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Panel designing

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Define about Panels and its types.

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Panel designing

  1. 1. Definition  An enclosure that contains different type of switchgears, control and power units to perform the desired operation.
  2. 2. Type of Panels • PLC control panel • Motor Control Centre (MCC) • Relay Control Centre (RCC) • Power Control Centre (PCC) • Automatic Power Factor Control (APFC) • Automatic Change Over Panel • Low Tension (LT) Panel • Medium Tension (MT) Panel • High Tension (HT) Panel • Extra High Tension (EHT) Panel • Ultra High Tension (UHT) Panel, etc.
  3. 3. Switchgears  The apparatus used for switching, controlling and protecting the electrical circuits and equipment is known as switchgears.  Fuses, Circuit breakers, Relays etc.
  4. 4. Switches  A device which is used to open or close an electrical circuit in a convenient way. It can be used under full load or no load conditions but it can’t interrupt the fault currents.
  5. 5. Fuse  A fuse is a short piece of wire or thin strip which melts when excessive current flows through it for sufficient time.  It is inserted in series with the circuit to be protected.  It works on the principle of Thermal property of current.
  6. 6. Type of Fuses  High Rupturing Capacity (HRC)  Kit-Kat or Rewire able  Cartridge Fuse material Fuse materials are lead, tin, copper, zinc and silver
  7. 7. Important terms  Current rating of fuse element: It is the maximum current which the fuse element can normally carry without overheating or melting.  Fusing current: It is the minimum current at which the fuse element melts.  Fuse law: Square of fusing current(I) =k × Cubed of diameter of the wire(d); where k is fuse constant. S.No. Material Value of k Value of k d in cm d in mm 1 2 3 4 Copper Aluminum Tin Lead 2530 1873 405.5 340.6 80 59 12.8 10.8
  8. 8. Circuit Breaker  An equipment which can open or close a circuit under no load, full load and fault conditions. It is so designed that it can be operated manually(or by remote control) under normal conditions and automatically under fault conditions. For the latter operation, a relay circuit is used with a circuit breaker.
  9. 9. Type of Circuit-Breakers • Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) • Moulded Case Circuit Breaker (MCCB) • Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELCB) • Residual Current Circuit Breaker (RCCB) • Air Circuit Breaker (ACB) • Vacuum Circuit Breaker (VCB) • Oil Circuit Breaker (OCB) • Sulphur Hexa Fluoride (SF6), etc.
  10. 10. In electrical power distribution, a bus bar is a strip of copper or aluminum that conducts electricity within a switchboard, distribution board, substation or other electrical apparatus. Selection: Bus bar sizes can not be calculated only from overall size. There are various derating factors like arrangement of bus bar,nos of bus bar, spacing, enclosure size, ventilation in room, temp rise, skin effect, proximity effect etc. which need to be consider while designing the bus bar. Generally current carrying capacity of Al. is 0.8A per sqmm and Copper is 1.6A per Sqmm. That does mean 1sqmm can carry 0.8 amp current . If size of bus bar is 100mm x 10 mm then it can carry 800 amp.
  11. 11. Bus duct  Bus ways, or bus ducts, are long bus bars with a protective cover. Rather than branching the main supply at one location, they allow new circuits to branch off anywhere along the route of the bus way. Current-Transformer(CT)  It is used to reduce the amount of current sent to the Ammeter for measurement.
  12. 12. Power-Cables A cable essentially consists of one or more conductors covered with suitable insulation and surrounded by a protecting cover. Type of cables: • Underground cable a) Armoured cable b) Unarmoured cable • Overhead cable Selection of cable: 1 sq.mm≈2 Amp.
  13. 13. Classification of Cables  Low-tension (L.T.) cables — up to 1000 V  High-tension (H.T.) cables — up to 11,000 V  Super-tension (S.T.) cables — from 22 kV to 33 kV  Extra high-tension (E.H.T.) cables — from 33 kV to 66 kV  Extra super voltage cables — beyond 132 kV A cable may have one or more than one core depending upon the type of service for which it is intended. It may be (i) single-core (ii) two-core (iii) three-core (iv) four-core etc. For a 3-phase service, either 3-single-core cables or three-core cable can be used depending upon the operating voltage and load demand.

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