Chapter 11: Supply Chain Management


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  • This presentation covers the material in Chapter 11 - Supply-Chain Management. The graphic is based on Figure 11.3.
  • In Phase 3 suppliers and customers are brought into the system.
  • This slide shows Figure 11.7, the Solver output from OM Explorer.
  • This side presents the process measures for Purchasing.
  • This slide shows the characteristics of responsive organizations for the basic factors.
  • This slide presents design elements for responsive organizations.
  • Chapter 11: Supply Chain Management

    1. 1. Supply-Chain Management Supply Chain Management is primarily concerned with the efficient integration of suppliers, factories, warehouses and stores so that merchandise is produced and distributed in the right quantities, to the right locations and at the right time, and so as to minimize total system cost subject to satisfying service requirements. SCM, is a strategic weapon that seeks to synchronize a firm’s functions and those of its suppliers to match the flow of materials, services, and information with customer demand
    2. 2. Supply Chain Supplier of materials Supplier of services Tier 1 Tier 3 Tier 2 Legend Customer Customer Customer Customer Distribution center Distribution center Manufacturer
    3. 3. Supply Chain Management <ul><li>Involves coordination of key processes such as order placement, order fulfillment, purchasing, and supported by marketing, finance, engineering, operations and logistics </li></ul><ul><li>The basic purpose: manage the flow of materials. This flow determines inventory levels. </li></ul>
    4. 4. SCM Overview <ul><li>Inventory – is a stock of materials used to satisfy customer demand or support the production of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>The three categories of inventories are raw materials (RM), work-in-process (WIP), and finished goods (FG). </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers spend 60% of sales on purchased materials and services, and service providers spend as much as 40%. The management of materials flows is therefore important from a cost perspective alone. </li></ul>
    5. 5. How to gain control of the SC <ul><li>Backward integration – firm controls upstream toward the sources of raw materials and parts. Can ensure its priority with the supplier and lead efforts to improve efficiency and productivity in managing flow of materials. </li></ul><ul><li>What is difficult with backward integration? </li></ul><ul><li>Write agreements with first-tier suppliers that hold them accountable for the performance of their suppliers (2 nd and 3 rd tier) </li></ul>
    6. 6. Developing Integrated SC <ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiating contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make or buy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finished goods inventories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage/ transportation </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Integrated Supply Chain Suppliers Purchasing Production Distribution Customers Phase 1: Independent supply-chain entities Suppliers Customers Internal supply chain Materials management department Production Purchasing Distribution Phase 2: Internal integration Integrated supply chain Customers Suppliers Internal supply chain Phase 3: Supply-chain integration
    8. 8. Conflicting Objectives in the Supply Chain <ul><li>1. Purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stable volume requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible delivery time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little variation in mix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large quantities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Long run production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low production cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Warehousing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low inventory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced transportation costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quick replenishment capability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Customers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short order lead time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High in stock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous variety of products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low prices </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Managing the Customer Interface <ul><li>Order-Placement Process Involves the activities required to register the need for a product or service and to confirm the acceptance of the order. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is advantageous to make this process simple and fast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Internet has enabled firms to reengineer their order-placement process to benefit both the customer and the firm. Advantages include </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Revenue flow increase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pricing flexibility </li></ul></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Managing the Customer Interface <ul><li>Order-Fulfillment Process. Involves the activities required to deliver a product or service to a customer. Key elements include: </li></ul><ul><li>Information sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitated by the Internet and ERP systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finished goods inventory placement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendor-managed inventories (VMI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous replenishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backward placement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Postponement is used by assemble-to-order and mass customization firms. Customization is delayed until the last possible moment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel assembly </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Managing the Supplier Interface <ul><li>E-purchasing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enables the transmission of routine business documents with standard formats from computer to computer, in one-to-one connections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Documents include invoices, purchase orders, and payments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalog hubs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connect firms with to, potentially, hundreds of suppliers through the Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does not require one-to-one connections as does EDI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic marketplaces where buying and selling firms come together to do business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Often used for spot purchases and commodities or “near-commodities” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auctions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An extension of the exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Firms place competitive bids to buy something. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Like exchanges, auctions are often used for spot purchases, commodities, and near-commodities </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Managing the Supplier Interface <ul><li>Supplier selection and certification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier selection—three criteria often used are price, quality, and delivery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supplier certification—typically involves visits by cross-functional teams to do an in-depth evaluation of the supplier’s processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supplier relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitive orientation—a zero sum game. The purpose is to drive costs down to the minimum level. Power in the supply chain relates to the purchasing clout a firm has. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative orientation—a partnership between buyers and sellers. This orientation implies long-term commitments, joint work on quality and buyer support of infrastructure. Typically, fewer suppliers are needed in this arrangement. </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Managing the Supplier Interface <ul><li>Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Degree of sourcing control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The degree of sourcing control is inversely related to the flexibility to change the supply chain when needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Centralized versus localized buying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized—increases purchasing clout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Localized—often reduces lead times and enables closer coordination with local production schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Value analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value analysis is an intensive examination of the materials, processes, information systems, and material flows in the production of a good or service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Benefits include reduced costs, better profits, increased customer satisfaction, and often improved employee morale. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value analysis can improve the internal supply chain, but its greatest potential lies in applying it to the external supply chain </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Measures of Supply-Chain Performance <ul><li>Inventory measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Average aggregate inventory value—the total value of all items held in inventory for a firm. The value is expressed at cost (as opposed to price) to avoid the differences that occur in prices over time. This measure is used in two other important measures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weeks of supply—average aggregate inventory value divided by weekly sales (at cost). From an inventory cost perspective, the lower the weeks of supply, the better. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory turns—annual sales (at cost) divided by the average aggregate inventory value. The greater the turns, the lower the average inventory levels. </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Inventory Measures Average inventory = $2 million Cost of goods sold = $10 million 52 business weeks per year Weeks of supply = = 10.4 weeks $2 million ($10 million)/(52 weeks)
    16. 16. Inventory Measures Average inventory = $2 million Cost of goods sold = $10 million 52 business weeks per year Weeks of supply = = 10.4 weeks $2 million ($10 million)/(52 weeks) Inventory turns = = 5 turns/year $10 million $2 million
    17. 17. Inventory Measures
    18. 18. Inventory Measures <ul><li>Process measures, measuring costs, time, and quality as related to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Order placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Order fulfillment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Inventory Measures <ul><li>Links to financial measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Current assets (return on assets) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Working capital </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution margin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cash-to-cash (cash flow) </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Supply-Chain Process Measures <ul><li>Purchasing </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of suppliers’ deliveries on time </li></ul><ul><li>Suppliers’ lead times </li></ul><ul><li>Percent defects in purchased materials and services </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of purchased materials and services </li></ul><ul><li>Order Fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of incomplete orders shipped </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of orders shipped on time </li></ul><ul><li>Time to fulfill the order </li></ul><ul><li>Percent of returned items or botched services </li></ul><ul><li>Cost to produce the item or service </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction with the order-fulfillment process </li></ul><ul><li>Order Placement </li></ul><ul><li>Percent orders taken accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Time to complete the order-placement process </li></ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction with the order-placement process </li></ul>
    21. 21. Environments Best Suited for Efficient and Responsive Supply Chains Factor Efficient Supply Chains Responsive Supply Chains Demand Predictable; low Unpredictable; high forecast errors forecast errors Competitive Low cost; consistent Development speed; fast priorities quality; on-time delivery times; delivery customization; volume flexibility; high- performance design quality New-product Infrequent Frequent introduction Contribution Low High margins Product variety Low High
    22. 22. Design Features for Efficient and Responsive Supply Chains Factor Efficient Supply Chains Responsive Supply Chains Operations Make-to-stock or Assemble-to-order, make- strategy standardized services; to-order, or customized emphasize high services; emphasize volume, standardized product or service products, or services variety Capacity Low High cushion Inventory Low; enable high As needed to enable fast investment inventory turns delivery time Lead time Shorten, but do not Shorten aggressively increase costs Supplier Emphasize low prices; Emphasize fast delivery selection consistent quality; on- time; customization; time delivery volume flexibility; high- performance design quality
    23. 23. Supply-Chain Dynamics (a) Firm C Firm A Customer Customer Firm A Firm B Firm C Time (b) Figure 11.8 Materials requirements
    24. 24. The Future is NOT what it used to be…. <ul><li>A new e- Business model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase Profit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase service level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase flexibility </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR) <ul><li>A business process for value chain partners – especially retail </li></ul><ul><li>to coordinate plans in order to better match supply and demand </li></ul>
    26. 26. Collaborative Planning 1. Front-End Agreement 2. Joint Business Plan Collaborative Forecasting 3. Create Sales Forecast 4. Identify exceptions 5. Resolve exceptions 6. Create Order Forecast Collaborative Replenishment 7. Identify exceptions 8. Resolve exceptions 9. Generate Order Collaborative Planning, Forecasting and Replenishment (CPFR)