Industrial Activity and Mental                HealthLiam DowneyUniversity of Colorado – Boulder
Downey & Van Willigen 2005                          &                  Boardman et al. 2008The effect of industrial activ...
Data for the 2005 Study   1990 U.S. census tract data   Individual-level data from the 1995    Community, Crime and Heal...
Data for the 2005 Study   Dependent Variables:     Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale     Powerlessnes...
Data for the 2008 Study   Individual-level data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study   1990 census block group data   Pollu...
2005 Findings   Residential proximity to industrial activity has a direct,    positive association with perceptions of ne...
2005 Findings   The average number of facilities in a tract and the    average waste generated both have a stronger impac...
2008 Findings   Living near industrial activity is associated with    psychological distress   The negative effects of r...
This research is incomplete   Better measures of local industrial activity   Better measures of respondents’ perceptions...
This research is incomplete   Long-term data on individuals, neighborhoods, and    workplaces   And finally, sociologist...
Findings by Gender, Occupation, and Presence       of ChildrenFigure 1. The estimated effect of local industrial activity ...
Proximate Industrial Pollution
Proximate Industrial Pollution
1.5 Mile Distance DecayEquations     F(x) = 1 – (2.0e-5 * d) – (1.34169982653e-8 * d2)                 for 0 <= d <= 7920...
1.5 Mile Distance DecayEquations   F(x) = 1 – (2.0e-5 * d) – (1.34169982653e-8 * d2)        for 0 <= d <= 7920, where d =...
Proximate Industrial Pollution
Panel Discussion: State-of-the-Art Research: Dr. Liam C. Downey
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Panel Discussion: State-of-the-Art Research: Dr. Liam C. Downey

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Panel Discussion: State-of-the-Art Research: Dr. Liam C. Downey

  1. 1. Industrial Activity and Mental HealthLiam DowneyUniversity of Colorado – Boulder
  2. 2. Downey & Van Willigen 2005 & Boardman et al. 2008The effect of industrial activity on the psychological well-being of nearbyresidents is moderated by individual’s race, gender, occupational status, andfamily status
  3. 3. Data for the 2005 Study 1990 U.S. census tract data Individual-level data from the 1995 Community, Crime and Health Survey Pollution data from the 1990 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Study area: census tracts in 18 Illinois counties (counties with at least 22 respondents; includes all the Chicago Metro Area counties)
  4. 4. Data for the 2005 Study Dependent Variables:  Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale  Powerlessness: 2 x 2 index that balances statements claiming or denying control over good or bad outcomes  The Ross-Mirowsky Perceived Neighborhood Disorder Scale Individual controls: gender, highest grade completed, employed, own home, married, children in house, age, black, Hispanic, family income, Neighborhood controls: % in tract 5 years previously, % in poverty, % black, % Hispanic, lives in Chicago Metro Area
  5. 5. Data for the 2008 Study Individual-level data from the 1995 Detroit Area Study 1990 census block group data Pollution data from the 1995 Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) Dependent Variable: Psychological Distress as measured by the K-6 scale Individual Controls: gender; marital status; children; race; age; education; income; occupation; financial, crime-, and work-related stress, perceived health Neighborhood control: Poverty rate > 20%
  6. 6. 2005 Findings Residential proximity to industrial activity has a direct, positive association with perceptions of neighborhood disorder, feelings of personal powerlessness, and depression Perceptions of disorder mediate the relationship between residential proximity and feelings of personal powerlessness Perceptions of disorder and feelings of personal powerlessness mediate the relationship between residential proximity and depression when proximity is measured using the average number of facilities in a tract
  7. 7. 2005 Findings The average number of facilities in a tract and the average waste generated both have a stronger impact on perceptions of disorder than do neighborhood stability or any of the nine individual-level controls Average waste is more strongly associated with depression than is living in the Chicago metropolitan area, neighborhood stability, or tract poverty rates The relationship between residential proximity and feelings of personal powerlessness varies according to respondent income, Hispanic status, and racial status The relationship between residential proximity and depression varies according to respondent income
  8. 8. 2008 Findings Living near industrial activity is associated with psychological distress The negative effects of residential proximity are more pronounced for women than for men However, among women, only those who had children and were not employed in manufacturing had elevated levels of psychological distress Moreover, male respondents who had children, were employed in manufacturing, and resided near heavy industrial activity also experienced high levels of psychological distress, levels that are comparable to those experienced by women in the reference category
  9. 9. This research is incomplete Better measures of local industrial activity Better measures of respondents’ perceptions of local industrial activity An improved understanding of why the perceptions and effects of local industrial activity vary across individuals and social groups Better measures of physical exposure to pollutants, which could directly and indirectly (through physical health) shape mental health outcomes
  10. 10. This research is incomplete Long-term data on individuals, neighborhoods, and workplaces And finally, sociologists, geographers, and other environmental inequality researchers need the substantive, theoretical, and research expertise that only mental health researchers can provide
  11. 11. Findings by Gender, Occupation, and Presence of ChildrenFigure 1. The estimated effect of local industrial activity on the psychological distress of men and women:the role of work and family. 6 Women Men 4 2 0 Non-Manufacturing & Manufacturing & Children Children (n=459; p<.022) (n = 101; p<.102) -2 Non-Manufacturing Non-Manufacturing & Non-Manufacturing & & No Children Children No Children (n=92; p< .453) (n=191; p<.919) (n=128; p<.436) -4 Manufacturing & Children (n=89; p<.850) -6 Manufacturing & No Children (n=17; p<.178) -8 Manufacturing & No Children (n=29; p<.001)-10 Note: The values describe the estimated effect (and 95% confidence interval) of industrial activity on the psychological well-being for each group. Source: 1995 Detroit Area Study (N=1,106).
  12. 12. Proximate Industrial Pollution
  13. 13. Proximate Industrial Pollution
  14. 14. 1.5 Mile Distance DecayEquations F(x) = 1 – (2.0e-5 * d) – (1.34169982653e-8 * d2) for 0 <= d <= 7920, where d = distance in feet F(x) = 0 for d > 79201.0 1.0 1.5 Mile Curve 2.5 Mile Curve0.8 0.8 1.5 Mile Inverse 1.5 Mile Curve .5 Mile Curve .5 Mile Curve0.6 0.60.4 0.40.2 0.20.0 0.0 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 DISTANCE (in feet) 6000 7000 8000 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 12000 14000 DISTANCE (in feet)
  15. 15. 1.5 Mile Distance DecayEquations F(x) = 1 – (2.0e-5 * d) – (1.34169982653e-8 * d2) for 0 <= d <= 7920, where d = distance in feet F(x) = 0 for d > 7920 Grid cell value = (.8 * 10,000) + (.15 * 2000), or 8300
  16. 16. Proximate Industrial Pollution

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