Data collection is the process of gathering and measuring information on variables of interest, in an established systematic fashion that enables one to answer stated research questions, test hypotheses, and evaluate outcomes. To get information for analysis. The data collected serves as a basis for analysis. Without analysis no specific inferences can be drawn on the questions under studyTo get idea about real time situation. Data collected serves a purpose to understand and speculate the current real time position of market, country or anything else.For comparison between two situation. It may be also used in comparing any two situations as in by collecting data and doing comparative analysis
There are various sources of data like the internal sources and the external sourcesExternal sources can be of two types primary data and secondary data.Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected, e.g., collection of data directly by the researcher on brand awareness, brand preference, brand loyalty and other aspects of consumer behaviour from a sample of consumers by interviewing them. Primary data are first-hand information collected through various methods such as observation, interviewing, mailing etc.
Interviewinginvolves face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent.Interviewing is one of the major methods of data collection. It may be defined as two-way systematic conversation between an investigator and an informant, initiated for obtaining information relevant to as a specific study. It involves not only conversation, but also learning from the respondents’ gestures, facial expressions and pauses, and his environment. Interviewing requires face-to-face contact or contact over telephone and calls for interviewing skills. It is done by using a structured schedule or an unstructured guide.
Personal interviewsTelephonic interviewsGroup interviewsIndividual interviewsSelection interviewsDepth interviews
Personal Method of data collection requires the interviewer asking questions in a face-to-face contact with the personCollecting information thru Personal interview is structuredThere is already use of a set of predetermined questions and highly standardized techniques of recordingThe interviewer also follows the procedure of asking the questions in the order prescribed. Generally the interviewee has an hint of the type questions that will be asked.These kinds are mostly talking reviews from the client about the product sold or its services.
Telephonic interviews are conducted when it is not possible to contact the respondent directly then interview is conducted through telephone.It is similar to personThe interviewer also follows the procedure of asking the questions in the order prescribed.al interview, as its is also structred and has a structured questionaries list.In this the intviewer takes down the response This is also used to take feedback from the client about the goods or services providedHowever there is one pointing these kinds of interviewers that you got to be very specific in ur words… for the lack of time..And u have to prepare ur questions according to the stipulated time
Group discussion is started by asking general questions and group members are encouraged to discuss their answers in some depth.Such interviews have proved beneficial enjoyed a surge in popularity in health care research over the last 20 years.The main purpose of focus group is to gain insight by listening to a group of people from the appropriate target market talk about issues of interest to the researcher.
This is an interview there a single person meets and interviews him.This is similar to personal interviews but in this kind of interviews are partially structured interviews.The main aim of the interviewer here is to extract maximum data possible.There is a formal questionnaire selected for the interview but the order of the questionnaire depends upon the situation built up in the interview.Authenticity and reliability of the answers provided is not always pre paired in the minds of the interviewee and hence the data collected from it is often questionable
Research technique conducted in person in the field (rather than in the researcher's office) by a trained interviewer for the purpose of learning the motivation of consumers in the purchase decision process. In the unstructured home environment, the interviewer interacts with respondents and encourages them (usually in a one-on-one situation) to freely express their opinions, ideas, feelings, thoughts, and attitudes. The objective is to go beyond the superficial and to probe into consumer behavior. Depth interviews, along with focus group interviews, are helpful in the evaluation of consumer reaction to a product or service.
To conduct email an e-mail interview, a list of e-mail address is obtained. The survey is written with in the body of the e-mail message. The e-mails are sent over the internet. E-mail surveys use pure text to represent questionnaire and can be received and respondent to by anyone with an e-mail address, Whether or not they have access to the web.So this type of data collection is very different from the rest as your audience or the target market is unknown to you
More information and in greater depth can be obtainedResistance may be overcome by a skilled interviewerGreater flexibility – an opportunity to restructure questionsObservation method can also be applied to recording verbal answersPersonal information can be obtainedPossibility of spontaneous responses and thus more honest responses
Expensive methodInterviewer biasRespondent biasTime consumingUnder the interview method the organization required for selecting, training, and supervising the field staff is complex with formidable problemsEstablishing rapport to facilitate free and frank responses is very difficult
Data Collection by Interview Method
By Akash dhar (SMBA 25)
For comparison between two situation.
Need for Collecting Data
To get idea about real time situationTo get information for analysis
Method of data Collection
Learning from candidates expressions
Face to Face Contact
Types of interviews