Toxoplasma Gondii26

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Presentation of Toxoplasmosis gondii for a micro class

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Toxoplasma Gondii26

  1. 1. Justin L. DeNise Microbiology 410:615:01 4/5/2007 T. gondii - DeNise
  2. 2. Kingdom - Protista Phylum - Apicomplexa Class - Conoidasida Subclass - Coccidiasina Order - Eucoccidiorida Family - Sarcocystidae Genus - Toxoplasma Species - T. gondii T. gondii - DeNise <ul><li>Obligate Intracellular Parasite </li></ul><ul><li>Toxoplasmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Usually Harmless </li></ul><ul><li>Oral-Fecal Pathway </li></ul><ul><li>-Cats </li></ul><ul><li>400-4000 cases annually in the US </li></ul>General Information Classification
  3. 3. T. gondii - DeNise Life Cycle
  4. 4. T. gondii - DeNise Toxoplasmosis <ul><li>Primarily Infects Blood and Lymph </li></ul><ul><li>Flu-like Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Prevalence- </li></ul><ul><li>22-40% (60 million+ in the US alone) </li></ul><ul><li>Can cause brain damage in immunocompromised individuals </li></ul><ul><li>-AIDS/Chemotherapy </li></ul><ul><li>-Brain Defects </li></ul><ul><li>-Vision Impairment if it develops in the eye </li></ul><ul><li>-Fetuses </li></ul><ul><li>-Stillbirth </li></ul><ul><li>-Brain Defect </li></ul><ul><li>Side effect: schizophrenia, neuroticism, paranoia </li></ul><ul><li>Antibody concentration can increase proportion of births to lean towards males </li></ul>
  5. 5. T. gondii - DeNise Prevalence
  6. 6. T. gondii - DeNise
  7. 7. T. gondii - DeNise How to Become Infected <ul><li>Accidental ingestion of fecal matter from an infected cat 7-21 days post infection </li></ul><ul><li>Ingestion of contaminated raw or undercooked meat </li></ul><ul><li>-Pork, lamb, venison </li></ul><ul><li>-Cross-contamination with infected meat </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water infected with T. gondii </li></ul><ul><li>Receiving an infected organ or infected blood in a transfusion (rare) </li></ul>
  8. 8. T. gondii - DeNise Development of Toxoplasmosis <ul><li>Ingestion of oocysts </li></ul><ul><li>-8 sporozoites </li></ul><ul><li>Trophozoites (tachyzoites) </li></ul><ul><li>-‘Tachy’ means ‘fast’ in Greek </li></ul><ul><li>-Named due to their rapid reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in immune response causes the host cell to develop cell walls to form “tissue cysts” </li></ul><ul><li>Bradyzoites </li></ul><ul><li>- ‘Brady’ means ‘slow’ in Greek </li></ul><ul><li>-Named for slow reproduction rate inside cysts </li></ul><ul><li>-Can reproduce silently for years </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of a cyst </li></ul>
  9. 9. T. gondii - DeNise Symptoms <ul><li>Typical Cases </li></ul><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms (swollen lymph glands, muscle aches, and malaise) </li></ul><ul><li>Severe Cases (acute infection or reactivation) </li></ul><ul><li>Ocular and neural damage </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Blurred Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Pain (bright light) </li></ul><ul><li>Redness of the Eye </li></ul><ul><li>Tearing </li></ul><ul><li>Infected Infants </li></ul><ul><li>Few have symptoms at birth, may reappear up to three decades later </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocephaly/Microcephaly, Intracranial Calcifications, Deafness, Seizures, Cerebral Palsy, Retinal Damage, and Mental Retardation </li></ul>
  10. 10. T. gondii - DeNise Treatment <ul><li>Not necessary if the individual is otherwise healthy and not pregnant </li></ul><ul><li>Pyrimethamine with sulfadiazine and folinic acid </li></ul><ul><li>-Can be toxic to patient </li></ul><ul><li>-Useless once in bradyzoite stage </li></ul>Detection <ul><li>Serological tests (not very accurate) </li></ul><ul><li>PCR </li></ul><ul><li>-Relatively new </li></ul><ul><li>-Accuracy approaches 100% </li></ul>
  11. 11. T. gondii - DeNise Pyrimethamine <ul><li>Interferes with folic acid synthesis, which is necessary for DNA and RNA synthesis in most protozoan </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits dihydrofolate reductase </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-malarial </li></ul>Sulfadazine <ul><li>Interferes with folic acid synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibits dihydropteroate synthetase </li></ul><ul><li>Synnergistic with pyrimethamine </li></ul>Folinic Acid <ul><li>Can be converted to folic acid without dihydrofolate reductase </li></ul><ul><li>Reduces side effects of the other medications </li></ul>Side Effects <ul><li>Hyper sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Megaloblastic anemia </li></ul><ul><li>-B12/folic acid deficiency-induced anemia </li></ul><ul><li>Leukopenia </li></ul><ul><li>-Low WBC count </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombocytopenia </li></ul><ul><li>-Low platelet count </li></ul><ul><li>Pancytopenia </li></ul><ul><li>-Lower RBC, WBC, and platelet count </li></ul><ul><li>Atrophic glossitis </li></ul><ul><li>Hematuria </li></ul><ul><li>-Blood in the urine </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac arrhythmias </li></ul><ul><li>Pulmonary eosinophilia </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperphenylalaninemia </li></ul><ul><li>- Phenylalanine Hydroxylase deficiency (metal retardation) </li></ul>
  12. 12. T. gondii - DeNise Antibody Detection
  13. 13. T. gondii - DeNise Prevention <ul><li>Wear gloves when doing work outside that could involve soil </li></ul><ul><li>When preparing raw meat, always wash all utensils and the preparation area thoroughly with soap and hot water afterwards </li></ul><ul><li>Cook all meat to an internal temperature of 160° F (colorless fluids and no longer pink) </li></ul><ul><li>Never taste meat before it’s finished cooking </li></ul><ul><li>Clean kitty litter boxes daily </li></ul><ul><li>Do not feed undercooked meat to a cat </li></ul><ul><li>Keep your cat indoors and feed it dry or canned food </li></ul><ul><li>If you are immunocompromised or pregnant, have someone else empty the kitty litter box and generally take care of the cat </li></ul><ul><li>Always wash your hands with soap and hot water after being in a position that could possibly contaminate you </li></ul>
  14. 14. T. gondii - DeNise Questions to Think About <ul><li>Why is Antibody Detection not very effective for T. gondii ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is it important to wash the kitchen utensils and preparation area thoroughly after preparing meat which could potentially contain T. gondii ? </li></ul>
  15. 15. T. gondii - DeNise Thanks For Listening
  16. 16. T. gondii - DeNise References <ul><li>DPDx Diagnostic Findings Website: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.dpd.cdc.gov/DPDx/HTML/Toxoplasmosis.asp?body=Frames/S-Z/Toxoplasmosis/body_Toxoplasmosis_serol1.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Jaroslav Flegr. Women infected with parasite Toxoplasma have more sons, Naturwissenschaften, August 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Jeffrey L. Jones,* Deanna Kruszon-Moran,† and Marianna Wilson* *Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA; and †Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, Maryland, USA Vol. 13, No. 4 • April 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Jones JL, Kruszon-Moran D, Wilson M. Toxoplasma gondii infection in the United States, 1999–2000. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] 2003 Nov [ 7/3/2007 ]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no11/03-0098.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Torrey EF, Yolken RH. Toxoplasma gondii and schizophrenia. Emerg Infect Dis [serial online] Nov 2003 [ 7/3/2007 ]. Available from: URL: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol9no11/03-0143.htm </li></ul><ul><li>CDC website: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dpd/parasites/toxoplasmosis </li></ul><ul><li>Images from wikipedia.com </li></ul>

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