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Dr. B Ch 11_lecture_presentation

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Dr. B Ch 11_lecture_presentation

  1. 1. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. 11 The Muscular System: Appendicular Musculature PowerPoint® Lecture Presentations prepared by Steven Bassett Southeast Community College Lincoln, Nebraska
  2. 2. Introduction • Appendicular Musculature • Appendicular muscles are responsible for: • Stabilizing the pectoral and pelvic girdles • Moving the upper and lower limbs © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Introduction • Appendicular Muscles • Account for roughly 40 percent of the skeletal muscles in the body • Two major groups of appendicular muscles: • The muscles of the pectoral girdle and upper limbs • The muscles of the pelvic girdle and lower limbs © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4. Factors affecting appendicular muscles function Muscles of the appendicular skeleton may cross one or more joints between its origin and insertion. The position of the muscle as it crosses a joint helps determine the action of that muscle. Complex actions often involve more than one joint of appendicular skeleton. Muscles that cross only one joint typically act as prime movers; muscles that cross more than one joint typically act as synergists. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5. Figure 11.1 Diagram Illustrating the Insertion of the Biceps Brachii Muscle and the Brachioradialis Muscle Biceps brachii: torque and movement Brachioradialis: movement and © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. stability Elbow joint
  6. 6. Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs Muscles associated with the pectoral girdle and upper limbs can be divided into four groups:  Muscles that position the pectoral girdle  Rotator cuff: supraspinatous, infraspinatous, subscapularis and teres minor.  Supraspinatous is located in the supraspinous fossa and assists the Deltoid muscle in arm abduction.  Trapezius: covers most of the superficial area of the upper back.  Muscles that move the arm  Extensors: Triceps Brachii and ancuneous.  Innervated by Radial nerve.  Flexors: Brachialis, Brachioredialis, Biceps brachii  Innervated mainly by musculocutaneous nerve. Brachioradialis is also innervated by Radial nerve.  Muscles that move the forearm and hand  Muscles that move the hand and fingers © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7. Figure 11.3 Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle, Part I © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. C1 SUPERFICIAL DEEP Trapezius Deltoid Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Serratus anterior Levator scapulae Scapula C7 T12 Rhomboid minor Rhomboid major Triceps brachii
  8. 8. Figure 11.4 Muscles That Position the Pectoral Girdle, Part II Trapezius Subclavius Pectoralis major (cut and reflected) Pectoralis minor Internal intercostals External intercostals © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. T12 Levator scapulae Pectoralis minor (cut) Coracobrachialis Serratus anterior Short head Long head Serratus anterior Biceps brachii (insertion) Serratus anterior (origin) Trapezius Origin Insertion Subclavius Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Biceps brachii, long head Biceps brachii, short head
  9. 9. Figure 11.6a Muscles That Move the Arm SUPERFICIAL DEEP Clavicle Sternum Deltoid Pectoralis major © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. T12 Anterior view Ribs (cut) Subscapularis Coracobrachialis Teres major Biceps brachii, short head Biceps brachii, long head
  10. 10. Figure 11.6b Muscles That Move the Arm SUPERFICIAL DEEP © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view Vertebra T1 Supraspinatus Deltoid Latissimus dorsi Thoraco-lumbar fascia Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Teres major Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, lateral head
  11. 11. Figure 11.7b Action Lines for Muscles That Move the Arm Acromion Clavicle Entire deltoid: abduction at the shoulder Scapular deltoid: extension (shoulder) and lateral rotation (humerus) Triceps brachii: extension and adduction at the shoulder Action lines of the biceps brachii muscle, triceps brachii muscle, and the three parts of the deltoid muscle © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Clavicular deltoid: flexion (shoulder) and medial rotation (humerus) Biceps brachii: flexion at the shoulder Humerus
  12. 12. Figure 11.8b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part I © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Palmar carpal ligament Superficial muscles of the right upper limb, anterior view Coracoid process of scapula Humerus Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii, short head Biceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, medial head Brachialis Medial epicondyle of humerus Pronator teres Brachioradialis Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Pronator quadratus Flexor retinaculum
  13. 13. Figure 11.9b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part II © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, lateral head Brachioradialis Olecranon of ulna Anconeus Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis brevis Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Ulna Radius Extensor retinaculum A diagrammatic view of a dissection of the superficial muscles
  14. 14. Figure 11.8f Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part I © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Supinator Pronator teres Radius Ulna Pronator quadratus Anterior view of the deep muscles of the supinated forearm. See also Figures 7.6, 7.7, and 7.8.
  15. 15. Figure 11.8b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part I © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Palmar carpal ligament Superficial muscles of the right upper limb, anterior view Coracoid process of scapula Humerus Coracobrachialis Biceps brachii, short head Biceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, medial head Brachialis Medial epicondyle of humerus Pronator teres Brachioradialis Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Flexor digitorum superficialis Pronator quadratus Flexor retinaculum
  16. 16. Figure 11.9b Muscles That Move the Forearm and Hand, Part II © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Infraglenoid tubercle of scapula Triceps brachii, long head Triceps brachii, lateral head Brachioradialis Olecranon of ulna Anconeus Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis brevis Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis Flexor carpi ulnaris Extensor digitorum Ulna Radius Extensor retinaculum A diagrammatic view of a dissection of the superficial muscles
  17. 17. Figure 11.10a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Triceps brachii, Biceps brachii medial head Medial epicondyle Pronator teres Flexor carpi radialis Palmaris longus Flexor carpi ulnaris Pronator quadratus Flexor retinaculum Brachialis Brachioradialis Palmar carpal ligament LATERAL MEDIAL Anterior view showing superficial muscles of the right forearm
  18. 18. Figure 11.10b Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Tendon of biceps brachii Brachioradialis (retracted) Median nerve Pronator teres (cut) Brachial artery Radius Ulna Flexor carpi ulnaris (retracted) Flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor pollicis longus Flexor digitorum profundus LATERAL MEDIAL Anterior view of the middle layer of muscles. The flexor carpi radialis muscle and palmaris longus muscle have been removed.
  19. 19. Figure 11.10c Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers LATERAL MEDIAL © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Supinator Brachialis Cut tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis Flexor digitorum profundus Flexor pollicis longus Pronator quadratus (see Figure 11.8f) Anterior view of the deep layer of muscles
  20. 20. Figure 11.10d Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. MEDIAL LATERAL Posterior view showing superficial muscles of the right forearm Tendon of triceps Olecranon of ulna Anconeus Flexor carpi ulnaris Ulna Extensor retinaculum Biceps brachii Brachioradialis Extensor carpi radialis longus Extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor carpi radialis brevis Extensor digitorum Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis
  21. 21. Figure 11.10e Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Tendon of extensor pollicis longus Anconeus Extensor digitorum Extensor digiti minimi Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis brevis MEDIAL LATERAL Posterior view of the middle layer of muscles
  22. 22. Figure 11.10f Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Hand and Fingers © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Anconeus Supinator Abductor pollicis longus Extensor pollicis longus Extensor indicis Extensor pollicis brevis Ulna Tendon of extensor digiti minimi (cut) Tendon of extensor digitorum (cut) Radius MEDIAL LATERAL Posterior view of the deep layer of muscles. See also Figures 7.7, 7.8, and 11.9.
  23. 23. Figure 11.11d Intrinsic Muscles, Tendons, and Ligaments of the Hand Synovial sheaths Lumbricals Palmar interosseus Tendons of flexor digitorum (both profundus and superficialis) Opponens digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi brevis Palmaris brevis (cut) Abductor digiti minimi Flexor retinaculum © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior (palmar) view Tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris Tendon of flexor digitorum profundus Tendon of flexor digitorum superficialis First dorsal interosseus Tendon of flexor pollicis longus Adductor pollicis Flexor pollicis brevis Opponens pollicis Abductor pollicis brevis Tendon of palmaris longus Tendon of flexor carpi radialis
  24. 24. Figure 11.11a Intrinsic Muscles, Tendons, and Ligaments of the Hand © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior (dorsal) view Tendon of extensor digiti minimi Abductor digiti minimi Tendon of extensor carpi ulnaris Extensor retinaculum Tendon of extensor indicis First dorsal interosseus muscle Tendon of extensor pollicis longus Tendon of extensor pollicis brevis Tendon of extensor carpi radialis longus Tendon of extensor carpi radialis brevis
  25. 25. Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs  The muscles of the lower limbs are larger and more powerful than those of the upper limbs.  These muscles can be divided into three groups:  Muscles that move the thigh  Adductors of thigh: adductor magnus, adductor lonus, adductor brevis, gracilis. They are innervated by obturator nerve.  Muscles that move the leg  Knee extensors (Quadriceps Femoris): Rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and vastus intermedius. They are innervated by Femoral nerve.  Knee flexors (Hamstrings): Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus and sartorius. They are innervated by Sciatic nerve.  Muscles that move the foot and toes © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  26. 26. Figure 11.12a Muscles That Move the Thigh, Part I Semitendinosus © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Posterior view of pelvis showing deep dissections of the gluteal muscles and lateral rotators. For a superficial view of the gluteal muscles, see Figures 11.2, 11.16, and 11.17a. Gluteus maximus (cut) Sacrum Piriformis Superior gemellus Obturator internus Inferior gemellus Ischial tuberosity Gracilis Adductor magnus Biceps femoris (long head) Iliac crest Gluteus medius (cut) Gluteus minimus Tensor fasciae latae Gluteus medius (cut) Greater trochanter of femur Gluteus maximus (cut) Quadratus femoris Iliotibial tract Adductor magnus
  27. 27. Figure 11.13a Muscles That Move the Thigh, Part II © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior view of the iliopsoas muscle and the adductor group Iliopsoas Psoas major Iliacus Obturator internus Adductor brevis Adductor longus Adductor magnus Gracilis Piriformis Inguinal ligament Obturator externus Pectineus Sartorius (see Table 11.7) L5
  28. 28. Figure 11.14a The Relationships between the Action Lines and the Axis of the Hip Joint © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Iliopsoas: flexion Gluteus medius and minimus: abduction Obturator externus: lateral rotation Tensor fasciae latae: medial rotation Adductor longus: adduction and medial rotation Hamstring group: extension Examples of several muscles that have more than one action line crossing the axis of the hip
  29. 29. Figure 11.14b The Relationships between the Action Lines and the Axis of the Hip Joint © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Adductor magnus Action lines of the adductor magnus
  30. 30. Figure 11.15b Muscles That Move the Leg, Part I © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior superior iliac spine Femoral nerve Inguinal ligament Pubic tubercle Pectineus Tensor fasciae latae Femoral vein Femoral artery Adductor longus Gracilis Rectus femoris Sartorius Vastus medialis Quadriceps tendon Patella Patellar ligament Tibial tuberosity Diagrammatic anterior view of the superficial muscles of the right thigh Gluteus medius Iliacus Iliotibial tract Vastus lateralis
  31. 31. Figure 11.17a Muscles That Move the Leg, Part III Iliac crest © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Gluteal aponeurosis over gluteus medius Tensor fasciae latae Gluteus maximus Adductor magnus Biceps femoris, long head Gracilis Semitendinosus Semimembranosus Iliotibial tract Biceps femoris, short head Semimembranosus Sartorius Popliteal artery (red) and vein (blue) Tibial nerve Medial head of gastrocnemius Lateral head of gastrocnemius Posterior view of superficial muscles of the right thigh
  32. 32. Figure 11.20a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Part III © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. SUPERFICIAL DEEP Patella Iliotibial tract Patellar ligament Tibial tuberosity Fibula Fibularis longus Tibialis anterior Tibia Extensor digitorum longus Extensor hallucis longus Superior extensor retinaculum Lateral malleolus Inferior extensor retinaculum Anterior views showing superficial and deep muscles of the right leg
  33. 33. Figure 11.18a Extrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes, Part I © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Plantaris Popliteus Gastrocnemius, medial head Soleus Gastrocnemius, lateral head Soleus Gastrocnemius (cut and removed) Calcaneal tendon Calcaneus Superficial muscles of the posterior surface of the legs; these large muscles are primarily responsible for plantar flexion.
  34. 34. Figure 11.21a Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes Tendon of fibularis brevis Superior extensor retinaculum Lateral malleolus of fibula Inferior extensor retinaculum Tendons of extensor digitorum longus © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Medial malleolus of tibia Tendon of tibialis anterior Extensor hallucis brevis Tendon of extensor hallucis longus Abductor hallucis Tendon of extensor hallucis brevis Extensor expansion Dorsal views of the right foot Dorsal interossei Tendons of extensor digitorum brevis Fibularis brevis Superior extensor retinaculum Lateral malleolus of fibula Inferior extensor retinaculum Tendons of extensor digitorum longus Dorsal interossei Tendons of extensor digitorum brevis Medial malleolus of tibia Tendon of tibialis anterior Tendon of extensor hallucis longus Abductor hallucis Tendon of extensor hallucis brevis Extensor expansion
  35. 35. Figure 11.21d Intrinsic Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lumbricals Tendons of flexor digitorum brevis overlying tendons of flexor digitorum longus Flexor digiti minimi brevis Abductor digiti minimi Plantar aponeurosis (cut) Fibrous tendon sheaths Flexor hallucis brevis Abductor hallucis Flexor digitorum brevis Calcaneus Plantar (inferior) view, superficial layer of the right foot
  36. 36. Fascia, Muscle Layers, and Compartments •Dense connective tissue layers provide a structural framework for the soft tissues of the body. •The connective tissue fibers of the deep fasciae support and interconnect adjacent skeletal muscles but permit independent movement. •The deep fascia extends between the bones and the superficial fascia and separates the soft tissues of the limb into separate compartments. © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.
  37. 37. Figure 11.23c Musculoskeletal Compartments of the Lower Limb © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lateral Compartment Anterior Compartment Superficial Posterior Compartment Deep Posterior Compartment Horizontal section through proximal right leg Fibularis longus Anterior tibial artery and vein Tibialis anterior Gastrocnemius Soleus Posterior tibial artery and vein Tibialis posterior

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