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543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 1 School on the Cloud D5.3
Cloud-based Education:
Scenarios for the Future
October 2016
...
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Deliverable Title: Cloud-based Education: Scenarios for the F...
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“School on Cloud: Connecting Education to the Cloud for Digit...
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Summary
The purpose of education is to successfully prepare s...
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Summary.......................................
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6.7 Concluding Remarks .........................................
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1. INTRODUCTION
Cloud Computing, the focus of this report, is...
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As a result, the need to thoroughly examine and evaluate the ...
543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 9 School on the Cloud D5.3
(D5.1), the foresight exercise (D5.2) and the report of the f...
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 The methodological framework for the SoC foresight exercis...
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end goal remains common, but the way to achieve changes) now...
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learning practices and many educational related services whi...
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Figure 1: The Education System
2.1 The Network Centered Know...
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Figure 2: Paradigm shifts in education
For a long time the t...
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students should learn) as well as encompasses all stakeholde...
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virtually from anywhere (Ferrari, 2015; Donert and Bonanou, ...
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«The location of the Cloud user and of the Cloud itself is i...
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education institutions, students and teachers are able to us...
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fad or the ultimate education truth, however, misses the dee...
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aspects of ourselves and our world, is and will keep increas...
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highly competitive R&D activities and knowledge work are the...
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3.2.1 Technology will Continue to have an Impact on Educatio...
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challenge is to provide teacher education and/or training as...
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 Access on an individual basis (personalized) to the learni...
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schools to access quality content that they have not had the...
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3.3.9 Creating Innovative Research Environment: Cloud Comput...
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countries). Making 3D printed objects with a purpose will in...
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classroom or school location and a robot with audio and vide...
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they know it exists outside the school and their experiences...
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3.5.1 Savings: The Cloud will result in general and in educa...
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outside of the school calendar (holidays, ongoing learning a...
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considered an important contribution towards that goal and a...
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in the form of cloud computing) at the forefront or in the b...
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ICT skills, but with Social and Emotional Learning (SEL). In...
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learning and shaped by the ubiquity of Information and Commu...
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Cloud-based Education: Scenarios for the Future

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Prof. K. Koutsopoulos (author)
Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Irene Pizzo (Contributors)
School on the Cloud, European Project

As technology has become an agent of immense change, it has forced upon the education system Cloud Computing which in the future will have significant ripple effect. The description and evaluation of these effects represent one of the principal goals of the School on the Cloud Network and is expressed in this document whose main objective is to review Cloud based futures and methodologies. That is, responding to the need for examining future enhancements of this technology on education this document presents a review of state-of-the-art research on the future of Cloud based education and elaborates on foresight methods and their application within the working plan of the School on the Cloud Network.

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Cloud-based Education: Scenarios for the Future

  1. 1. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 1 School on the Cloud D5.3 Cloud-based Education: Scenarios for the Future October 2016 SchoolontheCloud.eu School on the Cloud: Connecting Education to the Cloud for Digital Citizenship tal Citizenship 543221-LLP-1-2013-1-GR-KA3-KA3NW
  2. 2. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 2 School on the Cloud D5.3 Deliverable Title: Cloud-based Education: Scenarios for the Future, Working Group 4 Deliverable Nr: 5.3 Date: October 2016 Version: 3.0 Dissemination Level: Public Author: Prof. K. Koutsopoulos (Leader WG4: i-Future) Contributors: Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris (European University, Cyprus), Irene Pizzo (CESIE, Italy) Project Title: School on the Cloud (SoC) Project Nr: 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW Project Start Date: January 1, 2014 Duration: 36 months European Commission: Lifelong Learning Program - ICT Key Action 3 European Project This project has been funded with support from the European Commission, Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any us which may be made of the information contained therein.
  3. 3. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 3 School on the Cloud D5.3 “School on Cloud: Connecting Education to the Cloud for Digital Citizenship” European Commission: Lifelong Learning Program ICT Key Action 3 European Project 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW Cloud-based Education: Scenarios for the Future Working Group 4: Deliverable 5.3 Author: Prof. K. Koutsopoulos Leader WG4 Contributors: Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris (Ch.7) Irene Pizzo (Ch.6) Due date of deliverable : May 2016 (Version 2.0) Final date of deliverable: October 2016 (Version 3.0) Start date of project : January 1, 2014 Duration : 36 months Dissemination Level : Public Abstract: As technology has become an agent of immense change, it has forced upon the education system Cloud Computing which in the future will have significant ripple effect. The description and evaluation of these effects represent one of the principal goals of the School on the Cloud Network and is expressed in this document whose main objective is to review Cloud based futures and methodologies. That is, responding to the need for examining future enhancements of this technology on education this document presents a review of state-of-the- art research on the future of Cloud based education and elaborates on foresight methods and their application within the working plan of the School on the Cloud Network. With the support of the Lifelong Learning Programme of the European Union
  4. 4. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 4 School on the Cloud D5.3 Summary The purpose of education is to successfully prepare students for the future and therefore education by its nature is a future-facing activity where all assumptions about and aspirations for the future of education should underpin the concerns of the major educational stakeholders such as the learners (what to study in the future?), the teachers (what teaching methods that will best equip students?) and the administrators (what school administrative actions are appropriate to face the future?). This goal is the objective of this document whose aim is to develop scenarios built around carefully constructed "stories": based on: trends, changes and challenges as well as experts concerns, towards a balanced thinking about a number of possible alternative futures. The document in addition to the introduction (chapter 1) and conclusion (chapter 10) has three parts: The first one examines the European educational system, from a point in view as to how its future is shaping and the major issues that need to be considered (chapter 2). These issues will change future teaching and learning both in terms of trends and changes in society, technology education innovations and all aspects of education (chapter 3). The second elaborates on a foresight methodological framework in accomplishing the SoC foresight efforts (chapter 4) and an elaborate description of the three methods chosen for the network's foresight exercises, their application as well as their results, more specifically, the Brainstorming approach (chapter 5); the Six Thinking Hats technique (chapter 6); and the Delphi method (chapter 7). The final, third part, presents the constructed scenarios which were aimed at discussing different possible futures of education and taking the form of short stories of possible futures, imagining how the education could look after 2025 (chapter 8). In addition, these scenarios, based on trends and challenges reported in the literature and expressed by experts' opinions, will determine our education system and thus their future expectations should be taken into consideration for the new school on the cloud (chapter 9).
  5. 5. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 5 School on the Cloud D5.3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Summary................................................................................................................. 4 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 7 1.1. Background ......................................................................................................... 7 1.2. Justification.......................................................................................................... 9 2. THE EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM ................................................. 10 2.1 The Network Centered Knowing Paradigm......................................................... 13 2.2 Cloud Computing................................................................................................ 15 2.3 The School on the Cloud .................................................................................... 17 2.4 The Pedagogical System in Europe ................................................................... 18 3. TRENDS AND CHANGES................................................................................. 19 3.1 Trends in Society................................................................................................ 19 3.2 Trends in Technology ......................................................................................... 21 3.3 Trends in Innovations ......................................................................................... 23 3.4. Trends in Education........................................................................................... 28 3.5 Provisions of Cloud Computing .......................................................................... 29 3.6 Trends in Schools............................................................................................... 32 3.7 Trends in Learning.............................................................................................. 33 3.8 Trends in Teaching............................................................................................. 37 3.9 Trends and Changes in Education Stakeholders................................................ 38 3.10 Changing of Other Educational Elements......................................................... 40 4. METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK OF THE SoC FORSIGHT................. 41 4.1 Foresight: Methods Chosen................................................................................ 42 4.2 Definitions........................................................................................................... 43 4.3 SoC's Future and Its Values System. ................................................................. 43 4.4 Methodological Approach ................................................................................... 45 5. APPLICATION OF THE BRAINSTORMING APPROACH........................... 46 5.1 Process............................................................................................................... 47 5.2 The Brainstorming Persona................................................................................ 47 5.3 Application.......................................................................................................... 49 6. APPLICATION OF THE SIX THINKING HATS APPROACH...................... 49 6.1 The Six Hats Technique. .................................................................................... 49 6.2 Objectives........................................................................................................... 51 6.3 The Process. ...................................................................................................... 51 6.4 Application of Six Thinking Hats. ........................................................................ 53 6.5. The Results. ...................................................................................................... 55 6.6 Possible Future Scenarios.................................................................................. 59
  6. 6. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 6 School on the Cloud D5.3 6.7 Concluding Remarks .......................................................................................... 61 7. APPLICATION OF THE DELPHI METHOD ................................................. 61 7.1 Delphi Definition and Historical Background....................................................... 61 7.2 SoC Foresight Procedure. .................................................................................. 63 7.3 Questionnaires' Application ................................................................................ 65 7.4 Analytical Presentations of the Result ................................................................ 68 7.5 Concluding Remarks .......................................................................................... 86 8. FUTURE SCENARIOS FOR TEACHING AND LEARNING .......................... 87 8.1 Scenarios Design ............................................................................................... 87 8.2. Scenario 1: The story of Luc the Future School Learner ................................... 89 8.3 Scenario 2: The story of Chrisanthi the Future School Teacher ......................... 92 8.4 Scenario 3: The story of Jen the Future School Manager................................... 94 9. FUTURE EXPECTATIONS............................................................................... 98 9.1 Future Expectations in Technology .................................................................... 99 9.2 Future Expectations for Policy Making.............................................................. 101 9.3 Future Expectations for Research .................................................................... 102 9.4 The future Expectations of Uncertainties.......................................................... 104 10 CONCLUSIONS: THE FUTURE SCHOOL................................................... 104 10.1 Personalized................................................................................................... 105 10.2 Holistic............................................................................................................ 105 10.3 Integrated ....................................................................................................... 105 10.4 Technological ................................................................................................. 106 10.5 Knowledge - Centered.................................................................................... 106 10.6 United but not uniform .................................................................................... 106 10.7 Active.............................................................................................................. 107 10.8 Revised........................................................................................................... 107 10.9 Facilitative....................................................................................................... 107 10.10 Collaborative................................................................................................. 107 10.11 STEM focused .............................................................................................. 108 10.12 Multimodal .................................................................................................... 108 11. REFERENCES................................................................................................ 109 Appendix I........................................................................................................... 116 Appendix II......................................................................................................... 118
  7. 7. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 7 School on the Cloud D5.3 1. INTRODUCTION Cloud Computing, the focus of this report, is a major technological breakthrough with a huge potential for education. Through Cloud Computing, high specification state-of- the-art software technologies can be accessed at any time, any place (Cheng, Huang, & Lin, 2012). Thus, Cloud Computing provides powerful software and massive computing resources where and when needed, allowing learners to interact productively with their teachers and with each other in both formal and informal education situations, and to become creators and developers of knowledge. Given its huge affordances, Cloud Computing has become a very popular and powerful educational trend (Joshi, 2015). Cloud Computing has been increasingly and widely used in the field of education (Shi et al., 2014). It is projected that this trend will continue, with Cloud technologies playing an even more vital and powerful role in the educational field in years to come. 1.1. Background This report presents the findings of the foresight exercises conducted by the Working Group 4 (WG 4) of the School on Cloud: connecting education to the Cloud for digital citizenship network (SoC). The main goal of SoC is to connect education to Cloud Computing and to explore how education should respond to new ICT developments, in the form of Cloud Computing, that are rapidly transforming the world of education. That is, to narrow the existing divide between education and Cloud Computing by developing guidelines for the education sector, by encouraging collaboration and knowledge exchange as well as examining future enhancements of this technology on education. The last goal is the main objective of this document whose goal is to formulate scenarios for the future of European education. Moreover the report's findings are hoped to push the boundaries of traditional research on education and help resolve the complex societal challenges Europe is facing on Cloud based education, which enables pedagogic innovations and collaborative policy approaches. For this purpose, it links very diverse educational stakeholders having various practitioners' views and policy making concerns, through foresight exercises, together with the knowledge existing in the literature. It should be noted that today's Cloud capabilities are already a remarkable catalyst for creativity, collaboration and innovation, providing opportunities that would have been impossible to imagine a couple of decades ago. If one had predicted at that time that today's students can freely access images from any place on the world, interact with persons from everywhere on earth and search practically an infinite volume of data with a simple click on their PCs, one would have been taken for fool (European Commission, 2009).
  8. 8. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 8 School on the Cloud D5.3 As a result, the need to thoroughly examine and evaluate the interface between education and Cloud Computing, exploring how teaching and learning should respond to new ICT developments, in the form of Cloud Computing, as well as examine how education will be transformed in the immediate future was a major concern for many ICT experts and educators. Some of them had an opportunity in a meeting for ICT in education in Spain on April 2012, to discuss them. These discussions resulted in an idea for a School on Cloud proposal which was submitted and approved creating the School on Cloud: connecting education to the Cloud for digital citizenship network (SoC). The aim of this network is to overcome the existing divide between education and Cloud Computing, but looking at this issue is not an easy task as you might have been led to believe. Although the future of teaching and learning is expected to be in the Cloud, there remain many issues to be resolved, but most importantly their future has not be studied or documented together as they should. That is, although there is a rich production of research projects and applications on the future of Education or of Cloud Computing examined separately, the literature has yet to provide answers to the combined issue on the future of education based on Cloud Computing. In other words, presently there is a need for examining the future of Cloud based Education, which has to address both areas as they are combined and interact. In response to that need and within the SoC framework for a combined approach to Cloud based Education, the Working Group 4 (WG 4) has been established and is charged with examining “Future scenarios for Education on the Cloud”. The goal of this group is to examine a series of issues related to the future of the interface between education and Cloud Computing. More specifically, the objectives and deliverables of WG 4 are to:  Review the state-of-the-art research on the Cloud and produce a research report on the state of the art and methodologies of “futures” thinking (Deliverable: D5.1). This deliverable has been produced and accepted by the internal and external evaluators and its results are guiding the following tasks of the WG.  Prepare and run a workshop on futures at the second summit conference (Deliverable: D5.2). The workshop has taken place at the meeting in Palermo Italy and has provided the data required for the next deliverable.  Use the data from the partners' conference contribution to the SoC foresight exercise, which was focused on the major issues affecting the future use of the Cloud Computing in education, to create a report on scenarios for the future (Deliverable: D5.3). The report at hand is the deliverable required and its aim is to develop scenarios built around carefully constructed plots based on trends and challenges as well as experts concerns, towards a balanced thinking about a number of possible alternative futures.  At the final project meeting, a presentation should be given, titled «The Future of Education on the Cloud» (D5.4), presenting the outcomes of the research
  9. 9. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 9 School on the Cloud D5.3 (D5.1), the foresight exercise (D5.2) and the report of the future scenarios developed (D5.3). 1.2. Justification The purpose of education is to successfully prepare students for the future and therefore education by its nature is a future-facing activity where all assumptions about and aspirations for the future of education should underpin the major educational stakeholders such as the learners (what to study in the future?), the teachers (what teaching methods that will best equip students?) and the administrators (what administrative actions, such as curriculums, are appropriate to face the future?). Therefore we cannot continue educating our students in ways that address education needs of the past (Fullan & Langworthy, 2013). As Wellman (2015) has said "At this point we appear to have 19th century curriculum, 20th century buildings and organizations and 21st century students facing an undefined future". That is, the world has changed in ways that we are not always able to understand and accept, but nevertheless we need to prepare students to face these changes. As a result, it is not surprising that around the world, there are foundations, public and private partnerships, government initiatives and commercial entities leading calls for a redesign of the 21st century education. Moreover it is not less surprising to the education community that a new, fresh, authentic and unbounded educational approach is required to educate students for the complex and challenging future (Gialamas et. al., 2013). This implies that there is a need for the conception of changes in teaching and learning, which can be expressed in two clear and unambiguous questions: what the education system should be, and it is related to the European trends and challenges in education? And how can we go about determining it, which is connected to the role of ICT in the form of Cloud Computing? It should be self-evident that in order to establish the right approach in answering these questions, it is necessary to understand the issues that underline the reality of the European pedagogical system and the role the ICT, in the form of Cloud Computing, plays in it. That is, there is a need to first discern the existing education system in order to detect the important issues requiring attention and then formulate, using the appropriate methods, the scenarios that can provide answers as well as suggest possible solutions. This approach will be followed in this report. More specifically, the report provides:  A discussion of the principle issues that underpin the European pedagogical system  A discussion of the elements that characterize Europe's trends as they relate to the future of teaching and learning  A discussion of the elements that characterize Europe's challenges as they relate to the future of teaching and learning
  10. 10. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 10 School on the Cloud D5.3  The methodological framework for the SoC foresight exercises.  The initial foresight application of the Brainstorming method.  The application and results of the Six Thinking Hats foresight method.  The application and results of the Delphi foresight method.  A set of future scenarios for teaching and learning in the context of the SoC total foresight effort, and a set of projections of educational developments over the next fifteen years.  A discussion of the challenges that these scenarios and projections imply for the design of future teaching and learning. 2. THE EUROPEAN EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM In examining the European educational system, from a point in view as to how its future is shaping, four issues can be discerned. The first issue is: which are the basic concepts related to teaching and learning, in order to address the required changes in the future. Even a cursory review of the innumerable reports and policy decisions, including those by the European commission which has adopted a strategy for «Unleashing the Potential of Cloud Computing in Europe», shows: on the one hand there is a need to find a way in designing an environment of engagement with creativity and innovation, which should be the educational norm for all educational institutions, or provide the necessary educational unity so that all schools will have equal treatment. That is, all academic institutions have to be provided with equal educational opportunities and experiences in order for the education process to shift in ways that alter the approaches we catalyze learning and innovation. In other words, to design a system that has a norm of what should be available to all education institutions or create a pedagogic unity in order for the European educational environment to become efficient. This position, however, is based on the notion that the way to the future and progress in education is only towards an efficient educational system determined and operating within a global neo-liberal economy (Friedman, 2005). And it is towards this economic theory that the European Union exhorts education stakeholders, mobilizes them, justifies investment in new technologies as well as rationalizes curriculum decisions. There are two forms of discourses to that position: from those who accept the neo- liberal economy and consider technology-enhanced learning as an essential modernizing tool for education (Negroponte, 1996; Lego, quoted in Jenson, 2006; Prensky, 2005; Heppell, 2009), but who themselves are subject to critique from the area of sociology of the future (Bell, 1997; Adam & Groves, 2007), from critical studies in education (Gough, 2000; Robertson et al,. 2007) and from economists (Stiglitz, 2006). The other and more important criticism comes from those who are concerned with resisting the uniformity imperialism leading to inevitable and universal educational approaches in the present and in the future. The idea of a uniform, singular and inevitable trajectory in the face of which education stakeholders in association with local conditions have no role to play, has been the subject of critique from various fields. By testifying to the need of diverse alternative trajectories (the
  11. 11. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 11 School on the Cloud D5.3 end goal remains common, but the way to achieve changes) now and in the future, many researchers who contribute to the educational technology field are arguing for non-uniformity approaches to the future (for example, Gee et al., 1996; Apple, 1997). As a result, on the other hand, there is a need in creating an educational system which can inspire all school units to develop the means to transform their own identity into a powerful tool in designing their teaching and learning practices or curriculum structures. An identity which is expressed by each educational institution's needs and expectations and is determined by the language, the culture, the particular conceptual structures of education and other factors which can be found among the diverse ethnic, cultural and regional groups that inhabit the European continent. In other words, there is a need to find the ways to design the individuals' personal and communal learning space based on their identity, in order to move away from homogenization and a non-effective educational environment. An environment that represents the driving force that presently shapes (actually it is intensified with policies such as the bologna accord), the European education scheme. Therefore, the idea of education as a singular, inevitable trajectory in the face of which educational stakeholders and identity factors have no role, is not acceptable by a growing number of scientists working on present and future education studies (Beare & Slaughter, 2001; Inayatullah, 2008). Moreover, the notion of empowering education stakeholders and communities to envisage and take action to build alternative and identity desirable futures has started to have many supporters. A characteristic example is the initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Fablab that aims to create the means to build new educational futures in the hands of communities, learners and educators. This position can become clear by paraphrasing Abraham Lincoln that "the best way to predict the future is to invent it, by taking into account identity factors". The second issue is: what is the conceptual basis upon which these two fundamental needs and their attendant changes can be attained. In response to that, it should be pointed out that the Networked Information society, which needs to be interposed in education in the form of the Network Centered Knowing paradigm (Koutsopoulos & Kotsanis, 2014), is unleashing two powerful forces on teaching and learning. Both of these can be available to practically every educational institution and are related to their access to high-speed networks. The first force empowers education stakeholders of any school, anywhere to have an easy access and use of ICT in the form of Cloud Computing. As a result, all education stakeholders can discover, consume and produce information resources and services and thus the educational system can provide the needed unity in teaching and learning. The second force provides ubiquitous access to open content and standards as well as techniques for virtualization, making it possible to leverage education through identity related programs in unprecedented ways. What appears to be emerging is the need for an education system where its stakeholders have at their disposal teaching techniques,
  12. 12. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 12 School on the Cloud D5.3 learning practices and many educational related services which allow them to design their own programs, negating the need for educational uniformity. The third issue is related to the means required to achieve, within the network information society and the required educational paradigm, the concept of unity without uniformity. It is suggested that Cloud Computing, which is the fundamental instrument in a Cloud based educational environment, can fulfill all the earlier mentioned educational requirements. Indeed, Cloud Computing represents a fundamental change in the way computing power is generated and distributed. The literature (Johnson, 2012; Bradshaw et al., 2012) indicates that this technology can be a powerful way to apply a new educational approach. Moreover, as IBM (2012) has declared “with cloud computing in education, you get powerful software and massive computing resources where and when you need them (and we may add in any way you desire), in order to apply new educational approaches ... Cloud services can be used to combine on-demand computing and storage, familiar experience with on-demand scalability and online services for anywhere, anytime access to powerful web-based tools”. That is, it can support an educational system providing a Cloud based education with all the attendant benefits to educational stakeholders. Finally, the last issue raised is: what is the educational environment within which to work or how to practically apply to the classroom the concepts presented previously. The results of several Cloud based education projects (Donert & Bonanou, 2015; Malmierca. et. al., 2015: Lazaro et. al., 2016) indicate that these objectives are achievable in a new school, the School on the Cloud (SoC). The reason is that as learning becomes increasingly digital, online access becomes the necessary vehicle for the emerging Cloud-based developments (Donert, 2013) and thus offers an educational system, which is not only an efficient (provides unity), but also an effective (avoids uniformity) way to access and administer education. That is, the new School on the Cloud provides an approach that aligns with the way we should think, share, learn and collaborate as it is determined by the network information approach that is limited nowadays, but will increase in the future and determines many aspects of our activities, including education. In other words, the new School on the Cloud can offer an opportunity to transform the role of education stakeholders, as they help young people to access any learning at any place and any time from any teacher with the right expertise, but within an identity determined framework. From this examination it should be evident that in the European pedagogical system there is a set of conditions that need to be achieved for a successful future. More specifically, there is: a need to work within a susceptible to pedagogical conditions educational paradigm; to utilize a new methodological approach which can provide the instruments to be able to do so; and to apply a learning environment which provides the framework to achieve the previous tasks. All of these paradigms have as a common denominator the notion of integration that can be achieve through Cloud Computing. These needs and their characteristics (shown schematically on Fig.1) are examined in the next sections of this report.
  13. 13. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 13 School on the Cloud D5.3 Figure 1: The Education System 2.1 The Network Centered Knowing Paradigm At the onset, it should be declared that at the centre of the pedagogic approach towards teaching and learning should be the concept of unity without uniformity. But this leads to the position (Koutsopoulos, 2015b; Miguel & Lázaro, 2016) that not only the traditional Teacher Centred instructing paradigm, representing an instructing approach, as well as the much herald present approaches to education, defined as the Student Centered learning paradigm focused on a constructivism based learning, are now absolute and the immediate future belongs to the Network Centred knowing paradigm where knowledge is achieved through integration and is based on Cloud Computing. More specific, it is suggested that in the last few years teaching and learning, through two parallel changes in the way education is perceived and is practiced, have gone through two paradigm shifts (Fig. 2), as Kuhn (1962) considers them, and are briefly examined next. BASIC CONCEPTS IN EDUCATION EDUCATIONAL NORM IDENTITY BASED DESIGN NETWORK INFORMATION SOCIETY/PARADIGM CLOUND COMPUTING SCHOOL ON THE CLOUND OPERATING FRAMEWORK /PARADIGM EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENT EASY ACCESS UBIQUTUS ACCESS CLOUND BASED EDUCATION SAME OPPORTUNITIES TO ALL LOCATION IS NOT A FACTOR UNTY WITHOUT UNIFORMITY APPLICATION INSTRUMENT
  14. 14. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 14 School on the Cloud D5.3 Figure 2: Paradigm shifts in education For a long time the traditional Teacher Centred instructing paradigm was the exclusive environment within which the education system operated. This paradigm was characterized by a mono-disciplinary environment (education was the exclusive realm of educators) within which a «fragmented» approach to educational needs and obligations was prevalent and where the teacher alone transmitted information to students who passively listened and acquired facts from the simple transmission of an instruction based curriculum. This paradigm has been replaced (the first paradigm shift) by the Student Centered learning paradigm representing the prevailing nowadays educational environment. In this paradigm learning is expressed in the form of a set of separate relations, interdependences and interactions leading to a multidisciplinary framework in education, which is focused, as previously, in a descriptive way on both individual learners and on learning itself. But this notion of a descriptive-multidimensional education requires computer technology which is based in a world of computers and interactive software (Dede, 2008), leading to a constructivism approach in practicing teaching and learning. Both these approaches cannot satisfy the present complex and challenging conditions and even more so those that will prevail in the future education environment (Koutsopoulos & Kotsanis, 2014; Koutsopoulos, 2015b). As a result, a new Network Centered knowing approach is needed (the second paradigm shift), which requires an interdisciplinary approach leading towards the integration of all possible learning actors and approaches in order to overcome the compartmentalization of knowledge. However, such a regard of teaching and learning establishes a holistic education which requires prescriptive learning (the way Mono- disciplinary Fragmented Learning Multi Disciplinary Descriptive Learning Inter Disciplinary Prescriptive Learning Teacher Centered Instruc ng Student Centered Learning Community Centered Knowing CONCIDERING EDUCATION NATURE OF LEARNING PRACTICING EDUCATION PARADIGM NATURE OF TEACHING Instruction Traditional Intergrated Cloud Computing Constructivism Computer Technology
  15. 15. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 15 School on the Cloud D5.3 students should learn) as well as encompasses all stakeholders in different ways, with the use of Cloud Computing. 2.2 Cloud Computing. In order to appreciate the Network centered knowing paradigm's contribution towards fulfilling present and future pedagogic requirements the concept of Cloud Computing needs to be to fully understood as well as been realized how its components can be utilized in the operation of such an educational approach. There seems to be many definitions of Cloud Computing around. The global management consulting firm of McKinsey found that there are 22 possible separate definitions of Cloud Computing, none of them dealing with educational concerns. In fact, no common standard or definition for Cloud Computing seems to exist (Grossman, 2009; Voas and Zhang, 2009; Fadil, 2015). However, despite the many definitions and the various terms suggested by many computer experts and Cloud users, the concept of Cloud Computing can be described as an ICT technology that can be fully represented as a three dimensional space consisting of the characteristics axis, that includes: On demand service that includes: Network access, Resource pooling, Rapid elasticity and Measured service; the type of service axis that includes: Infrastructure, Platform and Software; and the form of deployment axis that includes: Private, Community, Public and Hybrid (NIST, U.S Department of Commerce, 2013; Koutsopoulos & Kotsanis, 2014), creating in this way a framework whose axes are an integral part in designing an educational system, which can meet pedagogical needs of the future (Koutsopoulos, 2015a). In addition, this necessary for today's and for the future's conditions Network Centered knowing paradigm, which promotes Cloud based education, represents a framework which can successfully serve and support with the same resources and the same opportunities as well as provide the means to design according to local needs and conditions all education institutions. That is, Cloud Computing offers an ideal environment for the fundamentally important unity without uniformity concept in education. Indeed Cloud Computing represents an instrument which can successfully serve and support: multitasking, flexibility, the ability to handle a large number of applications and to meet changing demands, as well as access to stored files, e-mails, databases and other applications from anywhere at request. It represents a familiar and appropriate tool for today’s education participants (the first generation to grow up within the digital technology era). Moreover, it can support with the same resources as well as provide the same opportunities to all major education stakeholders (students, teachers and administrators) no matter where they are located and thus qualifying as an ideal environment of educational unity. Thus, Cloud Computing offers unimaginable capacity, among others, in using technology to connect people across vast distances and store and share information in ways that provide access
  16. 16. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 16 School on the Cloud D5.3 virtually from anywhere (Ferrari, 2015; Donert and Bonanou, 2014). This report in examining Cloud Computing, without ignoring the existence of sizeable attendant issues (i.e. cost, security, law issues etc.) that must be addressed, it focuses on the issue of location as it relates to education. With regards to the future role of Cloud Computing it should be noted that “Cloud” refers to machines located in large data centers, which raises a host of interesting questions about the role of location in shaping the impact of Cloud Computing and the level of services available to education stakeholders located at any education institution (either in a school at the centre of a city, in a remote village or in a Roma reservation area). Cloud Computing by centralizing information and computing resources (quite contrary to the imagery that the name «Cloud» evokes) transects location constraints imposed by users and the Cloud itself. Moreover, Cloud based education although situated on the opposite end of the distance education spectrum with Moore's Theory of Transactional Distance (Moore, 1991), and avoiding most of its shortcomings (Hill et al., 2009), it shares the basic principle that cognitive space, functioning to overcome physical distance between learners and instructors, or teaching/learning methods or materials, or curriculum etc. is an acceptable and beneficial approach to education. As a result, the unusual combination of the great abilities offered by Cloud Computing and the ubiquity in providing Cloud based education, negate the necessity for physical closeness of the educational factors and the need for locally available educational recourses, thus raising serious questions about the universal value and utility of location in education. For a balanced approach, however, the issue of location in education should be considered in terms of the dictum «Geography matters but not Distance». More specifically, on the one hand as ICT developments, in the form of Cloud Computing, will be continuously diminishing the «need of presence» in remote interactions. Such interactions are developing not only between families, friends and co-workers, but also between education stakeholders. The notion of being «together apart» is becoming a familiar aspect of working, interacting and entertaining as well as in educating ourselves. That is, the separation of «information resources» from physical locations with the coming of Cloud Computing has become «natural», resulting in the diminution of the importance of location. On the other hand, Geography still matters because Geography will continue to influence the access of individuals and groups to digital networks, because location will continue determining in most cases their pricing, infrastructure, legal constraints and regulation. Moreover, the «face to face» interaction will retain its importance, especially in terms of the social and educational aspects of our lives, given that physical proximity is paramount for most of us. For example, people will continue to use «place» and physical location as a marker for identity, which as it was shown it plays an important role in education among other areas of human endeavors. In sum, when someone familiar with Cloud Computing will be asked the question of the role of location in education, he will surely chuckle and reply something akin to:
  17. 17. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 17 School on the Cloud D5.3 «The location of the Cloud user and of the Cloud itself is irrelevant. Anyone is able to tap into the power of the Cloud, located at any place, from anywhere». This answer, while technically and empirically accurate, misses an important issue, namely: Cloud Computing negates the necessity of considering location as a factor to reckon with, at least when considering «non-typical» (i.e. rural and remote schools) and consequently the need to impose upon them «uniform» teaching and learning practices or curriculum structures that developed centrally and applied in "typical» urban schools. 2.3 The School on the Cloud The basic principle that «Technology changes, Education survives» signifies the role of education as a societal necessity now and in the future and the need to explore their potential implications to education. It has shown that ICT changes, in the form of Cloud-based technologies (Pallis, 2010; Koutsopoulos, 2015a), provide the power to fundamentally change how education should be approached and practiced, creating the need for a new school, the School on the Cloud. However, the new School on the Cloud in order to achieve such goals has to address the following two key questions: How should education respond to Cloud-based technologies? What is the impact, now and in the future, on education stakeholders and teachers? Results from the limited application of the School on the Cloud educational approach has shown that it brings many benefits to education as well as accelerates trends and developments at the interface of Cloud Computing and education (Armbrust et. al., 2010; Donert and Bonanou, 2015; Malmiera et al., 2015), which in turn increase the ability of stakeholders to adjust or alter their educational objectives. Basically, these applications of Cloud technologies in the classroom indicate that in answering the two questions, in essence their work reaffirm the need for the changes mentioned previously as well as create the foundations in applying them. The School on the Cloud is not anymore a novice application of Cloud Computing to education, which promises to deliver many exciting things. It is already a reality and there are many successful implementations (Johnson, 2012; Bradshaw et al., 2012; Malmierca, 2015; Donert and Bonanou, 2014). The School on the Cloud is a new and different school that has been born, is partly operating now and is going to stay with us at least in the foreseeable future. In addition, the operation of schools on the Cloud offers a range of resources and services such as infrastructure, service's solutions, the introduction of new processes etc. (Bradshaw et al., 2012). The School on the Cloud as a Cloud based approach it provides to every educational institution the conditions to have equal opportunities, recourses and possibilities (norms in education). Moreover, these schools by being on the forefront of Cloud Computing technology provide to education a series of innovations which offers to the teaching and learning system the ability to be adjusted, altered or revised using identity factors. That is, to design the way in which
  18. 18. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 18 School on the Cloud D5.3 education institutions, students and teachers are able to use equipment, applications and subjects' content and thus to overcome uniformity constraints (IBM, 2010). In sum, the School on the Cloud offers to its students a series of very important competences, which allows them to face the developing pedagogical requirements, such as:  Digitalization: Refers to their ability to efficiently, confidently and critically use the new ICT technologies in order to search, sift, organize, manage and evaluate information, in an efficient and targeted to their individual needs approach.  Learning: Is related to students' ability for learning to learn. That is, students are motivated to pursue their own learning progress and knowing how to process information, they are assigning meaning to it and converting it into knowledge.  Understanding: Is associated with students' global understanding. That is, by overcoming uniformity constraints they can acquire the competence of understanding in order to be able to analyze the surrounding world, be social and part of the universal society.  Collaborating: Corresponds to a crucial skill that needs to be learned and practiced from early on in education, and Cloud based education can support it. That is, students need to learn to: listen, respect, negotiate and even accept ideas express by others, understand and work in teams and different roles and finally participate in communal activities.  Updating: This skill refers to the ability of students to use the recourses of the Cloud in order to be prepared for the continuous changes and developments as well as continue updating such skills as: autonomy, lifelong learning, flexibility, innovation, creativity etc.  Communicating: The use of Cloud Computing in terms of learning and practicing foreign languages helps students put emphasis on using them as a means for communication with other people and not on grammatical or syntactical correctness per se. 2.4 The Pedagogical System in Europe The way education is perceived and is practiced nowadays in Europe does not correspond to the present and future needs, the very nature, and the role of the major stakeholders and generally to the future of education. Yet it should be clear that education in the immediate future should move towards the new network centered paradigm, which in essence forces Cloud Computing as the main educational tool. An instrument which provides the present day Z generation (students which have been born in the 21st century) not only the required competences to face today’s and tomorrow’s world and common to all the students, but in a uniformity free environment a fundamental requirement in the education of the future. The final question, which is related and to the issues posed in the beginning of this section has to be: is the School on the Cloud just another education fad or the only way to deal with the basic issues facing education? Considering it merely either as a
  19. 19. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 19 School on the Cloud D5.3 fad or the ultimate education truth, however, misses the deeper contribution of the School on the Cloud as the true base upon which to develop, construct and apply the new Network centered knowing paradigm in educating students in a holistic way for the complex and challenging future. 3. TRENDS AND CHANGES No one questions that society is rapidly entering a new era in which the economy, the societal institutions and structures as well as education are changing at an accelerating pace. This new era is going to change teaching and learning so dramatically, that both the ways in which education prepares students and the reasons for pursuing learning will be quite different than they are today. Many factors will be contributing towards this future and they can be discerned from trends in society, technology, schools with the use of Cloud Computing, innovations etc. These trends we expect to substantiate the ability of the education community to use these changes to adapt the whole system of education. That is, the basic dictum that “Technology changes, Education survives” signifies not only the role of education as a societal necessity, but mainly the need to understand and discerned trends and changes, in order to explore their potential implications to education. The future of education inevitably is affected by many trends, among which the most profound are the following: 3.1 Trends in Society From the previous discussion, it should be evident that although Cloud Computing is not simply a novice technology that promises to deliver many exciting things. It is already a reality and there are many educational implementations of it. Nevertheless evaluating the maturity it has reached, its present and anticipated pace of growth as well as its trends are not easily attainable objectives, but they are achievable as long as there is a good grasp of them. That is, in order to fulfill the objective of evaluating the future scenarios for Cloud Computing based education there is a need to examine trends and developments and their implications as well as their limitations at the interface of Cloud Computing and education. Following is such an examination of the trends which are emerging from developments in society, in technology and in education. In terms of societal trends, the literature (Molebash, 2013; Facer and Sandford, 2010; Cliff et al. 2008; Goodings, 2009; Horst, 2009; Jewitt, 2009; Reich 2009; Riley, 2009; Young & Muller, 2009) shows that in our society the following long-term developments have become particularly important in challenging our assumptions about education and its future. 3.1.1 Towards Denser, Deeper and more Diverse Information Landscape: Nowadays we "know more stuff about more stuff» because our ability to gather, store, examine, archive and circulate more data, in more diverse forms, about more
  20. 20. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 20 School on the Cloud D5.3 aspects of ourselves and our world, is and will keep increasing more than ever before. The reasons are many but simple and are related to social trends towards: «accountability and security, the decreasing cost and increasing availability of digital storage capacity, the development of new forms of genetic information, the ability to digitally tag almost any physical object, space or person, the ability to represent information in diverse modes» (Sultan, 2010). 3.1.2 Towards Constant Connectivity: The ability to be constantly connected to knowledge, resources, people and tools is a reality for persons in countries with an advanced technology and infrastructure. In the very near future it will be available to all in every place. Individuals will have the capacity to remain in ‘perpetual contact’ with diverse networks, communities, institutions and persons, both physical and virtual. 3.1.3. Towards personal cloud: As a collateral development of the previous trend there is and will continue to be a rise in mobile and personal technologies and a lowering of barriers to data storage. As a result, individuals increasingly are or soon will be likely to ‘wrap’ their information landscape around themselves rather than managing it through institutions. 3.1.4. Towards Working and Living Alongside Machines: As I was writing these lines, I communicated with a computer on the other end of my telephone line who fixed my Wi-Fi which had stopped working. Nowadays we have become increasingly accustomed to machines taking on more roles previously occupied by humans, across both professional and manual occupations as well as in homes and workplaces. As a result, it becomes increasingly normal to accept the presence of «machines» in our lives, but at the same time it raises significant ethical and practical issues and generates public debate relating to questions of dependence and autonomy, as well as of privacy and trust, particularly with regards to sensitive data and critical systems. These dilemmas are of particular importance to education. 3.1.5 Towards a Multicultural Society and Schools: Demographic trends follow a divergent path in the developed and the less developed countries, resulting at the first level in mass population moves between them (legal and illegal immigration) and on a second level the creation of a multicultural society which in turn results in multicultural schools. 3.1.6 Towards a Knowledge Society and Economy?: Today's society operating at the interface of demographic and technological changes has polarized experts into believing that the future is either in the development of a ‘smart’ economy based on knowledge and innovation or that knowledge economy is utopian. That is, on one hand technological developments lead into a knowledge society and economy where
  21. 21. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 21 School on the Cloud D5.3 highly competitive R&D activities and knowledge work are the driving forces. On the other hand, the same factors it is believed to enable centralized groups to manage ever greater numbers of people across dispersed locations. These developments may bring an end to current hopes of a universal, democratic ‘knowledge economy’ and a rise in massive inequalities. 3.1.7 Towards a Digital Native Society: Digital natives, those born after 1990, are characterized as having access to networked digital technologies and the skills to use them. Their lives (social interaction, friendships, civic and other activities) are mediated by digital technologies and they have never known any other way of life. However ‘digital natives’ will, like their parents before them, need to learn to use the new technological advancements that keep coming. For example, in an age when news often spreads virtually through social media, most experts feel it is critical that young people learn how to analyze and evaluate the authenticity of the myriad of messages they encounter every day. As a result, substantial changes in the distribution of educational resources will be required to fulfill the educational needs of this population cohort who will be required to learn the rest of their lives. 3.1.8 Towards the Dictum "Geography matters but not Distance": As technological developments lead to a ‘sense of presence’ in remote interactions, and as such interactions are developing between families, friends and co-workers, the notion of being ‘together apart’ is becoming a familiar aspect of working, interacting and entertaining ourselves. That is, the separation of ‘information resources’ from physical locations will become widespread resulting in the diminution of the importance of location. On the other hand, Geography will continue to influence the access of individuals and groups to digital networks, for physical geography determines their pricing, infrastructure, legal constraints and regulation. Moreover, the «face to face» interaction will retain its importance because many, especially educational and social aspects of our lives, are paramount for them. 3.2 Trends in Technology Technological changes that have an impact on our lives have started some time ago, but their important characteristic is that they will be continuing operating, developing and increasing their influence in our society and in education in particular (Molebash, 2013). As a result, the suggestion of Alan Greenspan, the Chairman of the Federal Reserve Board who said in 1997 that «One of the most central dynamic forces [in the economy] is the accelerated expansion of computer and telecommunications technologies...clearly our educational institutions will continue to play an important role in preparing workers to meet these demands», still holds today. Among the most important trends that will influence education in the immediate future are the following:
  22. 22. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 22 School on the Cloud D5.3 3.2.1 Technology will Continue to have an Impact on Education: The rate of technology change and growth has been exponential and is not likely to decrease. Technology nowadays is widely used at all levels of education, influencing teaching and learning methods and expectations. Technological innovations are changing the very way that schools teach and students learn. For academic institutions, charged with equipping graduates to compete in today’s knowledge economy, have to employ among others online and distance learning, sophisticated learning-management systems, multi-modal teaching, changing curricula and spawning rich forms of online research and collaboration. As a result, technological innovations will continue to have a major influence on teaching and learning methodologies in the near future. In fact, technology will become a core factor in determining the nature, the form and the structure of education. 3.2.2 Moore's Law will Continue to Operate: Gordon Moore, the cofounder of Intel Corporation in 1965 suggested (half in jest) that technology doubles in processing power approximately every 18 months and at the same time the price for that technology declines by about 35% a year relative to this power. This trend of increased power at lower cost, known as Moore's Law, has been operating since that time and it is likely to continue in the immediate future. 3.2.3 Metcalfe's Law will Continue to Operate: The combination of better, faster and cheaper computers and the increased bandwidth has caused a boon in the network community. Based on this, Bob Metcalfe, inventor of the Ethernet, suggested that the power of a network increases proportionally by the square of the number of users, which is known as the Metcalfe's Law. That is, as the power of the computer increases, so do the capabilities of communications and media, including glass fibers, copper wires, and wireless communication systems. This trend which started some time ago is expected to continue at least in the immediate future. 3.2.4 Technology Fusion will Continue to Operate: A few years ago there was a sharp distinctions between computers, photos, publishing, TV/video, and telecommunications. Now the distinctions between these media are blurring. However, as Molebash (2013) has put it "Bringing them together results in the whole having greater impact than each individual part...". Given that in education most of these media are extensively utilized, this merger is considered as the most significant trend in education and technology. As a result, technology fusion has and will continue to have a significant impact on education. 3.2.5 Cloud Computing will Continue to be Integrated with Teacher Education: The final challenge is related to teacher education and training. In most cases of schools which are connected and equipped with technology, the teachers lack the skills or formal education they need to empower students to pursue their own interests and free class time for more experiential forms of learning. As a result, the
  23. 23. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 23 School on the Cloud D5.3 challenge is to provide teacher education and/or training as how to integrate digital pedagogies in their teaching in order for their students to best learn with digital tools and methods. 3.2.6 Technologies will Continue to be an Integral part of Education: Technologies have changed the nature and the ways of education, because they shape, change and enable new approaches in accessing, understanding and creating knowledge. Therefore, it is crucial that the fundamental education stakeholders: first obtain the necessary skills to find, process and manage information and to confidently, efficiently and critically use technologies to achieve their objectives and second continuously update these skills in order to support the other stakeholders(i.e. teachers their students) for a safe and efficient use of the relevant technologies available. In addition, however, technologies have certain requirements that need to be observed. It is important that education stakeholders learn to safely and responsibly use them inside and outside the classroom and therefore more knowledge and support is needed for effective pedagogical strategies for the use of ICT in schools. 3.3 Trends in Innovations The benefits of innovations applied to the education system as recourses (i.e. centralized and optimized, sharing, on demand, ability to evolve, etc.) will provide the system with the ability to revise the way in which education institutions, students and teachers are able to use equipment, applications and subjects' content. Following science-fiction author William Gibson who once said, «the future is already here» several initiatives have been taken in the last few years providing such technological innovations to teaching and learning. Among them the most interesting, based on Cloud Computing techniques and technologies, are the following (IBM, 2010): 3.3.1 Creating Intelligent Classrooms: Cloud Computing by providing the recourses for a set of tools and applications will contribute in creating a classroom with a quality and effectiveness of teaching that can be considered intelligent. Among such tools and applications the following are the most interesting:  Access to courses, syllabuses, documentation and information, regardless of the location of the learner, which can be in the classroom, in the school’s yard, at home, travelling, or in the library.  Access of students (individually or in group) to the same learning subject content, which allows for a much sought after collaboration between students.
  24. 24. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 24 School on the Cloud D5.3  Access on an individual basis (personalized) to the learning resources which best suit the individual student’s needs and learning difficulties. Providing of course freedom of choice by the student (which includes guidance by the teacher).  Access to the teaching recourses of one institution to students and teachers from another (close or further away) so that they can share material, practices etc.  Access to real time assessment results of tests, exams and homework, which are centrally available. Such a tool, in addition of providing immediate identification of each student’s needs and difficulties, more importantly it provides the means to place current results in a personal or other contexts (i.e. to compared them with fellow students, as well as with the student's, the teacher's and the school's academic history). 3.3.2 Creating Virtual Classrooms: ICT in the form of Cloud Computing by providing the necessary communication and collaboration tools can help bring down the walls of the classroom and give rise to the virtual classroom, because it can promote exchanges, group work and inter-school projects. More specifically it enables:  Students of the same age located in distant institutions, towns or countries to share in the experience of any class being taught online.  Teachers in a certain location to teach classes in a different school, town, country or even continent, complete with the required material.  Researchers can have instant access to research and discoveries from any a parallel or linked center around the world. That is, platforms and contents hosted in the Cloud enable: students to approach topics in a wider context; teachers to create collaboration spaces or forums where they can interact and invite colleagues to join in; and research activities or discoveries to be approached simultaneously by scientists of any specialization and from any part of the world. 3.3.3 Creating Virtual Labs: innovations such as Cloud Computing by offering the resources for processing, calculating and simulating can contribute in creating virtual labs. More specifically, students and teachers can carry out in a virtual form the simulations or experiments they need or want in any subject (chemistry, physics, geography, economics, and other sciences), and in any degree of difficulty (from the simplest to the most complex). 3.3.4 Creating Virtual Contents: New technologies in the form of Digital IWB's (interactive whiteboards), they can help create a virtual reference system of content that remains in the public domain and thus avoid the pitfalls of using nothing but the costly commercial content. But mainly such a system can provide teachers with the choice of using a content as is, have alter it to meet their needs, adapt it to the local conditions, or finally use it to supplement their own. The opportunity to share this virtual content, together with the input from the local teachers will have a favorable effect, both on the diversity and quality of the content, as well as on the ability of all
  25. 25. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 25 School on the Cloud D5.3 schools to access quality content that they have not had the resources to develop themselves. 3.3.5 Creating eTwinning for teachers and students. eTwinning started very recently as a teachers network in Europe, in contrast with: Facebook which is still a US-centric website for university students; Twitter which is addressing a few hundred special minded web fanatics and Google which is focused on making money as a search engine. eTwinning started as an initiative of making teachers and indirectly schools collaborate through the use of ICT, which indicates that in the future students might need to also participate. So what Professor Derrick de Kerckhove, had said that, “it’s all about connected intelligences”, might become a truly integrated school educational network. 3.3.6 Creating Artificial Intelligence (AI): Artificial Intelligence is the capacity of computer systems or software to imitate or simulate intelligent human behavior. As a result Artificial Intelligence will be increasingly function as a utility to facilitate many services and not as a general purpose application with which users will interact, without losing its ability to be at the service of individuals, including all the educational stakeholders. 3.3.7 Creating Augmented Reality: This newly promoted digital reality is an enhanced view of reality created by integrating in real time computer-generated sensory input, such as sounds, images, graphics, and video, on top of a user’s physical surroundings. As it continues to develop augmented reality is expected in the future to play an important role in education, because teaching and learning lies at the interface between computer and students' generated material. 3.3.8 Creating Intelligent Administration: Cloud Computing provides effective tools for management, assessing performance and managing resources, which allow school administrators to perform three important functions:  Analytical Monitoring of students’ progress and teaching programs, which in turn makes it possible for courses to be adjusted more quickly, helping the student and redistributing teaching resources to suit needs.  Performance monitoring in the cloud, allows administrators to deal with data and information in a centralized way and from multiple establishments, which allows the important to management benchmarking. In this way school administrators can re-energize teaching policies, as well as better inform, using a series of criteria, students and their parents.  Performance management or education lifecycle can be achieved using the Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) form of cloud service which enables administrators to save data related to students, including information from several different establishments and to process them centrally, in order for the data to be accessible to everyone everywhere. This is important, in terms of consulting outside office hours, for teachers who work in a many schools, when campuses are located far apart and for teaching networks.
  26. 26. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 26 School on the Cloud D5.3 3.3.9 Creating Innovative Research Environment: Cloud Computing can provide researchers the tools to gain access to abundant information that is increasingly widespread and scattered all over the world. That is, in order for researchers to be able to operate and be effective, they need to gain access to information and use it properly, which can be made possible by centralizing the resources in the cloud. More specifically, Cloud Computing provides the tools for the:  Creation of Communities and Collaboration Schemes. This scheme between researchers sharing common or complementary interests, can undoubted have a stimulating effect on research efforts.  Creation of Shared Calculation Infrastructures. This timeshare approach, adapted to the concept of virtualization and the cloud, leads to a common pool of resources accessible to every researcher who needs them.  Creation of Centralized Research Data from a Variety of Sources. This approach enables the results to be used faster, leading to a speedier progress from the moment the data are processed by analysis and software application. 3.3.10 Creating New Teaching and Learning Tools. In recent years, with the rapid development of emerging technologies, the integration of Information and Communication Technology has increasingly attracted the attention of education stakeholders, in the form of teaching and learning tools. Educators are turning their attention to various technological tools that can be used as learning objectives or contexts, to develop new learning environments, to modify existing resources, to engage with specific groups of learners or decide alternative strategies for teaching and learning. Some of these tools are:  Virtual Reality (VR) Teaching and Learning Tools: VR is shaping up to be one of the most important technological innovations in shaping teaching and learning, for it represents an educational tool on how the technology could change how students learn and are taught. That is, it is the technology which allows students to test educational experiences that could alter the trajectory of their studies and their lives as well as teach complex problems in a different way than traditional education methods of today. As a result it is expected that there the demand to bring VR into the classroom, so that students would be allowed to learn experientially will increase steadily.  3D Printers as Teaching and Learning Tools: 3D printers represent, among other achievements, a complete educational paradigm shift. Indeed, as students print and then print again and keep on printing, because of their adventuring nature they reach a point in time when they realize, ‘It is of no value to me something that already exists (a copy), I want something that doesn’t yet exist'. As a result, and in response to discovering needs, it is of no surprise that 3D printers have taken a place in education, by helping students bring their ideas to life and most importantly put their hands on concepts that previously experienced only in textbooks. 3D printing is already being used effectively in schools fostering the ability of students to create an object to solve a problem (especially in developing
  27. 27. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 27 School on the Cloud D5.3 countries). Making 3D printed objects with a purpose will increase tremendously in the future. It is expected that this technology will increase its education use as these devices become affordable and the barriers in adapting them continue to drop.  Devices to Connect to the internet (The Internet of Things Concept): In the modern mobile world, the attention of education stakeholder by necessity shift their focus on the students who are surrounded by a large network of mobile devices and on the constant increase in the number of connected technologies students use daily. Technology is rapidly unlocking new uses for connectivity, changing not only how our students are networked, but also how The Internet of Things Concept will become part of the education system. The Internet of Things Concept applications for education are still at an initial stage, although a limited number of schools and universities are a tapping into this technology to create environments that students might not be able to experience otherwise. But the most important is its potential, because this technology looms across a variety of applications with an ever increasing speed as part of education for consumers and in part based on their permanent necessity of being connected.  Wearables as Teaching and Learning Tools: It has been said that the art of being able to learn anywhere, at any time, should also include any ‘how’. That gap in learning can be filled by wearable devices which give students more opportunities to be connected learners. That is, wearable technology has been pushing the boundaries of what students are able to create anywhere, anytime and on any subject. In addition, wearable’s can also provide many benefits to educators, because they offer more options in their effort to monitor and engage with their students during their teaching, as well as communicate with other educators, giving them more options for collaboration.  Machine-Learning Techniques: The devises which are based on machine- learning techniques can perform many tasks that are rapidly becoming more sophisticated and are improving towards becoming true thinking machines. In terms of education they could change the traditional role of technology in education, because the robotics can serve in an actual hands-on role in the classroom. Today these robotic toys have mainly an important impact on changing how special-education students learn in the classroom. In the future, most experts agree that such robotic toys will increasingly serve as counselors and playmates to children with various learning disabilities like Autism. As Patterson in an EdTech blog (2016) has written “There are hundreds of other great ways to use these robots to support student learning. My advice is get one and put it into the hands of students — see what they can do. Build challenges and celebrate failure. Learning can be hard but fun and these robots make integration easy”.  Co-presence Technologies: These technologies utilize audio and video instruments to create a feeling to education stakeholders of being together across distance. Examples include an in-room hologram of a teacher who is in another
  28. 28. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 28 School on the Cloud D5.3 classroom or school location and a robot with audio and video displays and sensors that can move around in one classroom while being controlled by a student in another classroom or school. 3.4. Trends in Education. As it was mentioned previously there have been significant advances in Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in the form of cloud computing that continue unabated up to now. As a result, there is an increasingly perceived vision that cloud based education (designed and provided in the form of optional, tailored services, with operators and teaching establishments pooling their resources) will soon be the single most important path towards future education. In other words, it is suggested that the education because of the use of cloud computing in the immediate future will be affected by the impact of several influential trends as follows: 3.4.1 Education Needs to Change to Respond to Economy and Society: Learning objectives need to change to take into account future competence needs, which are determined by societal conditions in general and economic demands in particular. As a result, a major challenge for the education system in the future is to cater to the needs and requirements that are imposed upon education by the economy and society. 3.4.2 Education Needs to Change towards Knowledge: A fundamental challenge for the future in education will be for students to learn how to safely and responsibly use technologies in school as well as in their lives. However, in order for that need to be met more knowledge is needed for effective pedagogical strategies in the use of Cloud Computing in schools. In other words Cloud Computing has to provide improved or new ways to increase access to various forms of information and connections between people or more and better knowledge. 3.4.3 Education Should be Focused on Competences Rather Than Memorizing Knowledge: EU has accepted a set of key future competences as well as set of future skills for problem solving, collaboration, negotiation, innovation and self- management. In addition European teachers have in many instances confirmed the importance of these key competences and skills as future educational objectives, Moreover, other educational stakeholders identified that developing one’s personality and managing one’s place in a changing world and society, together with awareness of the environmental challenges they represent the crucial future educational objectives necessary for developing one’s competences over the course of a lifetime. 3.4.4 Education Needs to Change to Become Authentic: Authentic learning is also an important challenge for the future in education and is concerned with bringing real life experiences into the classroom. That is, authentic learning has to become a necessary pedagogical strategy establishing or upgrading a fundamental concept, namely: help students to engage in seeking some connection between the world as
  29. 29. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 29 School on the Cloud D5.3 they know it exists outside the school and their experiences in school. Cloud Computing can provide the tools to create learning scenarios incorporating real life experiences familiar to students, that can bring authentic learning into the classroom and prepare them for the real world. The upmost challenge of such practices of course is to "help retain students in school and prepare them for further education, careers, and citizenship in a way that traditional practices are too often failing to do» (E.U. Horizon Report, 2014). 3.4.5 Education Should be Compatible with Identity Factors: Encouraging individual institutions to develop their own teaching and learning practices or curriculum structures is important because is the only way for them to be in par with the rest institution in educational attainment and performance. Therefore, educational approaches should be tailored to the identity needs, learning styles and preferences of each institution and thus facilitate the common educational expectations. As a result, support for institutional development, educational practices, learning objectives and assessment procedures should be revised and should not be uniform or standardized. Various ways and sources of learning should be provided and supported so that students in each institution can create a learning journey based on local factors. That is, educational institutions should take responsibility not for the common learning goals, but for the ways to achieve them. 3.4.6 Education Should be More Active and Connected to Real Life. It is universally accepted that the younger generation should learn to grow up as part of the society and be aware of what takes place around them. This is the only way to become responsible and independent global citizens, which is the essence of education. As a result, education in the future should become more active and constructive, with an emphasis on authentic learning as well as learning by doing. Because when education focuses on the social interaction of students with other learners, teachers and third parties they will be connected to real life, nature, work, and life in the local and global community. 3.5 Provisions of Cloud Computing Although Cloud Computing is part of the technology due to its importance to education it is treated in this report separately. Experience and the literature (IBM 2013; Gaytos, 2012; Sultan, 2010) shows that there is a range of resources and services available to education via Cloud Computing, whether they concern infrastructure, services, solutions or the introduction of new processes. That is, Cloud Computing will become the fundamental instrument in a Cloud based educational environment by bringing many benefits to education of which the following are considered the most commonly referred and important (Koutsopoulos, 2015b).
  30. 30. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 30 School on the Cloud D5.3 3.5.1 Savings: The Cloud will result in general and in education in particular in a cost effective use of ITC resources, by reducing the cost through the:  Sharing of IT Equipment which are centralized in the cloud and thus deliver economies of scale and eliminate the need for costly local infrastructures.  Sharing the Provision of software licenses, management skills, physical security for servers usually are under- or over-sized and not used to their maximum potential.  Reduction in the Size and Complexity of the number of machines and programs installed and utilized at each site, for the cost of licenses and maintenance is less.  Decrease in the Number of Applications that are installed and run in the computers at each site, for the Cloud provides access to an unlimited number of users.  Cost of Services this is based on the actual use of resources (pay-per-use billing).  Savings in Human Resources for the technical staff required to manage in- house machines is minimum.  Freeing up the Capex budget, for the Cloud involves the operational expenditure model (Opex). 3.5.2 Flexibility: One of the main benefits of Cloud-based teaching and learning is that it will prevent individual investments in equipment, programs etc. The reason is that the centralized infrastructures of cloud computing promotes flexibility in various ways, including the following as they were reported by IBM:  Speed of Adjusting to Change: Centralizing and standardizing the available resources enables faster upgrades in line with technological progress and/or changes to demand and requirements.  Smooth Adjustment to ICT Resources: With cloud Computing due to the flexibility of the infrastructure and the ease of accessing resources based on needs (since, with cloud-based ICT, a new version of the application or any application software can be more easily distributed to users (e.g., servers, storage space, calculating power, application authorities, content) and made available to them.  Flexibility in Implementing Teaching Content: With Cloud Computing students are able to draw from the whole of the content available, as well as find the information and tools they are looking for that are appropriate to their stage of education. This is particular useful for personalized learning, a customized teaching process that meets the needs and specific difficulties of each student (or each profile of student).  Flexibility in terms of the Number of Machines Needed: Cloud architecture can potentially support every type of client hardware and application (albeit with a number of exceptions, depending on the service-provider).  Self-service Potential: Particular useful for students, teachers and education establishments; and  Flexibility of Learning: Cloud Computing is providing easy access to courses and content at any time, any place; options to learn outside the school itself, as well as
  31. 31. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 31 School on the Cloud D5.3 outside of the school calendar (holidays, ongoing learning after- school/postgraduate training) (IBM, 2010). 3.5.3 Effectiveness: Cloud Computing by promoting a dynamic exchange and participation between teachers, pupils and students, their social network and parents, leads first into finding the appropriate to the stage of education information and tools. But more importantly it leads into an effective learning and teaching process. That is, Cloud Computing provides a more productive students' learning because it helps them among others, towards the rise in their level of understanding and achievement, increasing chance of success, gaining a clearer view of the realities of their future working life, etc. In terms of teachers and administrators Cloud Computing provides them with the tools to pool and implement effective management practices. 3.5.4 Sharing: Cloud Computing provides the means in every institution to avoid the duplication of resources that exist elsewhere. That is, skills, good practices, applications, teaching content and infrastructures can be pooled and shared. Moreover, the sharing of equipment leads into harmonizing and making it easier to support resources, as well as avoiding the problems of incompatibility or the difficulty of integration between various tools and systems. Finally sharing teaching material and subject content avoids educational inequalities and the present day issue of “poorly performing” or “second-rate” schools and thus promises fairer access to educational and learning resources. Overall, Cloud Computing sharing capabilities can provide a major input into:  Bridging the digital divide.  Promoting a new way of making education more accessible.  Ultimately reducing digital social inequalities. 3.5.5 Real time Access: Cloud Computing can allow students and teachers to access in real time useful and free information from anywhere in the world in a matter of seconds. In education, this holds a special importance for it provides teachers and students a fundamental tool in the learning process, that of constantly updating their stock of information. 3.5.6 Reduces the Risk of Obsolescence: For all practical purposes Cloud Computing can provide an “anti-obsolescence” insurance against technological changes, because it can cope better and more efficiently with their increasingly rapid development. In addition it can ensure the constant upgrading of all documents for it can be done in a centralized and systematic way, at a single central point. 3.5.7 Reduces Users' Carbon Footprint: Cloud Computing benefits are not, as most computer experts think, only related to how many its users can save as well as provide them with the other educational advantages mentioned previously. Users of cloud computing are more likely to significantly reduce users' carbon footprint. In an era (the year 2015 was the warmest year since temperature records are kept) where the need for educational establishments to become more sustainable, there is an increasing value in improving the institutions’ carbon footprint and energy costs. As a result, virtualized services such as those offered by Cloud Computing should be
  32. 32. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 32 School on the Cloud D5.3 considered an important contribution towards that goal and an added benefit of that educational approach. 3.5.8 Default Web Server: Cloud Computing as it was mentioned can provide a solution to the limitations of shared hosting and the high expense of dedicated servers. In this way, hardware is virtualized and managed by a hypervisor that is able to administer servers as well as create partitions of CPU, memory, storage and network. Since each education stakeholder gets their own virtual server, it appears to them as if they have a dedicated server. As a result, the use of cloud computing can be considered as default web server. 3.6 Trends in Schools School attendance has becοme obligatory and in a specific knowledge transmission way, for the last century in all Western societies (Murtin & Viarengo, 2008). However, recent developments in education, in the form of Cloud Computing, suggest that as learning can take place where and when we need them and in any way we desire, the role of schools has changed and still is evolving. Changes in the teaching and learning approaches, the learning materials and the information conceptualization have been creating a new school, which should be providing: 3.6.1 21st Century Competences: The literature indicates that the future of teaching and learning will be towards new competences. As a result some people will need to update their skills and some others to re-skill. In other words, the future school will need to foster skills that are «generic, transversal and cross-cutting» (Redecker et al., 2011), in order for learners to actively engage in lifelong learning. 3.6.2 Deinstitutionalization: A very important trend in the operation of school is the shift from formal to informal education. With the coming of ICT technologies, in the form of Cloud Computing, learning cannot be exclusively confined to the classroom. That is, teaching and learning is becoming an educational activity which: first it is not bound to any specific educational institution or to any location within them and second it is not dedicated to predetermined periods in life. The reasons are simple: Schools have to be responding to future labor market requirements, and thus to be flexible and responding to individual learners’ needs. In other words, teaching and learning inevitably will span the period from pre-school to post-retirement time and will increasingly take place at home, at the workplace and at other institutions (OECD, 2001). As a result, the new school will actually bring what it can be termed the deinstitutionalization of the school, associated with informal education. 3.6.3 Technological Innovation and Use of New Technologies: The most important shift in our schools is the increasing development of new technologies and their appropriation in teaching and learning. As Mutka et al., 2010 have wrote, "it is difficult to imagine the future of learning environments without ICT (and we might add
  33. 33. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 33 School on the Cloud D5.3 in the form of cloud computing) at the forefront or in the background". Indeed, portable applications such as tablets and mobile phones as well as new communication applications such as collaborative and social networking sites are or very soon will become standard tools across all schools. The reasons are that technological applications: facilitate access with amplified diversity of resources; they allow users to connect through online content: they have become models of collaboration; and provide complex digital competences juxtaposed with new communication skills. Because of these reasons, in the new school attainment of digital competence to use such technologies in a desirable and targeted priority is of paramount importance. 3.7 Trends in Learning The use of Cloud Computing in the classroom will have in the immediate future an impact on the fundamental elements of classroom education (the subjects taught and the learning methods in attaining them), as well the changing role of several influential factors as follows: 3.7.1 The Fundamental Subjects need to Increase: In terms of the teaching subjects it is suggested that Cloud Computing will become the 4th fundamental subject that students should master (after reading, writing and arithmetic). That is, education will be transformed into a process consisting of providing an additional subject that is commoditized and delivered along with the traditional subjects of reading, writing and arithmetic. In other words, in this educational process students, in addition to learning how to read, write and do arithmetic calculations, they need to be efficient in using the Cloud to access all forms of educational material, based on their requirements without regard to where these are coming from or how they are delivered. In other words, the new (computing) subject, together with the other three fundamental ones, will provide a new teaching and learning approach which is essential to meet the basic needs of the 21st century student. Therefore, what is suggested is: first, despite the advancement of modern education approaches the basic subjects will continue to be provided to all students, because they provide them with the necessary dexterities that later on in their lives will allow them to accomplish the necessary daily life tasks. Second and most important in the basic school subjects Cloud Computing should be included. That is, ICT in the form of Cloud Computing should be taught to students together with the other three fundamental subjects. Thus, this vision of the foursome set of fundamental subjects will transform the entire education structure in the 21st century into a different form of education. 3.7.2 Social and Emotional Learning (SEL): The World Economic Forum has moved a step further from the previous suggestion. More specifically, it proposed that because the future economy will transform the workplace simply by been digital, there is a need for the traditional academic learning to be supplemented not only with
  34. 34. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 34 School on the Cloud D5.3 ICT skills, but with Social and Emotional Learning (SEL). In other words, students must learn to be adept at collaboration, communication and problem-solving, which are some of the skills developed through social and emotional learning and are necessary for the 21st labor market. 3.7.3 Students Need to Change to Complex Thinking and Communication: This is also another challenge related to students. The web, big data, modeling technologies and a series of other innovations make possible to train students in complex and systematic thinking, which in turn have an impact on communication skills. The challenge for the future is for students to be able to master modes of complex thinking and the capacity to connect people with other people, using Cloud technologies. In other words, this challenge requires an ability to understand the bigger picture and to make appeals that are based on logic, knowledge and data. 3.7.4 Changing in the Learning Process: Policy makers, researchers and plain everyday experience indicate that with the advent of the 21st century a fundamental transformation of education is needed to address the new dexterities and competences required. Indeed several studies (i.e. European Commission/ Horizon Report Europe: 2014 Schools Edition, European Commission/Ala-Machida et. al., 2010 and Beyond Current Horizons Programme/Facer and Sanford, 2010/ World Economic Forum, 2016) have shown that future developments, related to required skills and competences, will change schools over the next 20 years. Among these changes the most important are:  Learning will Focus on Four Object Competences: In the future, in order to focus on knowledge the most important basic future skills will be analytical and critical dexterities, problem solving, collaboration, negotiation, innovation and self- management, which, however require Languages (good handling of reading and writing), Mathematics (ability to calculate) and the help of Cloud Computing. That is, the four fundamental subjects approach is considered crucial for developing one’s competences over the course of a lifetime.  Learning will be Tailored to the Needs of Individuals or Personalized Learning: In the future, in order to encourage individual learners to develop their own talents and interests, the educational approaches should be tailored to their individual needs, learning styles and preferences. But, such a goal can only be achieved only using Cloud Computing which can provide the students with the necessary skills and competences for a personalized learning, which in turn allow the rigid walls of the classroom to be transform into the random, moving shape of the internet. It should be noted that truly personalized learning will continue to increase its utilization, despite the efforts of many vendors who force products on us that aren’t really personalized.  Learning will be Based on a New Vision: A broader concept than the previous one was introduced by Redecker et. al. (2011), who have suggested that a three axis vision of personalization, collaboration and "informalization» (informal learning) should and will be at the core of teaching and learning in the future. That is, these three principles for organizing learning and teaching will be the guiding force in the school of future, which will be characterized by lifelong and life-wide
  35. 35. 543221–LLP–1–2013–1–GR-KA3- KA3NW 35 School on the Cloud D5.3 learning and shaped by the ubiquity of Information and Communication Technologies in the form of Cloud Computing.  Learning will shift: A process that started a few years back, continues now, but it will take a new integrated form in the immediate future will continue to find ways to shift from teacher-directed, transmission-oriented, passive classrooms to environments in which student voice and agency are both honored and enabled. Thus creating more engaged, student-directed learning opportunities.  Learning will be Active and Connected to Real Life: In the future, in order for the younger generation to learn to grow up as part of society and be aware of what takes place around them, learning is required to be active and constructive and take place in social interaction with other learners, teachers and third parties. In this way, student's learning will be connected to real life, to nature and to the local and global community.  Learning will be Towards Open, Flexible and Networked Relationships: In the future, to limit barriers to students in order to participate across institutions, cultures and educational settings, it requires: the development of compatible personal learning records owned and managed by the students themselves; interoperable systems and standards that will enable students to demonstrate attainment and experience across diverse settings; the arrangements and tools that will enable students to take advantage of learning opportunities across different providers; and the means to support students and teachers to navigate the future complex environment effectively. Of course none other than Cloud Computing can provide students and teachers the ability to accomplish each one of those as well as their combination.  Learning will be Meaningful and Authentic: In the future, learning will be based on access and participation to the world’s global information commons and learning communities. That is, students can find additional ways to use digital learning tools to do meaningful, authentic work instead of traditional, artificial, "decontextualized» classroom assignments. As a result, educational institutions will be forced to recognize the power of students by that access and participation.  Online Learning will Continue to Gain Acceptance: Online learning has been part of the university education for a long time and its use is increasing unabated. However, this trend is now extending to the lower levels of education which are rapidly adapting to the new technologies. In essence, online learning has enjoyed a renaissance over the last few years and has sparked an explosion of development, new ideas, and experimentation. Online pedagogical models are proliferating all over the world and in all levels of education. For example, in Europe, the European Commission’s “Opening Up Education» has put into place several initiatives to stimulate their development. The major reason online learning is expected to transform teaching and learning are: o It is less expensive to deliver than classroom-based education because it does not require physical plant. o It is accessible to learners anytime and anywhere. o It appeals to the Net Generation’s unique needs and expectations in many ways.

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