Korup - A Conservation Project


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AQA A2 Ecosystems - Ecosystems on a global scale .. conservation in Cameroon

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Korup - A Conservation Project

  2. 2. TROPICAL RAINFORESTS (OVERVIEW) TRF’s once covered 14% of world land area Now only covers 7% because:  Rate of destruction/deforestation has increased by 90% since mid 80s  threatened / destroyed by unsustainable or illegal logging  forest fires  clearance for:  agriculture  settlement  mining 14 million hectares destroyed annually 15 million hectares degraded
  3. 3. CONSERVATION OF TROPICAL RAINFOREST (WHAT ISIT) Korup Project is in South – West Cameroon Attempt to conserve an area of rainforest The rainforest has:  poor soil  High rainfall  Therefore unsuitable for crops Terrain is difficult and inaccessible – little / no interest to loggers Forest left virtually untouched One of world oldest and diverse with large numbers of plant species Animal life is diverse and rare Forest home to 25% of Africa’s primate species Korup is Cameroon governments first and only national park since 1986. Helped and supported by organisations such as WWF and Overseas Development Administration (ODA) of UK government.
  4. 4. CONSERVATION OF TROPICAL RAINFOREST (WHAT ISIT) CONTINUED ... Main aims are:  to preserve wildlife, the environment and its biodiversity  to foster scientific research  to enhance tourist development  to educate local people to minimise their impact on rainforest
  5. 5. CONSERVATION OF TROPICAL RAINFOREST (KORUPPROJECT) Establishing / delimiting national park was first step in conserving rainforest. Including:  building a fence around park  creating nature trails  building camp sites and guard posts Hunting controlled quickly – was biggest threat  local people employed to guard park against poaching People from 6 villages resettled to achieve true national park status Second step – to develop a buffer zone around park where most development would take place. This meant:  new roads and bridges built  schools / health centres set up  resettlement programme begun
  6. 6. CONSERVATION OF TROPICAL RAINFOREST (KORUPPROJECT) CONTINUED... Education is major part of project  villagers taught how to grow own crops / raise livestock (hunting no longer necessary)  community farms / tree nurseries set up – replanting can begin  workshops to teach people skills such as carpentry and masonry / how to make handicrafts (soap) Third step to encourage tourism to earn foreign exchange (in addition to employment / business opportunities) Project insists that local people must benefit from development / tourism must be controlled
  7. 7. CONSERVATION OF TROPICAL RAINFOREST (KORUPPROJECT) CONTINUED... Tourism  only experience park on foot  Korup has particular appeal for butterflies, birds and botanical groups rather than large animals  main centre in Mundemba [end of dusty, or muddy road (dependent on weather)]  park entrance 10km away  facilities are poor  one way in / out of park
  8. 8. KORUP ... SUCCESS OR FAILURE?SUCCESSES Wildlife protected in a way that other rainforests have not yet achieved Attracted funding from international agencies such as World Bank as well as NGOs from Britain, USA and Germany. Discovered new plant Ancistrocladus korupensis – may be useful in the fight against HIV.  if proven useful, income for local farmers provided + world health
  9. 9. KORUP ... SUCCESS OR FAILURE?FAILURES Establishing the trust and cooperation from locals 6 out of 27 villages had to be relocated to buffer zones as they were inside the marked national park zone.  resentment and unhappiness about the plans  although some have accepted relocation, others still resent Hunting part of tradition and income but now stopped  carrying firearm without permit is illegal / hunting discouraged  park enclosed by fence & guards at entry Poverty remains a problem  development programme still in early stages  for some, tradition taken away for something insignificant
  10. 10. WHY IS THE KORUP PROJECT OF INTERNATIONALIMPORTANCE? [NATIONAL/GLOBAL CONTEXT] Western Romance Ideal  See it as a lost paradise (emotional attachment / luxurious)  Highly sensitive image of the area  Cameroon govt. agreed – sign of development (aid given to govt.) Medicines  Ancistrocladus Korupensis  Found only in Korup  Cure for HIV may be possible Virgin Rainforest  Protect rainforest to halt climate change •60% of Cameroon’s  Take in CO₂ through photosynthesis rainforest gone •7% globally
  11. 11. HOW IS THE TRF IN THE KORUP PROJECT VALUED BYTHE PEOPLE WHO LIVE THERE? 1400 people (7 villages) within Korup Project / 30000 people (37 villages) utilise forest  Modern population increase is a pressure Forest used for:  Hunting / fishing / farming / gathering NTFP [(non – timber forest product) fruit]  Used for income (survival)  161 euros give or take 53 annually  Subsistence farming mainly In Korup Project 9% of weekly timetable is spent in the conservation zone
  12. 12. THE KORUP “MASTERPLAN” 4 main aims (look at slide 4) 15 million euros spent on Korup Project between 1988 and 2000 Korup Project assumed that villagers would accept plans Attempted to ‘win’ participation:  Used incentives – rewards and sanction (not many rewards)  Persuade them with health facilities and education  Chief’s told if they volunteered - would receive compensation / if didn’t then armed forces will drive them out Financial cost to villager? 161 euros annually lost The compensations?  Education (training in skills)  Better infrastructure  More health services
  13. 13. HOW DOES PARTICIPATORY CONSERVATION SUCCEEDWHERE ‘ TOP-DOWN’ APPROACHES HAVE FAILED? [ECO-GUARDS] Eco-guards introduced in June 2007 by WWF Coastal Forests Programme Eco-guard strength of 23 (from all 7 villages) to cover 126,000 hectares Trained to use:  Mobile application cybertracker  Land navigation with GPS / maps  GPS navigation with compass  Use of handheld computer  Identification of large mammals Anti-poaching patrols 21 days a month  3 operational sectors: North West / North East / Southern sectors Active researchers in mammal numbers
  14. 14. HOW DOES PARTICIPATORY CONSERVATION SUCCEEDWHERE ‘ TOP-DOWN’ APPROACHES HAVE FAILED? [ECO-TOURISM] Locals are able to provide hospitality to tourists who have come to see the rainforest They are able to sell their goods that they have made They can give guided tours to tourists Give tourists a taste of Korup culture through dance and music to show off their culture.
  15. 15. WHY IS PARTICIPATORY CONSERVATION BETTER THAN‘ TOP-DOWN’? Locals interviewed about lifestyle (doesn’t happen in top-down) Locals incorporated in management plan Allows education / training programmes to be introduced  Local knowledge used 2 way education  Locals more happy (have more say) Local NGOs have small visions for local area  Protect resource base  Improvement of quality of life
  16. 16. THE 4 AIMS – STRATEGIES & OBSTACLES (WILDLIFE) Strategies  Creation of national park status  Fire arms licenses  Local eco-guards (trained and employed) Obstacles  Difficult to enforce hunting restrictions in such a remote place  Hunting is part of local people’s TRADITIONAL LIFESTLYE  Hunting is main source of income (bush meat)  Local people are resentful
  17. 17. THE 4 AIMS – STRATEGIES & OBSTACLES (SCIENCE) Strategies  Ancistrocladus Korupensis – plant used in medical battle against HIV  Scientific research carried out  Botanical surveys  Ethno botanical studies (local uses of plants) Obstacles  Low impact
  18. 18. THE 4 AIMS – STRATEGIES & OBSTACLES ([ECO] TOURISM) Strategies  Nature trails (on foot only)  Employs local people  Attracts foreign currency Obstacles  Access – nearest village 10km away from entrance  Mud track – dependent on weather (erosion)  Only one entry point to park  Poor facilities for tourists in Mundemba
  19. 19. THE 4 AIMS – STRATEGIES & OBSTACLES (LIMITING LOCALACTIVITIES) Strategies  Education for locals  Training in agriculture (livestock / crops) Obstacles  Conflicts with traditional roaming lifestyle