cement plant report

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cement plant report

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION 1
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Cement industry is one of the important industries to country development in the light of the main important basis for construction industry and also the important indicator showing domestic economic growth. In the past, the domestic demand of cement used to be up to 36 million tons. But, the severely negative effects from economic crisis in 1997 have caused real estate and construction industry subdued; the domestic demand of cement has shrunk and been in oversupply atmosphere. Until 2001–2003, the government has launched many economic actuating policies. This has made real estate and construction industry recovered and the demand of cement has been increasing gradually from 21 million tons in 2001 to 25 million tons and 26.82 million tons in 2002 and 2003 respectively; and the price level is higher in line with increased production cost. Cement Industry originated in India when the first plant commenced production in 1914 at Porbandar, Gujarat. The industry has since been growing at a steady pace, but in the initial stage, particularly during the period before Independence, the growth had been very slow. Since indigenous production was not sufficient to meet the entire domestic demand, the Government had to control its price and distribution statutorily. Large quantities of cement had to be imported for meeting the deficit. The industry was partially decontrolled in 1982 and this gave impetus to its pace of growth. Installed capacity increased to more than double from 27 million tones in 198081 to 62 million tones in 1989-90. 2
  3. 3. The cement industry responded positively to liberalization policy and the Government decontrolled the industry fully on 1st March 1989. From 1991 onwards cement industry got the status of a priority industry in schedule III of the industry policy statement, which made it eligible for automatic approval for foreign investment up to 51% and also for technical collaboration on normal terms of payment of royalty. After the globalization and liberalization of Indian economy, the cement industry has been growing rapidly at an average rate of 9 per cent. The country is now the second largest producer of cement in the world next only to China with a total capacity of 188.97 million tones. Additionally, in the last two decades, the industry has undergone rapid technological up gradation and growth, and now, some of the cement plants in India are comparable to the world’s best operating plants in all respects. Till a few years ago India was importing cement from other countries, as the production could not meet the demand for the whole country. Now the tables have turned as India has started exporting large quantities of cement and clinker to Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Maldives, Mauritius, Africa, Seychelles, Burma, UAE, and Singapore etc. India is today the second largest producer of cement in world with an installed capacity of close to 188.97 million tones per year. 95 % is consumed domestically and only 5% is exported. Demand is growing at more than 10 % per annum. More than 90 % of production comes from large cement plants. There are a total of 130 large and more than 350 3
  4. 4. small cement manufacturing units in the country. More than 80% of the cement-manufacturing units use modern environment friendly “dry” process. Today total number of cement companies in Indian market are 47,having number of cement plants 139, the installed capacity of large plants is 188.97 million tones and cement production during 2007-2008 was 168.31 million tones The forms of cement produced:• Ordinary Portland Cement ( OPC ) • Portland Pozzolana Cement ( PPC ) • Portland Slag Cement ( PSC ) Major players in Indian cement sector:• ACC • BCL Cement • Gujarat Ambuja Cement • Ultratech Cement • India Cements • Century Cements • Jaypee Group • Madras Cements • Birla Corporation Limited 4
  5. 5. 5
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION OF BIRLA CORPORATION LTD. Overview Founded in1919 by the visionary industrialist Shri G.D. Birla, at the outskirts of the Kolkata, Birla jute manufacturing company Ltd. Was the first company of the Birla Industrial Conglomerate. Under the stewardship of his nephew Shri M.P. Birla, the company diversified and expand its business interest beyond jute, to encompass cement PVC coated fabric, PVC floor covering and auto trims. After the demise of Late Mr. M.P. Birla in 1990, his wife, Mrs. Priyamvada Birla took over as chairman of Birla Corporation and continued to 6
  7. 7. lead the company till her death on 3 July 2004. She was an entrepreneur of distinction strong business acumen and, under her leadership, the company crossed the Rs. 1,300-plus turnover mark. The company, renamed Birla Corporation Limited, to reflect the wide range of operation, is the flagship company of the M. P. Birla group. The strategic focus of the company has been on steady growth by developing and assimilating technologies of tomorrow to manufacturing an ever widening range of value-added product, while striving for complete customer satisfaction in India and abroad. Birla Corporation Limited is proud of safe work practice followed at all its factories and godowns. As an enlightened corporate citizen, Birla Corporation Limited is keenly aware of social responsibilities too, and provide education and health care facilities for its employees, their families and the community at large. Its export in 2004-05 stood at Rs. 85.28crores. Over the year, BCL’s business has grown from strength to strength. 1.1 Overview : Cement Industry The cement division of Birla Corporation Limited has seven plants, two each at Satna (M.P.) – Satna Cement Works & Birla Vikas Cement, Chanderia (Rajasthan) – Birla Cement Works & Chanderia Cement Works, and Durgapur (W.B.) – Durgapur Cement Works & Durga Works & Durga Hitech Cement and one at Raebareli (U.P.) the total capacity of these plants is 57.80 lakh tones. This plant manufacture varieties of Cement like Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC),43 & 53 grade, Portland Pozolanna Cement (PPC), Fly Ash based PPC, 7
  8. 8. Low Alkali Portland Cement, Portland Slag Cement, Low Heat Cement and Sulphate resisting Portland cement. The cement is marked under the brand name of Birla Cement KHAJURAHO, Birla cement CHETAK, Birla cement and Birla premium cement, bringing the product under a common brand of Birla cement while retaining the niche identity of Khajuraho (for the OPC product of Satna), Chetak (for OPC product of Chanderia) and Samrat of blended cement, i.e. PPC & PSC, for all the units. The division export large quantity of cement to Nepal and Bangladesh, under the brand name of Khajuraho, Samrat, Camel, Royal tiger. The special variety of SAMRAT cement, begun produced by the company is ideal for mass concrete. RCC / pre-stressed – pre-cast structure (for reduced thermal crack), increased water tightness of concrete, increase resistance to Sulphate soils and aggressive water and increased resistance to alkali aggregate reaction beside corrosion resistance properties. SCW, BVC and DVC have received the ISO 9001-2000 quality system certification, covering the entire range of production and marketing. SCW & BVC have received the IS / ISO 14001 certificate, an international recognition for “Implementation of Environmental Management System” BVC have got the “Best productivity of Performance” award from NPC during 1986-88, NCCBM recognized it for “best in energy performance” during 1986-87. It received “National Safety Award” for outstanding performance in achieving the longest accident free-period during 1994. In 1996, it received the runner cup under 8
  9. 9. scheme –1 of National Safety Award, for the lowest average frequency rate accident. BVC has also received “Fuller Energy Conservation Award” as first for “Lowest Thermal Energy Consumption” (for group B’ category plants) for three consecutive years i.e. 1997-98, 1998-99, 1999-2000. SCW has been adjudged by NCCBM the “Best In Energy Performance” during 1993-94, 199495, 1995-96, 1997-98. It was the second best for “Improvement in Energy Performance” during 1996-97. SCW has also got “Fuller Energy Conservation Award” as first prize for “Lowest Thermal Energy Consumption” (for group A category plants) for three consecutive years i.e. 1997-98, 1998-99, & 19992000. BCW & SCW have received the ISO 9001-2000 certification for Quality Management system, covering the entire range of production and marketing and also have received the IS / ISO: 14001 certification for BCW & CCW have bagged various awards from NCCBM. CCW have received the “Best Productivity” award during 1989-90 & 1993-94. NCCBM recognized it for “Best Improvement in Thermal Energy Performance” during 1993-94. It has won “Lal Bahadur Shastri Memorial National award for “Excellent Pollution Control Implementation” for 2001-02 by International Greenland Society. BCW was awarded “Best Improvement in Energy Performance” and “Best Improvement in Thermal Energy Performance” during 1992-93. The Rajasthan Government gave “Bhama Shah Samman” it during 1996. VEC-IIT Madras chose Chanderia unit for excellence in “Improving Machinery Health Condition” during 1997. VEC, Chennai chose Chanderia unit for sustained implementation of condition monitoring and continued Machine 9
  10. 10. Health Improvement Award during 2001-02. The Central Board awarded the “Worker Education Trophy” for worker education, Udaipur Ministry of Labor, Government of India for excellent contribution and Implementation of workers’ training during 1998-99 and again in 2001-02. BCW has received excellence award in Cement Sector from the Rajasthan State Council, Jaipur, during 200203. The DWC plant has received IS / ISO 9001-2000 license for Quality Management system certification (accredited by road voor accredited Netherlands). The capacity of the 6,00,000 tons plant increased by another 10,00,000 tons, making it the largest plant in West Bengal. The new grinding unit, Durga Hitech Cement, has one ball mill of 165 TPH capacities. This environment-friendly project, commissioned in 2005-06, utilized thermal power station fly ash to produce PPC. DCW recorded 114% capacity utilization in 2004-05, emerging as the highest growing cement unit in the eastern region. Cement plant were set up in MP and Rajasthan and Grinding units in West Bengal and UP. • Satna Cement Works - 1959 • Birla Cement Works - 1967 • Durgapur Cement Works - 1974 • Birla Cement Works - 1982 • Chittor Cement Works - 1986 • SCW-Conversion Plant - 1989 • Raebareli Unit - 1998 10
  11. 11. Late Shri M.P.Birla Late Smt. Priyamvada Birla Mr. P.S. Marwah President of Satna Cement And Birla Vikash Cement Plant satna (m.p.) 11
  12. 12. Birla Corporation Limited is a multi- product conglomerate. • It plays significant roles in the Cement, Jute, PVC floor Covering, Auto Trim and Steel casting industries. • The concentric around the triangle represents this very multidimensional nature. • The apex of the triangle is a visual representation of the force that drives the entire corporation – the unifying force in search of excellence. The circle represents the inspiration to explore new frontiers of growth. MANAGEMENT The day- to- day management of the company is being looked after by the Chief Executive Officer, Shri B.R.Nahar who is assisted by a team of highly qualified professional persons. Chairman Late Shri R.S. Lodha ED & CEO 12
  13. 13. Shri B.R.Nahar Board of Directors Shri N.K. Kejriwal Smt Nandini Nopany Shri Harsh V. Lodha Shri Pracheta Majumdar Shri Vikram Swarup Shri Anand Bordia Shri B.B. Tandon Shri D.N.Ghosh CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER Shri P.K. Chand ACTING COMPANY SECRETARY Shri Girish sharma AUDITORS H.P. Khandelwal & company charted Accountants 13
  14. 14. Achievements 1. SCW, BVC & DCW have got ISO 9002 quality certification, covering the entire range of production & marketing. 2. Best Energy performance award in 1995-96 & 1994-95. 3. Second best improvement in energy performance award in 1995-96. 4. Top export award in 1994-95. 5. First prize in productivity to CCW in 1993-94. 6. Special Export award in 1993-94. 7. Best Energy performance award to SCW in 1993-94. 8. Special export in 1992-93. 9. Top export award for 1990-91 & 1991-92. 10. Second Best Performance in 1991-92. 11. Best Performance award in 1989-90. 14
  15. 15. AWARD EARNED BY SCW AND BVC S. NO. 1. AWARDS Best Energy AWARDED BY YEAR Performance NCB, New Delhi and 1986-87 Award BVC Power 1993-94 SCW 1994-95 SCW 1995-96 SCW 1996-97 SCW 1997-98 SCW of 1997-98 SCW Cement Manufactures 1998-99 SCW Association. 1999-00 SCW 2001-02 SCW 1997-98 BVC 1998-99 BVC National Productivity 1987-88 BVC Fuller Energy Conservation M.P. Award 3. of Govt. of India 2. Ministry UNIT Best Productivity Award Chamber Council, New Delhi 4. Export Award CAPEXIL, Kolkata BVC 1991-92 BVC 1993-94 SCW & BVC 1994-95 BVC 1996-97 BVC 1997-98 BVC 2001-02 15 1990-91 BVC
  16. 16. 5. National Safety Award Ministry Of Labour, 1994 BVC Govt of India 6. ISO-9001 for quality RWTUV, Germany Management Since July SCW & BVC 1994 Renewed every year 7. IS / ISO-14001 for BIS, New Delhi Environment Management Since Sept. SCW & BVC 1999 Renewed every 3 year 8. Sagmania Mines Safety DGMS 1997-98 Award 9. Mines Environment & Mineral ISM, Dhanbad 1997-98 conservation 2002-03 Overall Performance 10. Best Energy Conservation Rajiv Implementation Gold Award Memorial Award 16 Gandhi Oct 2004 National SCW
  17. 17. Product Profile At Satna Cement Works & Birla Vikas Cement the dry process of Cement production followed which is termed as a modern technology. The Entire Manufacturing process is controlled through a microprocessor based programmable logic control system to maintain a constantly uniform quality of Cement & high rate of production. The entire operation of plant is controlled in a single control room. SCW plant, which was initially, a plant using a wet technology for cement production was changed an to a dry one in the year 1989. These modern plant have also taken adequate core to prevent the environment policy & dust nuisance to its surrounding areas. These cement mills have electrostatic precipitator (ESP) installed to check dust emission & to ensure health hazard free atmosphere. Both the plant uses the global technology for the production of goods & consistent quality cement. The Stacker Reclaimer Technology & the alkali by pass system along with other sound technology make the manufacturing process of Birla Cement Khajuraho a highly competitive & unique one. The various varieties of cement produced at these plants are: 1) Ordinary Portland Cement (33, 43, 53 grade) 2) Portland Pozzolana Cement (PPC) 3) Low alkali Cement. 4) Sulphate resistant Cement. 5) Special Cement for Indian Railway Sleeper (IRS-T-40) 17
  18. 18. The benefits of using high quality cement manufactured by the company are : 1) Ideal for mass concrete structure. 2) Reduce thermal cracks. 3) Increased water tightness of concrete. 4) Higher fineness, ideal for plastering. 5) Increased resistance for sulphate attack & aggressive water. 6) Increased resistance to alkali aggregate reaction. 7) Improved durability. General Review The year 2005-06 was the most successful year of the company since its inception in terms of financial performance. The company, maintaining stable growth, posted 7% increased in turnover to Rs. 1433.44 crores as compared to Rs. 1342.64 crores in the pervious year. The interest cost further reduced during the year Rs. 13.62 crores as compared to Rs. 21.69 crores in the previous year. Profit before tax recorded at 54% jump when up to Rs. 144.09 crores from Rs. 93.70 crores in the previous year. The company recorded the highest ever turnover, cash profit, profit before tax and profit after tax during the year. The management continued its effort to control and reduce cost across all the 18
  19. 19. division at all levels. Profitability of the company improved due to increase in volumes, sales price realization and better operating efficiencies. 19
  20. 20. Corporate Matters Thermal power plant of 27 MW each for captive use at the company’s units at Chanderia and Satna were installed and put to use during the year. These power plant are expected to reduce the power cost significantly and increase the operational efficiencies. The company’s new unit: Durga Hitech Cement, adjacent to the existing plant at Durgapur, West Bengal was also commissioned for commercial production on 24 December 2005. The company has taken up steps to enhance the capacity of clinker production at its plant in phases. The project once executed, will result in saving in fixed running cost and existing infrastructure like railway siding and power plant will also be used optionally. Effort to shift Soorah Jute Mill’s to Birlapur from heart of Kolkata city for economic viability, operational efficiencies and environmental issues are continuing. 20
  21. 21. Cement Manufacturing process 1-Mining: The cement manufacturing process starts from the mining of lime stone , which is the main raw material for making cement. Limestone is excavated from open cast mines after drilling and blasting and loaded on to the dumpers which transport the material and unloaded into the hoppers of limestone crusher. 2-Crushing Stacking & Reclaiming of Limestone: The l/s crusher crush the Limestone to minus 80mm size and discharge the material onto a belt conveyer which take it to the stacker via the bulk material analyser. The material is stacked in longitudinal stock piles . Limestone is extract transversely from the stockpiles by the reclaimers and conveyed to the Raw Mill hoppers for grinding of raw meal. 3-Raw Meal Drying/Grinding & Homogen-ization: Reclaimed l/s along with some lat-rite stored in their respective hoppers is fed to the raw mill for fine grinding. The hot gasses coming from the clinkerisations section are used in raw mill for drying and transport of the ground raw meal to the electrostatic precipitator /Bag house, where it is collected and then stored and homogenized in the concrete silo. Raw meal extracted from the silo(ne called kiln feed ) is feed to the top of the pre-heater for pyro-processing. 4- cooling: Hot clinker discharged from the kiln drops on the cooler and gets cooled. 21
  22. 22. 5-Clinkerisation: Cement clinker is made by pyro processing of kiln feed in the pre-heater and the rotary kiln. Fine coal is fires as fuel to provided the necessary heat in the kiln and the pre-calciner located at the bottom of the 5/6 stage pre-heater. Hot clinker discharged from the kiln drops on the gate cooler and gets cooled. The cooler discharged the clinker onto the pan / bucket conveyer and it is transported to the Conveyer Belt 22
  23. 23. Mining The major raw material for cement manufacturing is limestone. Limestone is excavated from open cast mines after drilling and blasting and loaded onto the dumper which is transported the material and unloaded into hopper of the limestone crusher. Equipment Used in mining: 1. Compressor drilling machine. 2. Shovels/Excavators-for lifting material onto dampers. 3. Dumper- for carrying material. 4. Built-dozers. 5. Pay-loaders. Explosive: 1. Ammonium nitrate(Fuel oil) 2. Nitroglycerine. 3. Ammonium nitrate and slurry explosive. Steps of Mining: 1. The first step of mining l/s the l/s has been located. 2. Limestone mining is to remove the mines. 23
  24. 24. 3. The third step is to be taken as drilling. 4. After drilling blasting is done. Drilling and Blasting: 1. The large hole blasting method is not pre-dominated in quarrying in open pit. 2. The depth of the wholes are more then 12m and 100-150mm dia. Lime Stone Crusher Lime stone crusher is the lead role playing equipment in this section. The raw lime stone is carried out from the mines is introduced to the lime stone hopper through whole pack dumper of capacity 32 tons. The feed inside the impact crusher first enters to the crushing chamber with help of apron feed encounters. The impact bars mounted over the rotor &revolving with the circum-frencial velocity of 30-40 m/sec. Material are blown bars and stick on a impact arm. Here materials are initially install to hold these grinding bars. The squire impact arm is install just behind the impact path and having 12 liners. When the material get crushed enough for transportation towards stacker. A bag house is also installed to control the dust loss and pollution control. Equipment Used in Crushing: 1. Crusher. 2. Apron conveyer – for feeding l/s to crusher. 3. Bag filter – for collecting dust. 4. Belt conveyer- for transporting crushed material. 24
  25. 25. This section is worked with following equipment: 1. Impact crusher. 2. Magnetic separator 3. Limestone stacker& re claimer 4. Bag filter 5. Apron feeder 6. Limestone hopper & late rite hopper The important mode of transportation in this section is belt conveyer. Main component of impact crusher: • Housing: housing of impact crusher is of studly steel fabricated and consists of three parts. • Rotor: The rotor in the impact crusher is of s-type construction secured to the shaft by locking assembly. The blow bar placed in to the rotor from the side and are secured against lateral moment by a suitable locking device at the extreme end. The rotor is dynamically arranged to avoid any undesirable stress on the bearing. • Blow bar: Blow bar is made from high quality alloys steel. After the certain period in operation the blow bar can be taken out from the rotor and turned to other side or exchange. • Wear plates: housing is fitted with the resistance wear plates which are secured in position by special fastners which can be changed as and required. 25
  26. 26. • Impact Arm: The impact crusher is fitted with the impact arm. The impact arms are each suspended in the housing parts by means of knock out spindle and can be adjusted the desire gap setting from out side. • Hydraulic system: Impactors are depends on their size normally supplied with a hydraulic arrangement for setting of gap for grinding path lifting of the rear top housing. Magnetic Separator: A magnetic separator is installed just above belt conveyer between crusher and stacker. When the magnetic material are comes along with lime stone .they get se-prated by magnetic separator. In the magnetic separator a permanent magnet and a continually moving belt being fin use. Magnetic materials are attached by magnet due to cont. rotating of belt , material get seprated on removal of magnetic field. Gamma Matrices: A gamma matrices analyzer being used for analyze the chemical composition of lime stone. It is also known as cross belt analyzer. In gamma metric analyzer we are using specially gamma rays, the gamma rays are fall on material and return back, according to absorption rays in to material we can determine the chemical composition of lime stone . LIME STONE STACKER:A limestone stockpile (closed stock pile) has been proposed at the plant site with stacker re-claimer. The re-claimer will help in feeding a homogenized limestone by mixing rich quality LS with low grade mineral. By installing a re-claimer in the plant, the plant can achieve not only quality raw material input but also the conservation of natural resources by utilizing low-grade raw material. 26
  27. 27. There are two main methods being used for stacking of lime stone in cement industry. They are…….. 1. Chevron Method 2. Windrow Method Pulverizer :- 27
  28. 28. LIME STONE RECLAIMER 28
  29. 29. Re-claimer which is used in our industry is bridge type scrapping reclaimer. The bridge on which the racking down device is mounted accommodates a scraper chain conveyer whose blades shift the dislodged material along to collecting belt conveyer that extent along one edge of stack pile. Re-claimer having harrow assembly. Reclaimer moves on a track for fast travel a.c. Motor being used and for slow traveling d.c. motor being used. Harrow is moves to and fro motion on rack car which is driven by a motor. A limit sensor is installed for reverse and forward motion of harrow assembly. According to pile we can adjust the inclination of harrows. When harrows are moves they are scrap the material of each layer of stockpiles and material slides down due to gravity. A scraper chain take out the material and fed to belt conveyor material now get transported forwards limestone hoppers. 29
  30. 30. Raw mill: Blending Of Raw Meal: 30
  31. 31. The meal from the mill need storage and blending become different chemical composition of lime stone in different lot. They may vary the quality of lime stone. Silo: Silos are huge construction of concrete and iron with aeration units to stone and blend the fine material such as raw material. .Continuous Fluidize Silo: The raw meal is completely fluidized by admission of compressed air through the suitable inlets at the bottom of the silo. The air penetrates the mass of raw meal into the silo and reduces the inter particle friction forces. A circulatory motion is formed and thus homogenization is take place. Operation of Raw Mill: When the Limestone feed is started with la-trite rollers get down & the grinding start.The grinded material is sucked up through the classifier by the help of hot gases .The reject material from the classifier is sent back to the grinding table by the help of reject group. The remaining fine material is sent to ESP & ESP reject material to silos. So total three types of material is falling on grinding table during running:1)-Mill feed 2)-Classifier reject 3)-Mill reject 31
  32. 32. SILO It is the large storage of Raw mill which comes from the Raw Mill. It is made of concrete & can store Raw mill for long time. Purpose:It’s main purpose is to homogenize the raw mill. One of it’s main purpose is to also store raw mill for long time. Construction:It mainly a large structure made of concrete. It contains following devices:1)-Air Compressor 2)-Large Air Ducts 3)-Pneumatic Valves 4)-Exhaust Fans on the top 32
  33. 33. Preheater Purpose:To increase the temperature of rawmill material through the incoming hot air from kiln & transfer air duct. Working Principle Of Preheater As the name explains “Pre-heater Tower” is place to use for preheating the raw material. The material which comes from c.f. silo in other words pre-heater is a device in which heat transfer takes place from hot gases which comes from kiln due to counter current flow of material and hot gases. The raw mill is heated about 850 oc before it enter it the kiln pre-heater with calcined system is most economical and hence the length of kiln is reduce pre-heater in Unit-1 and five stage in unit-2 with separator line calciner. These suspension pre-heaters are work in kiln string & pyro string with pre-calciner string successfully. Main part of suspension Pre-heater: 1. Cyclone: The cyclone is use for separation of raw meal from gas flow. For improving the separating efficiency of cyclones of top most pre-heater stage. We have designed as double separator. 2. Gas Duct: The gas ducts is to join the individual cyclone stages to each other. The raw meal coming from next higher stage and in the gas duct underneath. The raw meal particles are entering by the upward flowing gas stream and taken to the next cyclone. The heal exchange is achieved by con-current flow. The gas ducts b/w stage 1 and 2 consist of the cylindrical suction. 33
  34. 34. 3. 4. The Double Flow Box: These are used for raw meal pipes in pre-heater system the flaps are consists in such a manner that a minimum flow of raw mill is always maintained. The full material causes a upward and downward moment of the pendulum flaps and thus and upward and downward rocking motion of the lever arm with counter weight penetrating the single flaps. The upward and downward forces of flaps is remains constant. Raw Material distributor: It is integral part of raw meal ducts and spits a downward flowing stream of raw meal in to raw meal duct. Basically the distributor has a two fold function. 34
  35. 35. Calciner: The main purpose of the pre-calciner is to let the calcinations process take place out side the rotary kiln. It causes in sufficient reduction of thermal load of the kiln burning as approximately 60% of total fuel is burn in to calciner. This has made possible to increase the production in the given size to about double compared to a conventional dry process kiln with suspension pre-heater. The calciner consists of a vessel lined with heat resistance bricks. Calciner has three inputs and one output. Input1. Fuel as Pulverized coal. 35
  36. 36. 2. Preheated material to approx 800oc 3. Hot gases from kiln/coolers at 800oc OutputHot gases including combustion products and co2 from the calcinations process and material in form of dust carried with the hot gases. Lime Stone Tablet Maker :- 36
  37. 37. Rotary kiln: 37
  38. 38. Purpose:Kiln is cylindrical rotary equipment rotating on supporting rollers at about 3.5 RPM. Discharge in its completing calcinations reaction. Firing is done from kiln outlet with the help of burner pipe. Construction: Kiln can be divided into :a. Kiln inlet (consist seal, grease pump, lines, cylinders etc) b. Girth gear(Gear, pinion, spray system) c. Thrust roller(Hydraulic cylinder, oil line) d. Supporting roller& tyre (Consist of bearing, chair plate, bolts etc) e. Kiln outlet seal(S.S shims, crown shell, seal) f. Burner pipe(consist of air pipe, coal pipe, diesel pipe etc) Kiln inlet: Kiln inlet is seated by sealing arrangement. Greasing is done by pneumatic pump seal. It consist of 10-14 segment so it can be mounted and disassembled from kiln inside. A conical section forms an extension of the inlet ring. A brick retaining ring has been mounted at the end of conical section. Girth Gear: Kiln is rotating by Gear – pinion arrangement. Girth gear is mounted on kiln with the help of spring plates. Thrust Roller: The function of thrust roller is to control axial moment of kiln in both upward & downward. Supporting Roller & Tyre: Supporting roller are for support of kiln. They are in contact with tyre which are fitted in kiln shell. Kiln Outlet: There is a sealing arrangement in kiln outlet. Burner Pipe: It is for firing of fine coal into the kiln. Air is controlled by damper and fine coal by solid flow meter. 38
  39. 39. Kiln cooler: Clinker cooler has two main function to perform. They are:1. To cool the hot clinker quickly. 2. To provide necessary air for burning of coal in pre-calciner and kiln. After introducing of red hot clinker into the cooler, mechanically driven gates moves it to the rear end of cooler. Three pair of gates are installed inside the cooler. A single pair consist of fixed gate and movable gate. Too and fro moment of movable gate pressurized which cools it quickly. Clinker cools down gradually as it moves, due to the air blow by the fans which is taken from the atmosphere. Air falling over clinker is highly pressurized which cools it quickly. Clinker escaping out of the cooler is fed to a hammer crusher, since lumpy material requires crushing. Crushed material is transported to clinker silo through deep bucket conveyor. Temperature of clinker escaping out of cooler is about 208oc. 39
  40. 40. Grate Cooler operation: The grate cooler operates with a cross current principle in which the clinker is moved across the grate while cooling air blow in from below through the grate and clinker layer. The hot clinker falls from kiln and forms clinker bed on he grate and transported through the cooler over alternatively fixed and reciprocating grates. At the inlet of first great clinker is quenched and spread evently across the cooler width by the increased cooling air. The grate is fabricated to be as possible to obtained a thick clinker layer and a uniform distribution of air through the clinker bed in the interest of heat recovery. During the clinker transport from the cooler a part of dust and small size clinker is falls from the grates and collected into hoppers under the grates. The drag chain and rotary air lock system fed these clinker and dust in clinker transport system. A dust collection ESP is also installed beside the cooler known as cooler ESP. Exhaust gases from collection is fed to the ESP for dust collection. Grate cooler consist of: Cooling grate Plates  Standard Plates  Cooling housing  Drive unit  Grate aeration system  Clinker crusher  Conveying unit(DBC)  Cooling fan 40
  41. 41. Model of Lime Stone Crusher :- 41
  42. 42. Coal Mill: The coal mill works for producing the pulverized coal for burning to increase the temperature of kiln, pre-heater, raw mill .It works as same as raw mill for lime-stone & latrite mixture {Raw mill} grinding, & the coal mill grind & transfer the coal to the furnace for burning. The raw mill is grounded dried swept away by fan through the separator to bag filter or ESP. finally it is stored in to the fine coal bin hot air for coal mill is supplied by cooler exhaust hot 42
  43. 43. gases or pre-heater outlet gases before GTC circulation. The function of coal mill is to ground suitable grate coal and for feeding the same in to the kiln and calciner in fluidized form. Coal from stock yard is fed for stacking and reclaiming in to the stacker and reclaimer. Pre-homogenized raw coal is feed in to the coal mill hopper with the help of belt conveyer. The raw is then fed to the coal mill VRM via weigh feeder, drag chain and screw conveyer. Important Parameters Of Coal: • Residue on 90 micron=18-20% • Residue on 212micron=0.4-1% • Moisture =1.5% • Volatile Matter =20-30% • Ash content =28-32% Coal Mill:Coal Mill is an important integral part of cement plant. Here large size of approx size 600mm, is ground fine to the size of 90 micron. Coal from coal mill is used to feed kiln and calciner. Outlet tem of coal from coal mill is different in different seasons. It is 70750c in dry season and 80-840c in rainy season. Coal from mines is initially crushed at crusher site. Coal is then sent to stacking making mixture homogenized. Reclaimer picks up the coal and coal is fed to the coal mill hopper through belt conveyer. Coal taken out from hopper is feed inside VRM with the help of a screw conveyer which is mounted just below the hopper. Coal inside VRM is grounded between roller and table. 43
  44. 44. Hot air from cooler ESP fan is taken inside VRM and is used for drying of coal. Fine coal from VRM moves to the cyclone, where most of the coal is separated from air and the coal which does not get collected due to ultra fine size is separated with the help of ESP. LV separator is for separating coarse and fine particles. Now, coal is fed to screw conveyer through rotary lock, which transport it to the FK pumps. Two FK pump delivers material to the storage bins. There are two Storage bins, They are:1. Kiln Bin 2. Pre-calciner Bin Fine Coal is then transported to the kiln and pre-calciner by kiln firing FK pump and pre-calciner FK pump respectively. Classifier: A classifier is the top most rotary part of the vertical roller Mill . Here classification of materials occurs .Fine particles pass through classifier and course particles are rejecter and recycled for regrinding. According to the fineness required speed of the classifier rotor can be adjusted. 44
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  46. 46. Lime Stone Regrinder:- QUALITY CONTROL IN CEMENT PRODUCTION 46
  47. 47. Quality Control Efficiency quality control is error prevention rather than error detection. Online reaction to special cause of variation will lead to progressive improvement in the process, performance and cost. Fundamental improvement in quality results from testing rational prediction about special process using statistical method. The effective pursuit of quality permanent commitment through out an organization. Pitfall of quality control Pitfall of the successful implantation of the permanent quality improvement culture are:- 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Lack of top management support. Lack of middle management support. Commitment to only department. Haphazard approach a little of this and that with no meaning change in the system. Measurement of success and guidance program on the basis of short-term profile. 47
  48. 48. Cement :- Cement is a word given to a powder material which initially has plastic flow when mixed with water but has the property of setting hard solid structure in the several hours with varying degree of strength and bonding properties. Natural is a mixture of burnt silicate and lime. It was discovered by Joseph Aspdin an English brick layer in 1924. This Cement is called Portland Cement and now a day prepared artificially. Properties of Cement 48
  49. 49. It gives strength to the masonry. It is an excellent binding material. It is easily workable. It harden early. Types of Cement A. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) It is of 3 types 1. 33G 2. 43G 49
  50. 50. 3. 53G B. Pozzolana Portland Cement (PPC) Uses of Cement At present the cement is widely used in the construction of various engineering structure. It has proved to be one of the leading engineering materials of modern time and has no rival in production and application. Following are possible uses of cement:1. Cement mortal for masonry work, plaster etc. 2. Concrete for layering floor, roof, construction lanters, beams weather shed stairs pillars. 3. Construction of important engineering structure such as bridges, culverts, dams, tunnels, storage reservoir, light houses, dock etc. 4. Construction of water tanks, well, tennis court, septic tank, lamp post, roads, telephone cabins etc . 5. Making joints for drain and pipes. 6. Manufacturing of present pipes, piles, garden seats, artistically design urns, flower pots, dustbin fencing post etc. 7. Preparation of foundation, watertight floor, footpaths etc. 50
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