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Chapter 8


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Chapter 8

  1. 1. Chapter 8 E-Supply Chains, Collaborative Commerce, and Intrabusiness EC
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define the e-supply chain and describe its characteristics and components. </li></ul><ul><li>List supply chain problems and their causes. </li></ul><ul><li>List solutions to supply chain problems provided by EC. </li></ul><ul><li>Define c-commerce and list its major types. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe collaborative planning and Collaboration, Planning, Forecasting, and Replenishing (CPFR), and list their benefits. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (cont.) <ul><li>Define intrabusiness EC and describe its major activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss integration along the supply chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand corporate portals and their types and roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Describe e-collaboration tools such as workflow and groupware. </li></ul>
  4. 4. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online <ul><li>The Problem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information regarding a new car design has to be shared among a pool of approximately 20,000 designers and engineers in hundreds of divisions and departments at 14 GM design labs, some of which are located in different countries </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Communication and collaboration with the design engineers of the more than 1,000 key suppliers could mean 4 years to completion of a model </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><li>The Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GM began by examining over 7,000 existing legacy IT systems, reducing that number to about 3,000 and making them Web enabled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer-aided design (CAD) program that allows 3D design documents to be shared online by both the designers (internal and external) and engineers </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Collaborative and Web conferencing software tools have radically changed the vehicle review process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GM electronically sends its specifications for the seat to the vendor’s product data system allowing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Searching </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tooling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Testing in real time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This expedites the process and cuts costs by more than 10% </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><li>The Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It now takes less than 18 months to bring a new car to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The change has produced enormous savings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter cycle time enables GM to bring out more new car models more quickly, providing the company with a competitive edge </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. How General Motors Is Collaborating Online (cont.) <ul><li>What we can learn… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications of EC that help reduce costs and increase profits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>collaborative commerce </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>improvements along the supply chain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B2E </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. E-Supply Chains <ul><li>The success of organizations depends on their ability to manage the flow of materials, information, and money into, within, and out of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain involves activities that take place during the entire product life cycle including the movement of information, money and individuals involved in the movement of a product or a service </li></ul>
  11. 11. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>Supply chain: The flow of materials, information, money, and services from raw material suppliers through factories and warehouses to the end customers </li></ul><ul><li>E-supply chain: A supply chain that is managed electronically, usually with Web technologies </li></ul>
  12. 12. E-Supply Chains (cont.)
  13. 13. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>Supply chain parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upstream supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>activities of a manufacturing company with its suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>in-house processes for transforming the inputs from the suppliers into the outputs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downstream supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>activities involved in delivering the products to the final customers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>Managing supply chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-supply chain management (e-SCM): The collaborative use of technology to improve the operations of supply chain activities as well as the management of supply chains </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>The success of an e-supply chain depends on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability of all supply chain partners to view partner collaboration as a strategic asset </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information visibility along the entire supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Speed, cost, quality, and customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrating the supply chain segments more tightly </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>E-supply chain consists of six processes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain replenishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-procurement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative design and product development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-logistics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of B2B exchanges and supply webs </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. E-Supply Chains (cont.) <ul><li>Major infrastructure elements and tools of e-supply chains are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Workflow systems and tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Groupware and other collaborative tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EDI and EDI/Internet </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Supply Chain Problems and Solutions <ul><li>Typical problems along the supply chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow and prone to errors because of the length of the chain involving many internal and external partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large inventories without the ability to meet demand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insufficient logistics infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor quality </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Supply Chain Problems (cont.) <ul><li>Bullwhip effect: Erratic shifts in orders up and down supply chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates production and inventory problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockpiling can lead to large inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect is handled by information sharing—collaborative commerce </li></ul>
  20. 20. Supply Chain Problems (cont.) <ul><li>Need for information sharing along the supply chain including issues on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>product pricing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>shipping status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>credit and financial information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technology news </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Supply Chain Problems (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Information systems are the links that enable communication and collaboration along the supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information and information technology are one of the keys to the success, and even the survival in today’s economy </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Supply Chain Problems (cont.) <ul><li>Major solutions provided by an EC approach and technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order taking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic payments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventories can be minimized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative commerce </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Collaborative Commerce <ul><li>Collaborative commerce </li></ul><ul><li>(c-commerce): The use of digital technologies that enable companies to collaboratively plan, design, develop, manage, and research products, services, and innovative EC applications </li></ul>
  24. 24. Collaborative Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Major benefits are: cost reduction, increased revenue, better customer retention </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fewer stock outs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less exception processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduced inventory throughout the supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lower materials costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased sales volume </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>increased competitive advantage </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Collaborative Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Collaboration can be done both between and within organizations. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative platform can help in communication and collaboration between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>headquarters and subsidiaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>franchisers and franchisees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The platform provides around the globe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>message boards and chat rooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>online corporate data access </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Collaborative Commerce (cont.)
  27. 27. Collaborative Commerce (cont.)
  28. 28. Collaborative Commerce ( cont.) <ul><li>Information sharing between retailers and suppliers: P&G and Wal-Mart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart provides P&G access to sales information on every item P&G makes for Wal-Mart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplished done electronically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P&G has accurate demand information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart has adequate inventory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Collaborative Commerce Example: Target <ul><li>Retailer–supplier collaboration: Target Corporation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducts EC activities with 20,000 trading partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extranet enables Target to reach many more partners, and to use applications not available on the traditional EDI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business customers create personalized Web pages </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Collaborative Commerce Example: Target (cont.)
  31. 31. Collaborative Commerce Example: Adaptec <ul><li>Reduction of design cycle time: Adaptec, Inc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptec outsources manufacturing tasks, concentrating on product research and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An extranet-based collaboration and enterprise-level supply chain integration software incorporates automated workflow and EC tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A reduction in its order-to-product-delivery time from 15 weeks to between 10 and 12 weeks </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Collaborative Commerce Example: Caterpillar <ul><li>Reduction of product development time: Caterpillar, Inc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle time along the supply chain was long because the process involved the transfer of paper documents among managers, salespeople, and technical staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Implemented an extranet-based global collaboration system </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Collaborative Commerce Example: Caterpillar (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Remote collaboration capabilities between the customer and product developers have decreased cycle time delays caused by rework time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers are connected to the system so that they can deliver materials or parts directly to Caterpillar’s shops or directly to the customer if appropriate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The system also is used for expediting maintenance and repairs </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Collaborative Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Collaborative commerce and knowledge management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge management : the process of capturing or creating knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathering and making available experts’ opinions, as well as providing them to partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning is also facilitated by KM </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Collaborative Commerce (cont.) <ul><li>Barriers to c-commerce— lack of defined and universally agreed-on standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>technical reasons involving integration, standards, and networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>security and privacy concerns over who has access to and control of information stored in a partner’s database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal resistance to information sharing and to new approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of internal skills to conduct collaborative commerce </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Collaborative Planning and CPFR <ul><li>In collaborative planning , business partners—all have real-time access to point-of-sale order information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manufacturers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distribution partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other partners </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Collaborative Planning and CPFR (cont.) <ul><li>Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR): Project in which suppliers and retailers collaborate in their planning and demand forecasting to optimize flow of materials along the supply chain </li></ul>
  38. 38. Collaborative Planning and CPFR (cont.) <ul><li>CPFR provides a standard framework for collaborative planning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve demand forecasting for all of the partners in the supply chain and then communicate forecasts using information-sharing applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers and retailers also coordinate the related logistics activities </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Collaborative Planning and CPFR (cont.)
  40. 40. Collaborative Planning and CPFR (cont.)
  41. 41. Collaborative Planning: APS <ul><li>Advanced planning and scheduling (APS) systems: Programs that use algorithms to identify optimal solutions to complex planning problems that are bound by constraints </li></ul>
  42. 42. Collaborative Planning: PLM <ul><li>Product lifecycle management (PLM): Business strategy that enables manufacturers to control and share product-related data as part of product design and development efforts </li></ul>
  43. 43. Collaborative Planning and Fulfillment
  44. 44. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E <ul><li>Intrabusiness EC: E-commerce activities conducted within an organization </li></ul><ul><li>Business-to-employee (B2E): Intrabusiness EC in which an organization delivers products or services to its employees </li></ul>
  45. 45. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E (cont.) <ul><li>Representative applications of B2E include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing field representatives with electronic communication tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training and education provided over intranets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee use of electronic catalogs and ordering forms </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Electronic tools for communication, collaboration, and information discovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offering corporate stores on the intranet that sell the companies’ products to employees, usually at a discount </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems that disseminate information or allow employees to manage their fringe benefits via the intranet </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E (cont.) <ul><li>Activities between business units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large corporations consist of independent units, called strategic business units (SBUs)—transactions can be easily automated and performed over the organization’s intranet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special network may be constructed to support communication, collaboration, and execution of transactions </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Internal Supply Solutions, Intrabusiness, and B2E (cont.) <ul><li>Activities among corporate employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A system by which employees can collaborate on an individual (sometimes nonbusiness) level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Via classified ads, corporate equipment may be sold to employees for private use </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. Integration along the Supply Chain Example: Toshiba USA <ul><li>Toshiba created a Web-based order entry system for product parts using an extranet and intranets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealers can place orders for parts until 5:00 P.M. for next-day delivery without extra charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dealers can check accounts receivable balances and pricing arrangements and read service bulletins, press releases, and so on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales reps can interact more effectively with dealers </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. Integration along the Supply Chain Example: Toshiba USA (cont.)
  51. 51. Integration along the Supply Chain (cont.) <ul><li>Enabling integration and the role of standards and Web services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration involves connectivity, compatibility, security, and scalability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications, data, processes, and interfaces must be integrated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middleware, standards and protocols have been developed to facilitate integration </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals <ul><li>Corporate (enterprise) portal: A gateway for entering a corporate Web site, enabling communication, collaboration, and access to company information </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate portals offer employees, business partners, and customers an organized focal point for their interactions with the firm </li></ul>
  53. 53. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.) <ul><li>Types of corporate portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generic portals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>portal for suppliers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>portal for customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>portal for employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supervisor portals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mobile portals—accessible via mobile devices, especially cell phones and PDAs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.) <ul><li>Functional portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information portals: Portals that store data and enable users to navigate and query these data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative portals: Portals that allow collaboration </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.) <ul><li>Corporate portal applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge bases and learning tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>business process support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>customer-facing (front-line) sales, marketing, and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collaboration and project support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>access to data from disparate corporate systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>personalized pages for various users </li></ul><ul><li>effective search and indexing tools </li></ul><ul><li>security applications </li></ul><ul><li>best practices and lessons learned </li></ul><ul><li>directories and bulletin boards </li></ul><ul><li>identification of experts </li></ul><ul><li>news </li></ul><ul><li>Internet access </li></ul>
  56. 56. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.)
  57. 57. Corporate (Enterprise) Portals (cont.) <ul><li>Justifying portals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer a simple user interface for finding and navigating content via a browser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improve access to business content and increase the number of business users who can access information, applications, and people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Offer the opportunity to use platform-independent software </li></ul></ul>
  58. 58. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Workflow <ul><li>Workflow: The movement of information as it flows through the sequence of steps that make up an organization’s work procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Workflow systems: Business process automation tools that place system controls in the hands of user departments to automate information processing tasks </li></ul>
  59. 59. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Workflow (cont.) <ul><li>Workflow management: The automation of workflows, so that documents, information, and tasks are passed from one participant to the next in the steps of an organization’s business process </li></ul>
  60. 60. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Workflow (cont.) <ul><li>Three major categories of workflow applications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>project-oriented and collaborative types of processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mission-critical, transaction-oriented, high-volume processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative workflow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cross between collaborative and production </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Workflow (cont.) <ul><li>Benefits of workflow management systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved control of business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved quality of services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower staff training costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved user satisfaction </li></ul></ul>
  62. 62. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Groupware <ul><li>Groupware: Software products that support collaboration, over networks, among groups of people who share a common task or goal </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a way for groups to share resources and opinions </li></ul>
  63. 63. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Group Decision Support Systems (GDSS) <ul><li>Virtual meetings: Online meetings whose members are in different locations, frequently in different countries </li></ul><ul><li>Group decision support system (GDSS ) : An interactive computer-based system that facilitates the solution of semistructured and unstructured problems by a group of decision makers </li></ul>
  64. 64. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: GDSS (cont.) <ul><li>Major characteristics of a GDSS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its goal is to support the process of group decision makers by providing automation of subprocesses using information technology tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a specially designed information system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It encourages generation of ideas, resolution of conflicts, and freedom of expression </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: GDSS (cont.) <ul><li>GDSSs improve the decision-making process by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>providing structure to the planning process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>support parallel processing of information and idea generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>make larger meetings possible </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Teleconferencing <ul><li>Teleconferencing: The use of electronic communication that allows two or more people at different locations to have a simultaneous conference </li></ul><ul><li>Video teleconference: Virtual meeting in which participants in one location can see participants at other locations on a large screen or a desktop computer </li></ul>
  67. 67. Collaboration-Enabling Tools: Teleconferencing (cont.) <ul><li>Data conferencing: Virtual meeting in which geographically dispersed groups work on documents together and to exchange computer files during videoconferences </li></ul><ul><li>Web conferencing is conducted on the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>few as two and as many as thousands of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows users to simultaneously view something </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interaction takes place via messaging or a simultaneous phone teleconference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is much cheaper than videoconferencing because it runs on the Internet </li></ul></ul>
  68. 68. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Real-time collaboration (RTC) tools help companies bridge time and space to make decisions and collaborate on projects by supporting synchronous communication of graphical and text-based information </li></ul>
  69. 69. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Interactive white boards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another type of groupware where all participants join in the use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can view and draw on a single document “pasted” onto the electronic whiteboard on a computer screen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users can save digital whiteboarding sessions for future use </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Screen sharing: Software that enables group members, even in different locations, to work on the same document, which is shown on the PC screen of each participant </li></ul>
  71. 71. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.)
  72. 72. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Instant video—a video chat room that allows users to chat in real time, seeing the person they are communicating with </li></ul><ul><li>Integration and groupware suites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus Notes/Domino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft NetMeeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell GroupWise </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Virtual reality (VR): System that delivers interactive computer generated 3D graphics to a user through a head-mounted display </li></ul>
  74. 74. Collaboration-Enabling Tools (cont.) <ul><li>Implementation issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An effective collaborative environment is necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting collaborative tools with file management products on an organization’s intranet is necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols to change the read-only Web to a truly collaborative environment </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. Managerial Issues <ul><li>How difficult is it to introduce e-collaboration? </li></ul><ul><li>How much can be shared with business partners? Can they be trusted? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is in charge of our portal and intranet content? </li></ul><ul><li>Who will design the corporate portal? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we conduct virtual meetings? </li></ul>
  76. 76. Summary <ul><li>The e-supply chain, its characteristics, and components: Digitized and automated flow of information throughout the supply chain and managing it via the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain problems and their causes: access to inventories, lack of supplies when needed, need for rush orders, deliveries of wrong materials or to wrong locations, and poor customer service. </li></ul>
  77. 77. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Solutions to supply chains problem provided by EC: automate/expedite order taking, speed order fulfillment, provide e-payments, control inventories, provide for correct forecasting and scheduling, and improve collaboration among partners </li></ul><ul><li>C-commerce: Definitions and types: planned use of digital technology by business partners. </li></ul>
  78. 78. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Collaborative planning: concentrates on demand forecasting and on resource and activity planning along the supply chain. CPFR: business strategy that develops standard protocols and procedures for collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Intrabusiness: all EC initiatives conducted within an organization. </li></ul>
  79. 79. Summary (cont.) <ul><li>Integration along the supply chain: critical to the success of companies. </li></ul><ul><li>Types and roles of corporate portals: for suppliers, customers, employees, and supervisors. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative tools: workflow, groupware, GDSS, devices that facilitate product design </li></ul>