CIM & Automation Lab Manual VTU

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CIM & Automation Lab Manual VTU

  1. 1. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. AS PER SYLLABUS CIM & AUTOMATION LAB Subject Code : 10MEL78 IA Marks : 25 Hours/Week : 04 Exam Hours : 03 Total Hours : 42 Exam Marks : 50 PART – A CNC part programming using CAM packages. Simulation of Turning, Drilling, Milling operations. 3 typical simulations to be carried out using simulation packages like MasterCAM, or any equivalent software. PART – B (Only for Demo/Viva voce) 1. FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System): Programming of Automatic storage and Retrieval system (ASRS) and linear shuttle conveyor Interfacing CNC lathe, milling with loading unloading arm and ASRS to be carried out on simple components. 2. Robot programming: Using Teach Pendent & Offline programming to perform pick and place, stacking of objects, 2 programs. PART – C (Only for Demo/Viva voce) Pneumatics and Hydraulics, Electro-Pneumatics: 3 typical experiments on Basics of these topics to be conducted. Scheme of Examination: Two questions from Part A - 40 Marks (20 Write up +20) Viva - Voce - 10 Marks TOTAL: 50 MARKS CIM and Automation Lab 1
  2. 2. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 1.0 INTRODUCTION The first NC machines were built in the 1940s and 1950s, based on existing tools that were modified with motors that moved the controls to follow points fed into the system on punched tape. These early servomechanisms were rapidly augmented with analog and digital computers, creating the modern CNC machine tools that have revolutionized the machining processes. 1.1 Numerical control (NC) is the automation of machine tools that are operated by abstractly programmed commands encoded on a storage medium, as opposed to controlled manually via handwheels or levers, or mechanically automated via cams alone Fig No 01. 1.2 computer numerical control (CNC), Most NC today is CNC in which computers play an integral part of the control. In modern CNC systems, end-to-end component design is highly automated using computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) programs. The programs produce a computer file that is interpreted to extract the commands needed to operate a particular machine via a post-processor, and then loaded into the CNC machines for production. Since any particular component might require the use of a number of different tools – drills, saws, etc., modern machines often combine multiple tools into a single "cell". In other cases, a number of different machines are used with an external controller and human or robotic operators that move the component from machine to machine. In either case, the complex series of steps needed to produce any part is highly automated and produces a part that closely matches the original CAD design. The position of the tool is driven by motors through a series of step-down gears in order to provide highly accurate movements, or in modern designs, direct-drive stepper motor or servo motors. Open-loop control works as long as the forces are kept small enough and CIM and Automation Lab 2
  3. 3. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. speeds are not too great. On commercial metalworking machines closed loop controls are standard and required in order to provide the accuracy, speed, and repeatability demanded. As the controller hardware evolved, the mills themselves also evolved. One change has been to enclose the entire mechanism in a large box as a safety measure, often with additional safety interlocks to ensure the operator is far enough from the working piece for safe operation. Most new CNC systems built today are completely electronically controlled Fig No 02. CNC-like systems are now used for any process that can be described as a series of movements and operations. These include laser cutting, welding, friction stir welding, ultrasonic welding, flame and plasma cutting, bending, spinning, hole-punching, pinning, gluing, fabric cutting, sewing, tape and fiber placement, routing, picking and placing (PnP), and sawing. Tools with CNC variant Machines Drills, EDMs, Lathes, Milling machines, Wire bending machines, Plasma cutters, Water jet cutters, Laser cutting, Surface grinders, Cylindrical grinders, 3D Printing etc.. 1.3 Direct numerical control (DNC), also known as distributed numerical control (also DNC), is a common manufacturing term for networking CNC machine tools. On some CNC machine controllers, the available memory is too small to contain the machining program (for example machining complex surfaces), so in this case the program is stored in a separate computer and sent directly to the machine, one block at a time. If the computer is connected to a number of machines it can distribute programs to different machines as required. CIM and Automation Lab 3
  4. 4. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Usually, the manufacturer of the control provides suitable DNC software Fig No 03. However, if this provision is not possible, some software companies provide DNC applications that fulfill the purpose. DNC networking or DNC communication is always required when CAM programs are to run on some CNC machine control. 1.4 What is Machining ? is any of various processes in which a piece of raw material is cut into a desired final shape and size by a controlled material-removal process. The many processes that have this common theme, controlled material removal, are today collectively known as subtractive manufacturing, in distinction from processes of controlled material addition, which are known as additive manufacturing. The precise meaning of the term "machining" has evolved over the past two centuries as technology has advanced. During the Machine Age, it referred to (what we today might call) the "traditional" machining processes, such as turning, boring, drilling, milling, broaching, sawing, shaping, planing, reaming, and tapping. In these "traditional" or "conventional" machining processes, machine tools, such as lathes, milling machines, drill presses, or others, are used with a sharp cutting tool to remove material to achieve a desired geometry. Since the advent of new technologies such as electrical discharge machining, electrochemical machining, electron beam machining, photochemical machining, and ultrasonic machining, the retronym "conventional machining" can be used to differentiate those classic technologies from the newer ones. In current usage, the term "machining" without qualification usually implies the traditional machining processes. CIM and Automation Lab 4
  5. 5. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 1.5 Letter addresses Variable Description A Absolute or incremental position of A axis (rotational axis around X axis) B Absolute or incremental position of B axis (rotational axis around Y axis) C Absolute or incremental position of C axis (rotational axis around Z axis) D Defines diameter or radial offset used for cutter compensation. D is used for depth of cut on lathes. E Precision feedrate for threading on lathes F Defines feed rate G Address for preparatory commands H Defines tool length offset; I Defines arc center in X axis for G02 or G03 arc commands. J Defines arc center in Y axis for G02 or G03 arc commands. K Defines arc center in Z axis for G02 or G03 arc commands. L Fixed cycle loop count; M Miscellaneous function N Line (block) number in program; System parameter number O Program name P Serves as parameter address for various G and M codes Q Peck increment in canned cycles R Defines size of arc radius, or defines retract height in milling canned cycles S Defines speed, either spindle speed or surface speed depending on mode T Tool selection U Incremental axis corresponding to X axis (typically only lathe group A controls) Also defines dwell time on some machines (instead of "P" or "X"). V Incremental axis corresponding to Y axis W Incremental axis corresponding to Z axis (typically only lathe group A controls) X Absolute or incremental position of X axis. Y Absolute or incremental position of Y axis Z Absolute or incremental position of Z axis CIM and Automation Lab 5
  6. 6. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 1.6 List of G-codes Code Description Milling Turning (M) (T) G00 Rapid positioning M T G01 Linear interpolation M T G02 Circular interpolation, clockwise M T G03 Circular interpolation, counterclockwise M T G04 Dwell M T G05.1 Q1. AI Advanced Preview Control M G06.1 Non Uniform Rational B Spline Machining M G07 Imaginary axis designation M G09 Exact stop check, non-modal M T G10 Programmable data input M T G11 Data write cancel M T G12 Full-circle interpolation, clockwise M G13 Full-circle interpolation, counterclockwise M G17 XY plane selection M G18 ZX plane selection M G19 YZ plane selection M G20 Programming in inches M T G21 Programming in millimeters (mm) M T G28 Return to home position (machine zero, aka machine M T M T reference point) G30 Return to secondary home position (machine zero, aka machine reference point) G31 Skip function (used for probes and tool length measurement systems) G32 M Single-point threading, longhand style (if not using a cycle, T e.g., G76) G33 Constant-pitch threading G33 T M Single-point threading, longhand style (if not using a cycle, T e.g., G76) G34 Variable-pitch threading M G40 Tool radius compensation off M CIM and Automation Lab T 6
  7. 7. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. G41 Tool radius compensation left M T G42 Tool radius compensation right M T G43 Tool height offset compensation negative M G44 Tool height offset compensation positive M G45 Axis offset single increase M G46 Axis offset single decrease M G47 Axis offset double increase M G48 Axis offset double decrease M G49 Tool length offset compensation cancel M G50 Define the maximum spindle speed G50 Scaling function cancel G50 Position register G52 Local coordinate system (LCS) M G53 Machine coordinate system M T G54 to G59 Work coordinate systems (WCSs) M T Extended work coordinate systems M T G61 Exact stop check, modal M T G62 Automatic corner override M T G64 Default cutting mode (cancel exact stop check mode) M T G70 Fixed cycle, multiple repetitive cycle, for finishing (including G54.1 P1 to P48 T M T T contours) G71 Fixed cycle, multiple repetitive cycle, for roughing (Z-axis T emphasis) G72 Fixed cycle, multiple repetitive cycle, for roughing (X-axis T emphasis) G73 Fixed cycle, multiple repetitive cycle, for roughing, with T pattern repetition G73 Peck drilling cycle for milling – high-speed (NO full retraction from pecks) G74 Peck drilling cycle for turning G74 Tapping cycle for milling, lefthand thread, M04 spindle M direction G75 Peck grooving cycle for turning CIM and Automation Lab T M T 7
  8. 8. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. G76 Fine boring cycle for milling G76 Threading cycle for turning, multiple repetitive cycle G80 Cancel canned cycle M G81 Simple drilling cycle M G82 Drilling cycle with dwell M G83 Peck drilling cycle (full retraction from pecks) M G84 Tapping cycle, righthand thread, M03 spindle direction M G84.2 Tapping cycle, righthand thread, M03 spindle direction, rigid toolholder G84.3 Tapping cycle, lefthand thread, M04 spindle direction, rigid toolholder M T T M M G85 boring cycle, feed in/feed out M G86 boring cycle, feed in/spindle stop/rapid out M G87 boring cycle, backboring M G88 boring cycle, feed in/spindle stop/manual operation M G89 boring cycle, feed in/dwell/feed out M G90 Absolute programming M G90 Fixed cycle, simple cycle, for roughing (Z-axis emphasis) G91 Incremental programming G92 Position register (programming of vector from part zero to tool tip) T (B) T (A) M T (B) M T (B) G92 Threading cycle, simple cycle G94 Feedrate per minute G94 Fixed cycle, simple cycle, for roughing (X-axis emphasis) G95 Feedrate per revolution G96 Constant surface speed (CSS) G97 Constant spindle speed M G98 Return to initial Z level in canned cycle M G98 Feedrate per minute (group type A) G99 Return to R level in canned cycle G99 Feedrate per revolution (group type A) CIM and Automation Lab T (A) M T (B) T (A) M T (B) T T T (A) M T (A) 8
  9. 9. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. List of M-codes Code Description Milling Turning (M) (T) M00 Compulsory stop M T M01 Optional stop M T M02 End of program M T M03 Spindle on (clockwise rotation) M T M04 Spindle on (counterclockwise rotation) M T M05 Spindle stop M T M06 Automatic tool change (ATC) M T (some-times) M07 Coolant on (mist) M T M08 Coolant on (flood) M T M09 Coolant off M T M13 Spindle on (clockwise rotation) and coolant on (flood) M M19 Spindle orientation M M21 Mirror, X-axis M M21 Tailstock forward M22 Mirror, Y-axis M22 Tailstock backward M23 Mirror OFF M23 Thread gradual pullout ON T M24 Thread gradual pullout OFF T M30 End of program, with return to program top M41 Gear select – gear 1 T M42 Gear select – gear 2 T M43 Gear select – gear 3 T M44 Gear select – gear 4 T M48 Feedrate override allowed M T M49 Feedrate override NOT allowed M T M52 Unload Last tool from spindle M T M60 Automatic pallet change (APC) M M98 Subprogram call M T M99 Subprogram end M T CIM and Automation Lab T T M T M M T 9
  10. 10. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 2.0 INTRODUCTION TO MASTERCAM Founded in Massachusetts in 1983, CNC Software, Inc. is one of the oldest developers of PC-based computer-aided design / computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software. They are one of the first to introduce CAD/CAM software designed for both machinists and engineers. Mastercam, CNC Software’s main product, started as a 2D CAM system with CAD tools that let machinists design virtual parts on a computer screen and also guided computer numerical controlled (CNC) machine tools in the manufacture of parts. Since then, Mastercam has grown into the most widely used CAD/CAM package in the world. CNC Software, Inc. is now located in Tolland, Connecticut. Mastercam’s comprehensive set of predefined toolpaths—including contour, drill, pocketing, face, peel mill, engraving, surface high speed, advanced multi axis, and many more—enable machinists to cut parts efficiently and accurately. Mastercam users can create and cut parts using one of many supplied machine and control definitions, or they can use Mastercam’s advanced tools to create their own customized definitions. Mastercam also offers a level of flexibility that allows the integration of 3rd party applications, called C-hooks, to address unique machine or process specific scenarios. Mastercam's name is a double entendre: it implies mastery of CAM (computer-aided manufacturing), which involves today's latest machine tool control technology; and it simultaneously pays homage to yesterday's machine tool control technology by echoing the older term master cam, which referred to the main cam or model that a tracer followed in order to control the movements of a mechanically automated machine tool. CIM and Automation Lab 10
  11. 11. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 2.1 WORKING IN MASTERCAM The layout is the most important to understand MasterCAM, it consist of Main menu Drawing tools , Zoom-fit View methods , , and Value input methods . G-code generation and Animation Match Group with complete setup of Machine Tool and Stock Complete Layout of the MasterCAM CIM and Automation Lab 11
  12. 12. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. The most complex system will be simplified if you the concept of inter relation between Computer and Machine Tool. The idea behind the MasterCAM is to understand the simplicity in controlling a Machine Tool that is dependent on only electrical signals. 2.2 EXPERIMENT NO: 01 MILLING There are simple three basic working in CNC milling they are Contour path, Drilling, Pocketing still many more can be achieved like surface grinding, polishing, embossing etc. The difference between Milling and Turning is a creative idea which is made easy to the learners in which the model will be created first in Milling using (X,Y, Z as zero) and then the tool path setup is used to create contour, Drilling or Pocketting. In Milling the pattern is first and the stock setup is the last but in Turning operation the stock setup is first and the pattern is next based on different co-ordinates (D, -Z) this makes the work easy which will be understood by any learner when they finish this manual. Most important the Cutting Tool compensation is very much important along with Tool position, stock orientation, speed, feed depth of cutting etc. Let the Machining begin in Milling operation firs, basics to learn Couture, Pocketing, Drilling. CIM and Automation Lab 12
  13. 13. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 2.2.1 Geometric Construction Press F9 to see the coordinates on the screen, this is the basic need if you can’t understand co-ordinates it is 0 to 360’ from each of the start point of a line to end point of the line as worked in SolidEdge (Polar co-ordinate). Step 01: The geometric construction is as follows first press F9 and use create > Rectangle by two co-ordinate and enter (0, 0, 0) and (100, 100, 0) and construct rectangle to make the outline. Step 02: Using arc by Polar co-ordinate and create four arc based on center of arc, start point, and end point including sweep length. (0, 50) 90,270; (50, 100) 0, 180; (100, 50) 270, 90; (50, 0) 180, 0; CIM and Automation Lab 13
  14. 14. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Using trim command with break function create the arc. Step 03: create > Rectangle by two co-ordinates and enter (25, 25, 0) and (75, 75, 0) and construct rectangle Step 4: once the design is complete, bring the machine type and go with stock setup. Step 5: in stock setup give the solid view and using “select corners” select whole geometry and give the thickness in z-direction. Note : the step 01 to 05 is the general method to create any geometric structure, now it’s the time for operations. CIM and Automation Lab 14
  15. 15. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 2.2.2 Contour. Select Toolpaths from the Menu and click on contour, Select chain command and click on the line geometry in clock wise direction and if required use change direction for unidirectional tool path. Make sure the contour parameters are filled correctly and animate to see perfect tool path before going with next operation. CIM and Automation Lab 15
  16. 16. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 2.2.3 Pocketing. Same as done with contour, select Tool path as pocket and select partial command and click on the contour and perfectly match all the cutting parameters. Once the path is selected it will be seen like this. Make sure the pocketing parameters are filled correctly and animate to see perfect tool path before going with next operation. CIM and Automation Lab 16
  17. 17. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 2.2.4 Drilling. Drilling is a special Machining operation in which one has to understand cutting tool compensations, also one has to create center of drilling using create points in position. Once the center of drill points are created, complete all the Toolpath parameters and cross check for compensation errors. Use polar co-ordinates if required to center the locations. Make sure the Drilling parameters are filled correctly and animate to see perfect tool path before going with next operation. Run the entire program at a time to see all the function are perfectly done. Note the cutting tool compensations are critical in the process and the knowledge is not in the software but only in the mind of a Mechanist. CIM and Automation Lab 17
  18. 18. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. 2.3 EXPERIMENT NO: 02TURNING Turning Basics: Turning operation is the fundamental of all Machining and the meaning is known as the “Mother of all Machine”, the operation conducted in Turning are many but the basic is as mentioned below. A simple geometry in Lathe Machine looks so easy but when parameters are to be considered the task on each value will be very critical, let’s start this experiment. Step 01: Design the schematic as shown in the figure. Material properties, stock setup and chuck setup to be bone in the first place. The stock set up with and without extra stock and clearance is based on Metrology. CIM and Automation Lab 18
  19. 19. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Once the chuck is designed, facing operation is the first if the stock is handled in single stock. Remember the parameters are they are important if any one value is mismatched then the whole project is demolished within seconds. Lead in and Lead out is the basic of the machining if marked with wrong position the Program will never execute. CIM and Automation Lab 19
  20. 20. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Simulate the direction and the working before the working. Rough cut parameters are essential to be mentioned. Simulate each and every step and visualize the simulation. Setting up any number of the working routine, the simulation is a must to negotiate the error. CIM and Automation Lab 20
  21. 21. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Finish parameters are the critical values which decides the work status. Cut off or grooving is needed to separate either the work piece from the stock or finishing the required stock. Remember to visualize every feed and depth of cut during operation because the work cannot be undone if once finished. CIM and Automation Lab 21
  22. 22. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Simulate to know the result with efficiency, remember once done it has to be perfect if not the effort is lost to the drain. Simulate and gather the G-codes in printed format for both Milling and Turning. CIM and Automation Lab 22
  23. 23. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 01:Milling Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 23
  24. 24. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 02 Milling Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 24
  25. 25. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 03 Milling Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 25
  26. 26. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 04 Milling Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 26
  27. 27. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 05 Milling Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 27
  28. 28. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 06 Milling Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 28
  29. 29. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 01 Turning Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 29
  30. 30. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 02 Turning Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 30
  31. 31. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 03 Turning Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 31
  32. 32. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 04 Turning Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 32
  33. 33. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 05 Turning Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 33
  34. 34. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Experiment No: 06 Turning Sl No Design Remark Date of Working Date of Report Internal Marks CIM and Automation Lab 34
  35. 35. Sampoorna Institute of Technology and Research. Note to the Students: a) Internal Assessment marks will be based on the performance of the student in the lab and the punctuality of the student along with the behavior of the individual. b) If found not punctual to the lab, the shortage of attendance will be coincided severely. c) Every time the student should bring the lab Manual cum Record to the lab and should get entered with the IA marks of the work they have learned and processed, along with the signature of the respected Faculty or the lab in charge. d) Students should behave according to the rules and procedure of the lab with all conditions. e) Every day the student should get their Experiments evaluated for 10 marks and 5 Marks for record writing and 10 marks for final Internal, altogether every students will be evaluated for their respective 25 marks as prescribed in the syllabus. CIM and Automation Lab 35

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