Overview of Industrial Use


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Overview of Industrial Use

  1. 1. Industrial Uses Petroleum and Kerosene
  2. 2. The Petroleum Age <ul><li>The petroleum industry produces a diverse range of materials that are essential to our modern life. </li></ul><ul><li>Petroleum is the source of many important materials known as petrochemicals or petroleum products. </li></ul><ul><li>The most prominent application of petroleum products is in their use as fuels </li></ul><ul><li>However there are many more applications of petrochemicals </li></ul>
  3. 3. Petro-FUELS
  4. 4. Petroleum Fuels <ul><li>There are numerous fuels that are derived from crude oil. </li></ul><ul><li>Different fuels have different properties and therefore are used for distinct purposes. (i.e. different vehicles require different fuels) </li></ul><ul><li>Some of these fuels include: petrol, LPG, diesel, kerosene (jet fuel) and fuel oils </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Internal Combustion Engine <ul><li>Burning a hydrocarbon gives off heat, water and carbon dioxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern engines take advantage of the heat released by the combustion of hydrocarbons in order to power things such as cars and machinery. </li></ul><ul><li>The heat energy is converted into mechanical energy which in turn operates the pistons that drive the mechanisms of the apparatus. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The General Formula of Combustion <ul><li>The equation for the combustion of hydrocarbons is given by the following: </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of heat, water and carbon dioxide is determined by the length of the carbon chain and the properties of the hydrocarbon. </li></ul>
  7. 7. How the Engine Works <ul><li>Most engines in cars these days are “four stroke” </li></ul><ul><li>The liquid fuel vaporises and mixes with air in the combustion chamber. </li></ul><ul><li>This mixture is compressed and then a spark triggers combustion. </li></ul><ul><li>The piston is forced downwards and then moves up again to expel the waste products of H 2 O and CO 2 . </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Four Strokes
  9. 9. Petrol as a Fuel <ul><li>Petrol is the most common fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Used in most modern cars. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains carbon chains between 6 and 12. But is primarily comprised of Octane, C 8 H 18. </li></ul><ul><li>Equation of combustion: </li></ul>
  10. 10. Diesel as a Fuel <ul><li>Diesel is used primarily in trucks. </li></ul><ul><li>This is because it is more efficient and can be taken advantage of during long cargo routes </li></ul><ul><li>Contains carbon chains of around 12 to 18. Is commonly estimated to C 14 H 30. </li></ul><ul><li>Equation of combustion: </li></ul>
  11. 11. Non Fuel Petrochemical Use
  12. 12. Non Fuel Petroleum Products <ul><li>Petrochemicals are not limited to serving only as fuels. </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticides, plastics, fibres, solvents, paints, glue, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, bitumen, asphalt, lubricants, synthetic rubbers and explosives all are derived from petroleum products </li></ul><ul><li>Many byproducts from the refinery of petroleum are used to produce a diverse range of versatile materials, here are just a few. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Petroleum Jelly <ul><li>Known as soft paraffin (or Vasoline), a cream like mix of hydrocarbons with chain lengths above 25 Carbons. </li></ul><ul><li>Resists oxidation and is used to coat metals. </li></ul><ul><li>Used cosmetically to protect skin, can also seal wounds. </li></ul><ul><li>May be employed as a lubricant but potentially “gums” up. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lubricating Oils <ul><li>Blends of Hydrocarbons with just less than 20 carbons. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not vaporise at standard temperatures and will remain liquid even at 121˚C. </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce wear and friction between moving parts in a piece of equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Lubricate machinery and vehicles which operate at high temperatures. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Plastics <ul><li>Polymerised chains of hydrocarbons become plastics. </li></ul><ul><li>A single Polymer can contain over 100,000 molecules of its constituent monomer. </li></ul><ul><li>PolyEythlene (Ethlyene), PolyPropylene (Propylene) and Polystryene (Stryrene), are three of the most common plastics, (the monomers have been given in brackets). </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics can be molded into an abundance of items, including, computer housing, car parts, toys, containers, prothestics, cds, dvds, etc. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What Plastics Look like… <ul><li>… on a molecular scale </li></ul>
  17. 17. Solvents <ul><li>Solvents dissolve substances </li></ul><ul><li>Work on the principle that “like dissolves like” </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon solvents are ideal for cleaning greasy and oily residue, due to this principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Most cleaners contain some form of petrochemical for this purpose </li></ul>
  18. 18. Kerosene
  19. 19. Kerosene <ul><li>Kerosene, most notably used in jet engines as a fuel base. </li></ul><ul><li>Predominantly used as a heating oil for lamps in the early 1900s. </li></ul><ul><li>Has several more applications and is representative of the versatility of petroleum products. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Kerosene in the Fuel of Jets <ul><li>Jet fuel is not solely comprised of kerosene. </li></ul><ul><li>Many additives such a benzene and toluene are added to increase the favourable properties of kerosene, which includes its resistance to gelling. </li></ul><ul><li>Its high enthalpy makes it ideal for jet speed flight. </li></ul><ul><li>Jet engines (gas turbines) use the combustion of kerosene with air to achieve motion </li></ul><ul><li>Equation of Combustion: </li></ul>
  21. 21. Kerosene – the Other Uses <ul><li>Solvent, particularly for tar and grease </li></ul><ul><li>Pesticide, its low density allows it float on water and suffocate mosquito larvae </li></ul><ul><li>Heating oil, combustion of kerosene is used for camp stoves, heating units and some lamps </li></ul>
  22. 22. Environmental Consequences <ul><li>Combustion of kerosene produces the greenhouse gases CO 2 and water vapour </li></ul><ul><li>When used as a pesticide endangers other flora and fauna </li></ul><ul><li>Volatile and can cause fires especially when used in a camp stove or lamp. </li></ul><ul><li>Products of Petroleum often not biodegradable, such as plastics, synthetic rubbers, oils, paints, glues and solvents. </li></ul>