Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

STEM From Every Angle Forum Event


Published on

Presentations from 3 March 2010 Forum Event, STEM From Every Angle.

Published in: Business, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

STEM From Every Angle Forum Event

  1. 1. Forum Event: STEM From Every Angle Wednesday 3 March 2010 3M Health Care Limited, Loughborough
  2. 2. Welcome Rob Pittam, Forum Event Chair
  3. 3. Housekeeping <ul><li>Fire Alarm is a continuous bell </li></ul><ul><li>In the event of an evacuation, leave the room via the rear doors, turn </li></ul><ul><li>left and through the Fire Exit </li></ul><ul><li>Assemble in the front Visitor Car Park for a roll call </li></ul><ul><li>Cloakrooms, including disabled facilities, are in the corridor outside the </li></ul><ul><li>rear doors </li></ul><ul><li>Please ensure you ‘swipe out’ with your security pass at the terminal in </li></ul><ul><li>Reception when leaving this afternoon. Please hand your pass back to </li></ul><ul><li>the Receptionist </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking is only permitted in the smoking shelter in the main car park </li></ul><ul><li>Please ensure your mobile phone is switched off / silent </li></ul>
  4. 4. Keynote Address Dr Bryan Jackson emda
  5. 5. The Development and Application of Problem Solving Skills Within 3M Andy Turner, 3M Health Care Limited
  6. 6. Developing and Applying Problem Solving Skills Andy Turner, Site Manager, 3M Health Care Limited
  7. 7. <ul><li>2009 net revenues of $23 billion </li></ul><ul><li>75,000 employees </li></ul><ul><li>Operations in 60+ countries, customers in 200 countries </li></ul><ul><li>Global annual R&D spend > $1.4 billion </li></ul>About 3M A diversified technology company, promising customer success delivered through practical ingenious solutions
  8. 8. Company Overview Electro and Communications Consumer and Office Display and Graphics Health Care Industrial and Transportation Safety, Security and Protection Services Six Market Leading Businesses <ul><li>UK and Ireland - one of the largest 3M subsidiaries outside the USA </li></ul><ul><li>17 locations including 10 manufacturing sites </li></ul>
  9. 9. Health Care Operations: Loughborough Derby Rd Site : Drug Delivery Systems Manufacturing & Distribution. Cavilon Product Manufacturing. Inhalation Drug Delivery Research & Development Morley St Site : Sales, Marketing & Administration. State-of-the-art Centre for Clinical Excellence
  10. 10. Why are Problem Solving Skills Critical to 3M’s Success? <ul><li>To maintain and grow our position in highly competitive markets (pharmaceuticals/biotechnology, dentistry, medical devices) by solving critical business issues and improving business processes </li></ul><ul><li>To foster innovation in order to deliver practical, ingenious customer solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>>25% of sales from new products in last 5 years, target is to increase to 40% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500+ patent applications every year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To develop a flexible, resourceful workforce, encouraged to collaborate internally and externally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creating “intrapreneurial “culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>technical employees encouraged to spend <15% time on own projects </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Introduction of Lean Six Sigma to 3M <ul><li>First launched in 2001, Lean Six Sigma is a methodology for pursuing continuous quality improvement and reducing inherent variability in processes </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures focus on data-driven problem solving and decision making </li></ul><ul><li>Over 70% of global employees trained in Lean Six Sigma methodologies and tools </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a ‘Toolbox’ of different processes and tools to meet specific business objectives </li></ul>
  12. 12. What Types of Problems / Opportunities Do We Use Lean Six Sigma To Solve? <ul><li>Financial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inventory turns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimising equipment performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cycle time reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yield improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality improvement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul><ul><li>Optimisation of Sales & Marketing Processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer satisfaction indexes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving market share </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. DMAIC Approach to Problem Solving <ul><li>DMAIC: powerful tool in the Lean Six Sigma toolbox, used for improving existing processes </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology has 5 phases: Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control  </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a project management framework to problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Employs great detail in the Analyse and Improve phases, using statistical tools to develop understanding of root causes of variation in processes, then how to make and control improvements </li></ul>
  14. 14. DMAIC Approach to Problem Solving Define Problem / Opportunity Measure Performance Analyse Opportunity Improve Performance Control Performance
  15. 15. Defining Problem or Project Goals <ul><li>Critical to problem solving to have clarity and agreement on the problem / project goals to be solved from outset, including resources and timelines </li></ul><ul><li>Listening & questioning skills as important as an analytical mindset </li></ul><ul><li>Although following a step-by step approach, requires willingness to let people explore and understand situation in their own way </li></ul>
  16. 16. Importance of Multidisciplinary Teams <ul><li>Multi-disciplinary team approach – differing levels of seniority, skill mix, acceptance of knowledge and experience of others </li></ul><ul><li>Combining individuals with formal Lean Six Sigma training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>STEM degree level education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>and those with vocational training e.g. engineering technician </li></ul><ul><ul><li>underlying mechanical empathy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hands on approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>gives very powerful problem solving team in manufacturing environment </li></ul>
  17. 17. Measuring Performance <ul><li>Gathering relevant quantitative and qualitative data, e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>observation of manufacturing process by using high speed cameras </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Questioning operators – understanding how people interact with a machine - not taking things at face value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vital not to try to ‘fix’ at this stage </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Analyse Performance <ul><li>Utilises tools including Cause & Effect Matrix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scores and prioritises how multiple inputs to a process affect the metric in question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supports identification of the root cause </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Improving Performance <ul><li>Utilise Design of Experiments to prove/verify potential causes & effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. variations in machine speed, machine settings, raw material conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need to have confidence and credibility of experimental design, generate as much information for as little cost </li></ul><ul><ul><li>raw material cost, time on manufacturing line, any manufactured material scrapped and disposed of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>May require stage of inventiveness if bespoke solution required </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis – Anova (Analysis of Variance), Minitab, Excel </li></ul>
  20. 20. Control Performance <ul><li>Implement lasting solution to the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Establish a control plan – becomes standard way of operating in future </li></ul><ul><li>Essential to check understanding and any training requirements </li></ul>
  21. 21. Implications <ul><li>Problem solving requires time to stand back and think </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Big challenge for both fast-paced manufacturing environment and educational environment with large class sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coaching individuals in how to identify and test their own hypothesis is essential for developing a problem solving mindset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not for generating the ‘right’ answer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problem solving enhances communication, negotiation and cooperation skills and a sense of personal responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Successful problem solving requires an acceptance that mistakes will be made and learnt from </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>“ As our business grows, it becomes increasingly necessary to delegate responsibility and to encourage men and women to exercise their initiative. This requires considerable tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li> Those men and women to whom we delegate authority and responsibility, if they are good people, are going to want to do their jobs in their own way. </li></ul><ul><li> Mistakes will be made but if a person is essentially right, the mistakes he or she makes are not as serious in the long run as the mistakes management will make if it is dictatorial and undertakes to tell those under its authority how they must do their job.” </li></ul>William L McKnight 1941 100+ Year Tradition of “Permissive Management”
  23. 23. © 3M 2006. All Rights Reserved. STEM Ambassadors can support development of problem solving skills in children by enhancing the curriculum with real-life examples faced by industry
  24. 24. Thank You!
  25. 25. Why STEM Has Become the Key Theme of 3M's Community Programme in the UK John Klee, 3M UK Plc
  26. 26. 3M’s community programme in the UK & Ireland John Klee Corporate Communications Manager
  27. 27. 3M Streetwise
  28. 28. Science - Light
  29. 29. Science - Sound
  30. 30. Science - Forces
  31. 31. <ul><li>Since launch, 31 October 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>280,000 visits </li></ul><ul><li>1.6 million pages viewed </li></ul><ul><li>15,500 teacher registrations </li></ul><ul><li>90,000 PDFs downloaded (class worksheets, etc .) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Community Programme – Review 2009 Issue - number and calibre of IP students and graduates <ul><li>Population STEM graduates p.a . Per 10,000 pop </li></ul><ul><li>India 1.2 billion 2 million 16 </li></ul><ul><li>China 1.3 billion 2 million 15 </li></ul><ul><li>UK 60 million 25,000 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Help increase the total talent pool by encouraging more pupils to stay with STEM subjects beyond their GCSEs </li></ul><ul><li>Make 3M an attractive proposition to STEM graduates </li></ul>
  33. 33. Community Programme – Review 2009 Employee engagement
  34. 34. Community Programme – Review 2009 Employee Engagement <ul><li>Employee volunteering - 5% participation (industry average) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Barriers to STEM Ambassadors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparation time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When working with schools, a lack of confidence in meeting needs of curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business relevance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Community Programme 2009 7-11 year-olds Our new leading theme: Supporting the teaching of STEM subjects in schools 11-16 year-olds
  36. 36. <ul><li>Sustainable living in a virtual town… </li></ul><ul><li>Initially focusing on science and maths (and ICT along the way…) </li></ul><ul><li>Developing further into geography in 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>More than 60 off-the-shelf worksheets for teachers… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… and 3M STEM Ambassadors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… and other companies’ STEM Ambassadors </li></ul></ul>A special STEM Ambassadors’ area is currently being created
  37. 37. Official UK launch 25 November 2009
  38. 38. <ul><li>Use as a learning & development tool </li></ul><ul><ul><li>participants in our leadership and graduate development programmes… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… doubled the number of 3M STEM Ambassadors from 40 to 80 overnight </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Longer Term <ul><li>Establish a relationship with students through their schools years and into university </li></ul><ul><li>Resource Launch Age group </li></ul><ul><li>3M Streetwise 2006 7-11 </li></ul><ul><li>3M Worldlywise 2009 11-16 </li></ul><ul><li>3M Healthwise? 2012? 16-18? </li></ul><ul><li>3M xxxxxwise? 2015? 18+? </li></ul><ul><li>… first graduate recruits 2017? </li></ul>
  40. 40. 3M Worldlywise Launch Event
  41. 41. Thank you John Klee Corporate Communications Manager
  42. 42. Problem Solving Activity Breakout Sessions
  43. 43. Workshop Locations N.B: Your workshop number is listed on the delegate list inside your delegate pack Swithland (upstairs) Workshop 4 Video Conference Room 2 Workshop 3 Video Conference Room 1 Workshop 2 Training Room 1 Workshop 1
  44. 44. Changes to the Mathematics Curriculum Barbara Linton, NCETM
  45. 45. Mathematics Changes to the Curriculum in School
  46. 46. Workshop Tasks <ul><li>Zin </li></ul><ul><li>Diluting solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Making tracks </li></ul><ul><li>Efficient cutting </li></ul>
  47. 47. Mathematics is... <ul><li>Seeing the mathematics in a situation </li></ul><ul><li>Applying knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring new situations </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating ideas & findings </li></ul><ul><li>Being stuck & getting unstuck </li></ul><ul><li>Asking & answering questions </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating </li></ul>
  48. 48. Mathematics: Processes <ul><li>Representing </li></ul><ul><li>Analysing </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreting & evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Communicating & reflecting </li></ul>
  49. 49. Mathematics: Concepts <ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Applications and implications </li></ul><ul><li>Critical understanding </li></ul>
  50. 50. Mathematics: Content <ul><li>Number & algebra </li></ul><ul><li>Geometry & measures </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics </li></ul>
  51. 51. Mathematics: Learning and Engagement <ul><li>Developing confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Varying contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting mathematics </li></ul><ul><li>Extending opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Engaging tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborating </li></ul><ul><li>Including ICT </li></ul>
  52. 52. Mathematics is... <ul><li>...a way of thinking </li></ul><ul><li>...fundamental to prosperity </li></ul><ul><li>...powerful </li></ul><ul><li>...wonderful </li></ul><ul><li>...creative </li></ul>
  53. 53. Curriculum development NCETM, East Midlands [email_address]
  54. 54. Census 2011 and Census at School John Marriott, Royal Statistical Society for Statistical Education
  55. 55. Census 2011 and CensusAtSchool Project <ul><li>Dr John Marriott </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Statistical Society </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Statistical Education </li></ul><ul><li>Faculty of Education </li></ul><ul><li>University of Plymouth </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] 01752 585458 </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>To promote the improvement of statistical education, training and understanding at all ages. </li></ul><ul><li>Advocates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the teaching of statistics through problem solving using real, relevant data </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not for profit organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Funding model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Core funders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consultancies and contracts </li></ul></ul>The RSS Centre for Statistical Education
  57. 57. The RSS Centre for Statistical Education
  58. 58. DHCycle Discuss Process Plan Collect Process Discuss Plan Collect The Statistical Problem Solving Approach You can build on the first try by continuing here... Have you got all the evidence you want? First you decide what problem to solve and what data you need Then you collect suitable data.
  59. 59. Working on the Three Rs Employers’ Priorities for Functional Skills in Maths and English August 2006 ISBN 0-85201-638-7 Why would this interest you?
  60. 60. The Foreword by Richard Lambert, Director-General, CBI <ul><li>“ Weak functional skills … inhibit the ability of employees to contribute to business performance. </li></ul><ul><li>“ The time has come to ensure that school-leavers in future have the functional skills they need for work and daily life. In brief, British business sees concerted action on functional skills as a key priority.” </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>The ability to interpret and respond to quantitative data is a key part of modern working life. Data of this type is presented not only to keep employees in the picture, but employees are also expected to interpret it sufficiently to contribute to problem solving and quality improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>also </li></ul><ul><li>… The ability to put together a piece of writing that conveys meaning clearly and accurately is an essential functional skill. </li></ul><ul><li>Spotting errors and rogue figures is an important element of functional maths. A functionally numerate employee will almost instinctively carry out a reality check and pause to check what may potentially be a rogue result. </li></ul><ul><li>Some basic understanding of odds and probabilities to enable people to make a more realistic assessment, rather than treating every risk as equally likely to happen, could form a useful element of functional mathematics. </li></ul><ul><li>Functional skills are skills that have a practical purpose. It is important to boost awareness of their potential application, particularly key elements of mathematical literacy, in real and different contexts. </li></ul>Key Conclusions
  62. 62. CBI Employment Trends Survey 2006 The CBI Employment Trends Survey 2006 found that the majority of employers feel that school leavers lack skills vital for employment: 65% feel they lack self-management ability, 70% were dissatisfied with business awareness, and 47% believed they had a poor attitude to work. Just over half (52%) of employers were dissatisfied with school leavers key employability skills such as communicating, team working and problem solving.
  63. 63. RSSCSE flagship schools project The classroom, pupils and teacher comprise the ‘census’ unit Collects real data from & about pupils – stored in 30+ international databases Returns data in raw form along with teaching and learning resources Real, relevant data, real learning CensusAtSchool (2000 - )
  64. 65. The Problem Solving Approach
  65. 66. The Problem Solving Approach
  66. 67. CensusAtSchool International links South Africa (2001 -) Australia (2002 - ) New Zealand (2005 - ) Canada (2004 - ) Japan (2009 - ) UK (2000 - ) Ireland (2009 - )
  67. 68.
  68. 69. Census 2011 – Paper Folding and Origami Theme Environment Human Interest Education CensusAtSchool to raise profile of Census 2011
  69. 71. 48 Sheet Billboard
  70. 72. 6 Sheet Bus stop
  71. 73. 48 Sheet Billboard
  72. 74. Rehearsal Launch Events <ul><li>Rehearsal launches were held in Anglesey and Lancaster </li></ul><ul><li>Giant origami shapes were revealed to the local press and general public </li></ul><ul><li>The events were attended by local children, ONS staff and local officials </li></ul><ul><li>Video footage was recorded at both events and released on Youtube </li></ul>
  73. 75. Census Online
  74. 76. <ul><li>A CensusAtSchool for 2011 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development of existing CensusAtSchool website and associated activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of the paper folding/Origami theme </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learning materials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop case studies using Census data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School resources </li></ul></ul>RSSCSE Commission from the ONS
  75. 77. New CensusAtSchool Website
  76. 78. RSSCSE – the T-shirt
  77. 79. RSSCSE – the T-shirt
  78. 80. <ul><li>The RSS Centre is a key player in improving numeracy and problem solving skills in tomorrow’s workforce </li></ul><ul><li>The 2011 Census provides a golden opportunity to engage the interest of all pupils and adults </li></ul><ul><li>Consider RSSCSE in your outreach activities </li></ul><ul><li>Pass on the message </li></ul>RSSCSE – Concluding Remarks “ British business sees concerted action on functional skills as a key priority.”
  79. 81. Population, Consumption, and Exponential Growth Rob Farr, The Energy MC
  80. 82. … .is vital if we are to prepare for the INEVITABLE changes that will occur if we are to develop…. a SUSTAINABLE ENERGY future. An understanding of Maths With Rob Farr: The Energy MC 2
  81. 83. “Every twenty four hours, we burn 85 million barrels of crude- -using it not simply to heat, feed, move or defend ourselves, but to educate, entertain, construct our world then fill it with stuff. Everything we buy, from a McDonalds' hamburger to garden furniture to cancer drugs, represents a measure of energy produced and consumed…” THE END OF OIL
  87. 89. WAR PEACE
  88. 90. PROCREATION ABSTENTION (Having babies…) (Not having babies…)
  89. 91. POPULATION
  90. 92. Dr. Albert A. Bartlett's presentation on &quot;Arithmetic, Population, and Energy.“ “… The best kept scientific secret of the century…”   Exponential increase £100 £102 £104.04 £106.12
  91. 93. 446, 744, 073, 709, 600, 000 18, grain of wheat
  92. 94. Exponential increase T2 = 70 % growth rate It is a mathematical function – for calculating the steady growth of anything!
  93. 95. A human life of 70 years 2% growth per year = factor of 4 3% growth per year – a factor of 8 4% growth per year – a factor of 16 At 4% the baby’s £100 will be worth 100 x 16 = £1600
  94. 96. Current World is 1.19% (58 years to double from 7 billion to 14billion) EU growth rate is 0.11% USA is 0.88% China is 0.63% India 1.58% POPULATION GROWTH Lets pretend that if this modest increase of 1.3% continued each years the population of the human race would reach a density of 1 for every square metre in only …………………… World population in 1986 was 5 billion (growing at 1.7%) d-time 41 years 1999 was 6 billion (growing at 1.3%) d-time 53 years 80 million new people each year….. WOW 2012 will reach 7 billion…… 780 years..!
  95. 97. Zero population growth will have to happen at some point. Which and when do we choose… increase or decrease? 0%
  96. 98. Increase population Procreation Large families Immigration Medicine Public Health Sanitation Peace Law and Order Scientific Agriculture Accident prevention Clean air Ignore the problem Decrease population Abstention Contraception Small families Stopping immigration Disease War Murder / Violence Famine Accidents Pollution Smoking EDUCATION?
  97. 99. Now let us examine the characteristics of steady growth in a finite environment. … a bottle of bacteria.
  98. 100. 1 Bacteria at 11 o’clock by 12 o’clock the bottle is FULL
  99. 101. EXAMPLE: “…. 500 years of coal in the USA…” Average U.S. coal consumption growth for 1971 to 1991 was 2.86% 500 years of US coal will only last 500 years if the US has 0% growth If the growth rate is 1% it will be 174 years If the growth is 2% it will be 117 years 3% = 91 years 4% = 75 years……
  100. 102. The statement…. We have used more oil since 1985 than up to 1985 … is not so surprising!
  101. 103. We take 4 barrels of oil out of the ground for every 1 found Proven oil reserves = 1.2 trillion barrels (BP stats) At CURRENT consumption rate = 40 years
  102. 104. Some oil stats……. USA and Gulf of Mexico 2010 - The Gulf of Mexico produces 2.2 million barrels per day..! USA consumes 20 million barrels per day..! Shell discovered a new oil field in the Gulf of Mexico in 1993 Estimated 700 million barrels of oil US consumption rate at that time = 16.6 million barrels per day 700 / 16.6 = 42 days Gulf of Mexico – 2009 BP found perhaps 3 billion barrels of oil ( 1 billion of which might be recoverable) Thunderhorse field Very big – produces 300,000 barrels per day But took 10 years to get going..! North Sea MAX 6 million barrels / day
  103. 105. Hubbert’s Peak His estimated figures were a little short…! 2010 – approx 30 billion barrels per year
  104. 106. Figures are barrels of oil x 1000 Litres of oil per person
  105. 107. JOULE (J)
  106. 108. Question: How much energy does everyone in the world consume in a whole year…? 424, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000, 000 Joules A clue…. There are 6.8 billion people in the world!! 452, 471, 500,
  107. 110. The population of the planet consumes Energy at the equivalent rate of about 1 and 2/3 of a tonne of oil ……… per person ……… per year. or about 5 litres of oil (LOE) per person per day Unit of energy used is LOE - litre of oil equivalent
  108. 111. Why do we consume so much energy? Population is currently over 6.8 billion people By 2050 world population will be over 9 billion.
  109. 113. How much energy does each country consume? (Total was 424 EJ) India = 21 EJ UK = 9.7 EJ Denmark = 0.84 EJ USA = 100 EJ Germany = 13 EJ
  110. 114. If everyone used the same amount of energy as those in the rich developed world, global energy consumption would increase eightfold by 2050 Oil price 2008 $130 / barrel Basic Economic Rule: Supply and Demand What will happen if we can not meet the demand For Energy? $143 $77 today….. Oil price 1998 $17 / barrel
  111. 115. of the world’s population currently consumes FACT That means the average daily energy used by an individual living in the world’s 24 wealthiest countries is SIX TIMES that of people living in the rest of the world. If everyone used the same amount of energy as those in the rich developed world, global energy consumption would increase eightfold by 2050 — 1 7 — 1 2 of the world’s energy!
  112. 116. <ul><li>Oil </li></ul>Hydrogen + Carbon
  113. 118. Who has the oil reserves: - Middle East have the most oil
  114. 119. If we continue to consume it as we do now, how long will oil last? 40 years FACT: We have consumed more oil since 1985 than up to 1985
  115. 120. <ul><li>Gas </li></ul>
  116. 121. “ Clean” Natural Gas is over 90% Methane Used for electricity generation and heating homes and factories
  117. 122. Who has the Gas reserves? – Middle East & Russia
  118. 123. If we continue to consume it as we do now, how long will Gas last? 60 years FACT : UK is currently changing from self sufficient to NET Importer
  119. 124. <ul><li>Coal </li></ul>
  120. 125. Can be 400 million years to 100 million years old Made from layers of plant material Some coal can contain 3 x the amount of energy compared to other types UK had only 12 mines left open by 2004 China : coal supplies ⅔ of the Primary Energy A tonne of coal contains 746kg of carbon: burning it produces 2.7 tonnes of carbon dioxide. UK had only 7 mines left open by 2006
  121. 126. Who has the coal?:- More evenly spread throughout the world
  122. 127. If we continue to consume it as we do now, how long will coal last? 200 years FACT : Consumption of coal had doubled in the last 50 years
  123. 128. Thank You For Coming!