is preferred when: </li></ul><ul><li>Sales volumes are high. </li></ul><ul><li>Order consolidation is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Small-order fulfillment capability of suppliers is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Virtual Supply Chain is preferred when: </li></ul><ul><li>Demand is highly volatile. </li></ul><ul><li>High service or product variety is important . </li></ul>