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PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky 
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels 
19 ...
Blood Vessels 
 Blood is carried in a closed system of vessels that begins and 
ends at the heart 
 The three major type...
Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels 
 Arteries and veins are composed of three tunics – tunica 
interna, tunica media,...
Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels 
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure ...
Tunics 
Tunica interna (tunica intima) 
 Endothelial layer that lines the lumen of all vessels 
 In vessels larger than ...
Tunics 
Tunica externa (tunica adventitia) 
 Collagen fibers that protect and reinforce vessels 
 Larger vessels contain...
Elastic (Conducting) Arteries 
Thick-walled arteries - near the heart; the aorta and its major 
branches 
 Large lumen al...
Muscular (Distributing) Arteries and Arterioles 
Muscular arteries – distal to elastic arteries; deliver blood to 
body or...
Capillaries 
Capillaries - the smallest blood vessels 
 Walls consisting of a thin tunica interna, one cell thick 
 Allo...
Capillary Beds 
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.4a
Capillary Beds 
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.4b
Blood Flow Through Capillary Beds 
Precapillary sphincter 
 Cuff of smooth muscle that surrounds each true capillary 
 R...
Venous System: Venules 
Venules 
 Are formed when capillary beds unite 
 Allow fluids and WBCs to pass from the bloodstr...
Venous System: Veins 
Veins 
 Formed when venules converge 
 Composed of three tunics, with a thin tunica media and a 
t...
Venous System: Veins 
 Veins have much lower blood pressure and thinner walls 
than arteries 
 To return blood to the he...
Systemic Blood Pressure 
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.5
Factors Aiding Venous Return 
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.6
Circulatory Pathways 
The vascular system has two distinct circulations: 
 Pulmonary circulation – short loop that runs f...
Differences Between Arteries and Veins 
Arteries Veins 
Delivery Blood pumped into single 
systemic artery – the aorta 
Co...
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.17a 
Pulmonary Circulation
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.18 
Systemic Circulation
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Know these arteries!
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Arteries of the Head and Neck 
 
 
 
 
 
  
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummi...
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Arteries of the Upper Limbs and Thorax 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Be...
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.22c 
Arteries of the Abdomen 
1 
2 
3...
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.22d 
Arteries of the Abdomen 
 
 
...
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Arteries of the Lower Limbs 
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.23b, c 
...
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Know these veins! 
Figure 19.24b
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.25b 
Veins of the Head and Neck 
 
...
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.26b 
Veins of the Upper Limbs and Tho...
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.27b 
Veins of the Abdomen
Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.27c 
Veins of the Abdomen 
 

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings 
Figure 19.28b, c 
Veins of the Pelvis and Lower...
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Chapter 19 blood vessels

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Chapter 19 blood vessels

  1. 1. PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Vince Austin, University of Kentucky The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels 19 Human Anatomy & Physiology, Sixth Edition Elaine N. Marieb Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  2. 2. Blood Vessels  Blood is carried in a closed system of vessels that begins and ends at the heart  The three major types of vessels are arteries, capillaries, and veins  Arteries carry blood away from the heart  Veins carry blood toward the heart  Capillaries contact tissue cells and directly serve cellular needs Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  3. 3. Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels  Arteries and veins are composed of three tunics – tunica interna, tunica media, and tunica externa  Lumen – central blood-containing space surrounded by tunics  Capillaries are composed of endothelium with sparse basal lamina Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  4. 4. Generalized Structure of Blood Vessels Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.1b
  5. 5. Tunics Tunica interna (tunica intima)  Endothelial layer that lines the lumen of all vessels  In vessels larger than 1 mm, a subendothelial connective tissue basement membrane is present Tunica media  Smooth muscle and elastic fiber layer, regulated by sympathetic nervous system  Controls vasoconstriction/vasodilation of vessels Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  6. 6. Tunics Tunica externa (tunica adventitia)  Collagen fibers that protect and reinforce vessels  Larger vessels contain vasa vasorum Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  7. 7. Elastic (Conducting) Arteries Thick-walled arteries - near the heart; the aorta and its major branches  Large lumen allow low-resistance conduction of blood  Contain elastin in all three tunics  Withstand and smooth out large blood pressure fluctuations  Allow blood to flow fairly continuously through the body Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  8. 8. Muscular (Distributing) Arteries and Arterioles Muscular arteries – distal to elastic arteries; deliver blood to body organs  Have thick tunica media with more smooth muscle and less elastic tissue  Active in vasoconstriction Arterioles – smallest arteries; lead to capillary beds  Control flow into capillary beds via vasodilation and constriction Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  9. 9. Capillaries Capillaries - the smallest blood vessels  Walls consisting of a thin tunica interna, one cell thick  Allow only a single RBC to pass at a time There are three structural types of capillaries: continuous, fenestrated, and sinusoids Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  10. 10. Capillary Beds Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.4a
  11. 11. Capillary Beds Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.4b
  12. 12. Blood Flow Through Capillary Beds Precapillary sphincter  Cuff of smooth muscle that surrounds each true capillary  Regulates blood flow into the capillary Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  13. 13. Venous System: Venules Venules  Are formed when capillary beds unite  Allow fluids and WBCs to pass from the bloodstream to tissues  Large venules have one or two layers of smooth muscle (tunica media) Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  14. 14. Venous System: Veins Veins  Formed when venules converge  Composed of three tunics, with a thin tunica media and a thick tunica externa consisting of collagen fibers and elastic networks Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  15. 15. Venous System: Veins  Veins have much lower blood pressure and thinner walls than arteries  To return blood to the heart, veins have special adaptations  Large-diameter lumens, which offer little resistance to flow  Valves (resembling semilunar heart valves), which prevent backflow of blood  Venous sinuses – specialized, flattened veins with extremely thin walls (e.g., coronary sinus of the heart and dural sinuses of the brain) Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  16. 16. Systemic Blood Pressure Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.5
  17. 17. Factors Aiding Venous Return Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.6
  18. 18. Circulatory Pathways The vascular system has two distinct circulations:  Pulmonary circulation – short loop that runs from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart  Systemic circulation – routes blood through a long loop to all parts of the body and returns to the heart Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  19. 19. Differences Between Arteries and Veins Arteries Veins Delivery Blood pumped into single systemic artery – the aorta Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Blood returns via superior and interior venae cavae and the coronary sinus Location Deep, and protected by tissue Both deep and superficial Pathways Fair, clear, and defined Convergent interconnections Supply/drainage Predictable supply Dural sinuses and hepatic portal circulation
  20. 20. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.17a Pulmonary Circulation
  21. 21. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.18 Systemic Circulation
  22. 22. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Know these arteries!
  23. 23. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  24. 24. Arteries of the Head and Neck        Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.20b
  25. 25. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  26. 26. Arteries of the Upper Limbs and Thorax         Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings   
  27. 27. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  28. 28. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.22c Arteries of the Abdomen 1 2 3 5 4 6 7
  29. 29. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.22d Arteries of the Abdomen     
  30. 30. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings
  31. 31. Arteries of the Lower Limbs Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.23b, c        
  32. 32. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Know these veins! Figure 19.24b
  33. 33. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.25b Veins of the Head and Neck       
  34. 34. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.26b Veins of the Upper Limbs and Thorax              
  35. 35. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.27b Veins of the Abdomen
  36. 36. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.27c Veins of the Abdomen  
  37. 37. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 19.28b, c Veins of the Pelvis and Lower Limbs

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