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Guidelines literature year_6


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Guidelines literature year_6

  2. 2. <ul><ul><ul><li>CONTEMPORARY CHILDREN’S LITERATURE </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Children’s literature’ can be defined as “the material created for and widely read, viewed and heard by children, that has an imaginative element.” </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that children learn better on their own, actively and in-depth about something via Children’s Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Children’s literature’ can be divided into 5 main categories namely: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fiction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non- fiction </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Folktales </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biography </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>AIMS AND OBJECTIVES </li></ul><ul><li>Aim </li></ul><ul><li>To help pupils improve their English through reading simple fiction </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a continuum for the literature component introduced in secondary school </li></ul><ul><li>To create an enjoyable learning environment </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>To instil and inculcate the reading habit among pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>To enrich pupils’ vocabulary and language content. </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance pupils’ thinking skills. </li></ul><ul><li>To promote cultural understanding in the Malaysian context </li></ul><ul><li>To improve English language proficiency of pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>To provide lively, enjoyable and high-interest readings. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why was the programme launched? 1. The Cabinet decided that Children’s Contemporary Literature be taught in Year 4, 5 and 6. 2. To provide an early beginning and a foundation in literature. 3. Pupils will develop an understanding of other societies, cultures, values and traditions that will help them in their emotional and spiritual growth. 4. A follow-up programme to the structured reading programme for Year 1 and 2 pupils.
  5. 5. CHILDREN’S CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE FOR PRIMARY SCHOOL 2006 (THE FRAMEWORK) Children’s Contemporary Literature TARGET GROUP: 2006 All year 6 pupils in SK & SJK schools <ul><li>PROGRAM FRAMEWORK </li></ul><ul><li>An intensive Reading Program </li></ul><ul><li>Texts : stories & poems </li></ul><ul><li>No. of books to be read: 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Year 6 - 2 books </li></ul><ul><li>Different titles for different states </li></ul><ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching Time </li></ul><ul><li>SK - 1 period per week </li></ul><ul><li>SJK (C/T) - 1 period once a fortnight </li></ul><ul><li>January 2004 – Year 4 </li></ul><ul><li>June 2005 – Year 5 </li></ul><ul><li>June 2006 – Year 6 </li></ul><ul><li>June/July 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher Training (Cascade Model) </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>IMPLEMENTATION OF PROGRAMME </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Year 6 pupils will be provided with 2 books to read. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupils need to read 2 books in a year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 book every 4 months </li></ul><ul><li>At any one time, pupils will have one book to read. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implementation in the classroom : “books on rotation basis”. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>What is the Programme about? </li></ul><ul><li>An intensive reading programme based on 2 prescribed texts. </li></ul><ul><li> Texts consist of short stories and poems. </li></ul><ul><li>Every class is provided with 2 titles </li></ul><ul><li>(assuming that a pupil will be able to complete 1 book in 4 months). </li></ul><ul><li> Different texts for different states. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Titles for Contemporary Children’s Literature Year 6 (SK & SJK) 1. The Perfect Present – Marcia Vaughan (Ginn & Company) Johore Central Store Sdn. Bhd. 2. Noble Tales Untold – Sheikh Hassan Seylan Abad Abad Ceria Enterprise 3. Dan’s Secret Weapon – Therese Rea (Rigby Heinemann)- Alpha Sigma Sdn. Bhd. 4. Clever Katya – Julia Donaldson (Ginn & Company) Johore Central Store Sdn. Bhd. Selangor, Terengganu, Pahang, Sabah & Labuan Johor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Kuala Lumpur & Perak
  9. 9. Titles for Contemporary Children’s Literature Year 6 (SK & SJK) 5. The Case of the Missing Maths Teacher – Suzanne Weyn (McGraw Hill) - Refined Contour Sdn. Bhd. 6. Shorty – Christine Rule SP Smart Resources Sdn. Bhd. Sarawak, Perlis, Pulau Pinang, Kedah & Kelantan Selected poems supplied by CDC or chosen by teachers.
  10. 10. <ul><li>Requirements of the Primary School Syllabus </li></ul><ul><li>3.0 The Skill of Reading </li></ul><ul><li>3.10 Read and enjoy simple stories and poems and respond to them by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>talking about the people, animals and moral values in the story or poem, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relating it to one’s life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3.11 Read simple texts and predict outcomes at a level suited to learners’ ability. </li></ul><ul><li>3.12 Read simple texts and make inferences and draw obvious conclusions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Benefits of having Children’s Literature Personal and Emotional gains Literature gives enjoyment. It enriches their understanding of themselves and the world around them. It develops imagination. It helps children make sense of their own experience. It evokes one’s feelings on issues related to life. Learning Gains It allows children to learn new ideas and knowledge. It adds to their understanding of concepts. It allows children to understand cultural traditions and values and issues in life. It allows children to develop respect for self and others. It encourages them to become aware of their audience. Language Gains It helps children develop an awareness of how language works in communication. It helps them develop an understanding of the meaning of words. It allows them to experience new ways of using language that bridges the gap between written and spoken language. It allows them to experience the form of narratives.
  12. 12. <ul><li>Teacher’s Role in Teaching Stories </li></ul><ul><li>Read story thoroughly Take note of the : </li></ul><ul><li>- story line </li></ul><ul><li>- characters in the story </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>message or moral of the story </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Carry out activities as suggested in the course. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop worksheets for pupils. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan activities that pupils can put in their folio. </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the work that pupils complete (portfolio). </li></ul><ul><li>Create an enjoyable learning environment by devising activities </li></ul><ul><li>suited to your pupils. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Preparation to teach poetry <ul><li>Read the poem silently. </li></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself these questions:- </li></ul><ul><li>- Who is speaking in the poem? </li></ul><ul><li>- What is the person feeling? </li></ul><ul><li>- What does he/she look like? </li></ul><ul><li>- How does he/she sound? </li></ul><ul><li>- What is he/she saying? </li></ul><ul><li>Think about the narrator and characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of how you can portray this person through your voice, body and facial expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Underline key words in the poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice reading aloud the poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice reading aloud to an audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Record your poem and listen to it. How can you improve? </li></ul><ul><li>What props and costumes could you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Remember to have fun as you perform! </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Teacher’s Role in Teaching Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Read the poem thoroughly. </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce the subject of the poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Read the poem aloud in class. Let pupils </li></ul><ul><li>enjoy listening to the poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Get pupils to follow along as you reread the </li></ul><ul><li>poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Have them read the poem chorally with you as the </li></ul><ul><li>leader keeping the voices together. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss new vocabulary to help pupils understand the </li></ul><ul><li>poem. </li></ul><ul><li>As the poem becomes more familiar, use the text to </li></ul><ul><li>teach aspects of language. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Pupil’s Role </li></ul><ul><li>Read the book/ poem. Talk about the book/poem to his/her </li></ul><ul><li>friend </li></ul><ul><li>Complete exercises given by the teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>Get involved in classroom activities </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a vocabulary book. Write down new words learnt. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep a folio. Ensure the folio has the following </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Contents Pupil’s Work </li></ul><ul><li>Dates Drafts and Final pieces Reflections </li></ul><ul><li> Reflect on own learning (Self Assessment). </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The Three Phases in A Reading Lesson </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-Reading </li></ul><ul><li>To introduce and stimulate interest in the topic To motivate students by providing a reason for reading </li></ul><ul><li>To provide language preparation for the text </li></ul><ul><li>To be enthusiastic about reading </li></ul><ul><li>To activate background knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>To recognise that reading gives us a lot of new ideas </li></ul><ul><li>To link existing knowledge to new information </li></ul><ul><li>To understand and acquire new words </li></ul><ul><li>While reading </li></ul><ul><li>To clarify content and vocabulary of the text To help students understand the writer’s purpose </li></ul><ul><li>To help students understand the structure of the text To identify important information </li></ul><ul><li>To monitor understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Post-reading </li></ul><ul><li>To consolidate and reflect upon what has been read To relate the text to the students’ own knowledge/interests/ views </li></ul><ul><li>To provide a stimulus for other language activities. To reflect on and respond to the text. </li></ul><ul><li>To select, organise and use relevant information for extended activities </li></ul>
  17. 17. Pre-Reading Activities Using the Cover Show the front cover of the book and ask for comments. Predict what the book is about from the title/cover/chapter headings. Look at the cover and complete three sentences about the book. Match covers and titles. Look at the blurb and predict the story. Using the Pictures Which picture in the book do you like? Based on the pictures in the book, guess the story line. Book Features Discuss the layout, e.g. title, author, illustrator, blurb, chapters, contents, captions Brainstorming Talk about the possible theme. Help pupils to recall any previous stories that have the same theme.
  18. 18. <ul><li>Skimming </li></ul><ul><li>Scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Jigsaw Reading </li></ul><ul><li>Information Transfer (e.g. draw diagram/ graph/ map/ plan, complete a diagram) </li></ul><ul><li>Cloze test </li></ul><ul><li>Write/ Complete Summaries </li></ul><ul><li>Make/ Complete Notes (e.g. tree diagrams, mind maps) </li></ul><ul><li>Reading poems </li></ul><ul><li>aloud. </li></ul><ul><li>Story Telling </li></ul><ul><li>PLBS </li></ul><ul><li>Sequencing Events </li></ul><ul><li>Talking about characters in the story </li></ul><ul><li>Answering comprehension questions </li></ul><ul><li>Answering multiple choice questions </li></ul><ul><li>Rebus Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatization/Role-Play the events </li></ul><ul><li>Talk about good and bad characters </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing one’s favourite events in the story </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting Outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping words with similar meanings </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary building activities </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar </li></ul>While Reading
  19. 19. <ul><li>Prepare a story map. Write the main details. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a concertina book of the story/poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare a comic strip of the story/poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Role-play a part of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a character you like the most. Tell your friends why you like the character. </li></ul><ul><li>Look at pictures and tell the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Pupil to recite a passage of about 12 lines. Then tell the story using their own </li></ul><ul><li>words. </li></ul><ul><li>Conferencing (Questions to stimulate discussion:- </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. What characters do you like or dislike? Why? What did you learn from this story/poem? Would you ask your friend to read this story/poem? </li></ul><ul><li>Match characters and descriptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Make lists of adjectives to describe characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a collage telling the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Making book marks/ post cards. </li></ul><ul><li>PLBS </li></ul><ul><li>Characters Mobile. </li></ul><ul><li>One student pretends to be a character and the others have to guess who it is </li></ul><ul><li>(yes/No questions). </li></ul>Post Reading
  20. 20. <ul><li>Make up a new ending for the story </li></ul><ul><li>Give the story a new title/ chapter headings. </li></ul><ul><li>Design a new cover </li></ul><ul><li>Plan and act out a sketch of an important scene in the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw portraits of the main characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Cut out words from newspapers and magazines for a word collage which gives a feeling for the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw what you believe is the most important idea or scene from the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Make paper dolls and clothes of the main characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Design a costume for a character to wear. </li></ul><ul><li>Make puppets and produce a puppet show of the story/poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a song which tells about the story/poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Pantomime a scene from the book/poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a scene from the book with one person taking all the parts. </li></ul><ul><li>Research some real aspect of the book and present your newly found facts. </li></ul><ul><li>Perform a choral reading from the story/poem. Mime episodes from the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Character bingo: names on the bingo cards, teacher reads out information about the characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Retell the story changing the point of view (eg “I”) </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Enrichment Activities </li></ul><ul><li>If the characters were animals/trees/ fruit etc. what would they be </li></ul><ul><li>and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Think of a popular song/ film/ TV programme which would make a </li></ul><ul><li>good title for the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Expand on an incident in the story. </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to the characters in five years time? </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils role-play interviews with the characters </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils take the role of characters and answer questions from journalists. </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatise part of the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Relate to personal experience: has anything like this happened to </li></ul><ul><li>you? </li></ul><ul><li>Write letters of advise to the characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a diary for a character. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a poster for a character. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a word puzzle using all the characters in the story. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a letter from one character to the other. </li></ul><ul><li>Write an introduction to the book for other students . </li></ul><ul><li>Write an advertisement for the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a poem based on the book. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Make up riddles about the book or any parts of it. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a word game based upon the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a letter to the author, particularly if you enjoyed the book or have a question. </li></ul><ul><li>Write an imaginary interview with the main character or any character of the book . </li></ul><ul><li>Make a newspaper which summarizes elements from the book. Include sections like sports, comics, business, and so on) . </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite a section of the book in a script form. </li></ul><ul><li>Select a passage or quotation which has special importance for you. Write it down and then tell why it is meaningful. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite part of the story as a news article. </li></ul><ul><li>Rewrite part of the book in a different time period- space age ( future ) or cavemen (past) . </li></ul><ul><li>Write a chapter which tells what happened before or after the book. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a simplified version of the story in picture book form. </li></ul><ul><li>Write a review of the book. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday LISTENING & SPEAKING READING COMPREHENSION& GRAMMAR WRITING . PENSTRUKTURAN JADUAL WAKTU BAHASA INGGERIS SEKOLAH RENDAH SJK TAHAP 2 (Tahun 4, 5 dan 6) Masa pengajaran : 4 waktu X 30 minit (120 minit seminggu) E X T E N S I V E R E A D I N G CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE ( MINGGU 2
  26. 26. Pentaksiran Lisan Berasaskan Sekolah (PLBS) MODEL 1 PUPIL TEACHER Activity : Presenting information from non-linear forms. Instructions : 1. Teacher gives pupils a visual stimulus of family. 2. Pupil answers questions asked by the teacher. 3. Activity can be carried out inside or outside the classroom. Resource : Visual Stimulus – pictures, photographs, compact discs. Assessment : 1. Pupil looks carefully at the picture stimulus 2. Pupil answers questions asked by the teacher.
  27. 27. MODEL 2 PUPIL TEACHER PEERS (LISTENERS) Activity : Tell story Instructions : 1. Teacher asks pupil to choose a story he/she would like to tell the class. 2. Pupil tells the story. 3. Activity can be carried out inside or outside the classroom. Resource : Visual Stimulus – pictures, photographs, compact discs. Assessment : 1. Pupil is given a suitable stimulus of the story he/she has chosen. 2. Pupil shares information about the story. 3. Pupil retells the story.
  28. 28. MODEL 3 PUPIL TEACHER PEER Activity : Describe scenes Instructions : 1. Teacher appoints pupil’s peer. 2. Teacher gives a list of questions to the peer. 3. Teacher gives stimulus to the pupil. 4. Teacher observes the interaction between the pupil and the peer. Resource : Visual stimulus and questions . Assessment : 1. Pupils work in pairs. 2. Pupil looks carefully at the stimulus given. 3. Peer asks questions prepared by the teacher. 4. Teacher awards the score to the pupil only.
  29. 29. MODEL 4 PUPIL TEACHER PUPIL Activity : Give and share information Instructions : 1. Teacher chooses two pupils to be assessed. 2. Teacher prepares the task. 3. Teacher facilitates the pupils. 4. Activity can be carried out inside or outside the classroom. Resource : Visual Stimulus – pictures, photographs. Assessment : 1. Each pupil is given the same visual stimulus. 2. Teachers asks pupils to look at the stimulus carefully. 3. Pupils describe what they see. 4. Teachers may ask other questions based on the stimulus.
  31. 31. Activity : Give and share information Instructions : 1. Teacher gives the group a visual stimulus. 2. Teacher asks pupils to look at the stimulus carefully. 3. Teacher asks pupils to discuss the visual stimulus among themselves. 4. Teacher prompts or guides whenever necessary. 5. Activity can be carried out inside or outside the classroom. Resource : Visual Stimulus – pictures, photographs. Assessment : 1. Teacher explains the task to the pupils. 2. Pupil discuss among themselves the given visual stimulus. 3. Pupils give relevant information and respond to enquiries made by other pupils in the group. 4. Teacher observes and awards the score to the pupils in the group.
  33. 33. <ul><li>What is Portfolio Assessment? </li></ul><ul><li>A portfolio is a kind of scrapbook or photo album that </li></ul><ul><li>records the progress and activities of the program and </li></ul><ul><li>its participants, and showcases them to interested </li></ul><ul><li>parties both within and outside the program. </li></ul><ul><li>(Meg Sewell, Mary Marczak & Melanie Horn) </li></ul><ul><li>A representative sample of a student’s work, showing </li></ul><ul><li>the range of performance and experience. </li></ul><ul><li>A collection of students’ best work or best efforts, </li></ul><ul><li>student selected samples of work experiences related </li></ul><ul><li>to outcomes being assessed, and documents according </li></ul><ul><li>growth and development toward mastering identified </li></ul><ul><li>outcomes. (Paulson, F.L. Paulson, P.R. and Meyer) </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>A portfolio provides samples of pupils’ work which show </li></ul><ul><li>growth over time. </li></ul><ul><li>As pupils reflect on their own learning (self-assessment), </li></ul><ul><li>they begin to identify their strengths and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>With proper guidance, weaknesses then become </li></ul><ul><li>improvement goals. </li></ul><ul><li>The portfolio enables pupils to show quality work, which </li></ul><ul><li>is done without pressure and time constraints and with </li></ul><ul><li>the help of resources, reference materials and </li></ul><ul><li>collaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Portfolios offer a way of assessing student learning that </li></ul><ul><li>is different than traditional methods. (Paulson and Meyer) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Why use Portfolios? encourages self-directed learning enlarges one’s view fostering learning about learning demonstrating progress towards determined objectives intersection for instruction and assessment allows pupils to value themselves as learners peer-supported growth
  36. 36. Self-Reflection Transfer into Real Life Ongoing and Formative Integration of knowledge Positive Interaction Improves Thinking Skills Quality products Meaningful Tasks Benefits of Portfolio
  37. 37. Types of Portfolio <ul><li>Documentation Portfolio: </li></ul><ul><li>- a collection of work over time showing growth and </li></ul><ul><li>improvement . </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. brainstorming activities, drafts and completed </li></ul><ul><li>pieces of work. </li></ul><ul><li>Process Portfolio: </li></ul><ul><li>- includes pupils’ work, dates, drafts & final pieces and </li></ul><ul><li>reflections. </li></ul><ul><li>Showcase Portfolio: </li></ul><ul><li>- documents pupils’ best work as agreed by pupil and </li></ul><ul><li>teacher. </li></ul>
  39. 39. <ul><li>Retelling the story </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils retell the story orally at first. Then they: </li></ul><ul><li>- write individually - write in pairs/ groups - use drawings with a minimum of writing - use drawing only </li></ul><ul><li>Map a Story </li></ul><ul><li>Maps should show important parts of the setting. Maps should also trace the movement of the main characters. Pupils can retell the story from their map. </li></ul><ul><li>Change the Form </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils work in pairs or small groups to rewrite the story in a different </li></ul><ul><li>form, e.g a play, a journal, a comic strip, a picture book. </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Role Playing </li></ul><ul><li>Children work in groups of about six. After everyone has heard or read the story, choose one person to be a character from the story. Others ask questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Retelling from a character’s point of View </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss how the story would change if it was written by the bad character. Telling the story and then writing the story from the bad character’s point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Character Diaries </li></ul><ul><li>Group members discuss what it would be like to be a character </li></ul><ul><li>from the story. They then write an account of a day in the life of </li></ul><ul><li>that character. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>Story Grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils select details from the story and place them under appropriate headings. </li></ul>STORY GRAMMAR Title Clever Katya <ul><li>Place of </li></ul><ul><li>the Story </li></ul>4. Message/lessons learnt 3. What the people did? 2. People in the story
  42. 42. <ul><li>Character Self Portrait </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils assume the personality of a character from the story and write details under the heading </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Dan’s Secret Weapon or Shorty </li></ul><ul><li> I am ________________ I live _______________ I have ______________ I like _______________ I hate ______________ I wish ______________ </li></ul><ul><li>Writing letters </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher can compose a letter to one of the characters. The pupils then respond appropriately, writing a reply as that character. </li></ul>
  43. 43. <ul><li>Concertina Books </li></ul><ul><li>Group Work ( Rewriting the story or writing a similar story) Decide how many pages you will need. Decide what part of the story goes in each page Illustrate Either rewrite or add captions to each panel. Share with others as either shared reading or as a wall story. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper Reports </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Letters to the editor Place a series of advertisements for characters in the story Missing person section. Write a report on one of the characters in the story who has gone missing. A reporter could interview one of the characters. </li></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><li>Semantic Webs </li></ul><ul><li>Choose a character from the story Place the name or drawing of the character in the middle of the page. From the story, fill in as much detail you can around the circle. </li></ul><ul><li>13. Reflection Sessions </li></ul><ul><li>Ask questions to stimulate discussion. e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>What do you expect the story to be about? What characters do you like or dislike? Why? What did you learn from this story? Would you ask your friend to read this story? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Other Suggested Activities <ul><li>Make a collage telling the story/poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw portraits of the main characters. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Rewriting the story/poem in cartoon form. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a poster for a character. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a word puzzle using all the characters </li></ul><ul><li>in the story/poem. </li></ul><ul><li>Write an advertisement for the book. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Draw/tell/write what you believe is the most important idea or scene from the story/poem. </li></ul><ul><li>8. Make up riddles about the book or any parts of it. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Introducing Portfolios in the Classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>The teacher will need to present the idea of a portfolio to the classroom. It is a good idea to show the pupils examples of portfolios prepared by other classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Inform the pupils’ how much weight the portfolio will have in their final grade. </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher need s to tell pupils that drafts and reflections will be put in the portfolio and explain how the portfolio will be graded. </li></ul><ul><li>The portfolio may be due only at the end of the semester, but teachers need to give feedback so that pupils know whether they are on the right track. </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure that the portfolio shows the pupil’s own work, some exercises can be done completely in class. </li></ul>
  47. 47. <ul><li>The Portfolio Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Table of Contents </li></ul><ul><li>Entries - both core (items students have to include) and optional (items of pupils’ choice). </li></ul><ul><li>Dates on all entries, as proof of growth over time. </li></ul><ul><li>Drafts of written work and revised versions </li></ul><ul><li>Reflections Pupils can reflect on the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did I learn from the lesson? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What did I do well in? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What do I want to improve in my work? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What were the problem areas? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Accuracy of Information Connections to Other Subjects Creativity Developments of Process Diversity of Selections Evidence of Understanding Following Directions Growth and Development CRITERIA FOR GRADING PORTFOLIO Knowledge of Content Multiple Intelligence Originality Quality Product Reflection Visual Appeal
  49. 49. Model 1: General Scoring Rubric 4 3 2 1 There may be many errors in sentence structure. There may be many errors in grammar,usage, or mechanics. The ideas do not flow logically. The response does not fulfill the task. The response may reflect serious misunderstanding of the passage There may be several errors in sentence structure, and little variety There may be several errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics. Disruption in the flow of ideas may be frequent The response may only partially fulfill the task. It may contain frequent or serious inaccuracies. Irrelevant information from the passage may outweigh relevant information Sentences are correctly written but lacking in variety. There may be some errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics. minor organisation flaws Ideas flow logically through most of the response. Some minor inaccuracies may appear. Some of the information selected may be irrelevant to the task Sentences are correctly written, and they display variety. Few if nay errors in grammar, usage, or mechanics are present. clearly organised The ideas flow logically from beginning to end. The response successfully fulfills the task. The information used is accurate and relevant to the task Command of language sentence structure/variety word choices grammar/usage/mechanics Management of Content organization/focus development accomplishment of task Response to Reading amount of information accuracy of information selection of information
  50. 50. <ul><li>Model 2 Rating Criteria </li></ul><ul><li>5 (Excellent) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is good </li></ul><ul><li>Ideas are expressed clearly </li></ul><ul><li>Minor errors in spelling and punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>4 (Good) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is adequate </li></ul><ul><li> Ideas are expressed but at times there is a break down of meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Some errors in spelling and punctuation </li></ul><ul><li>3 ( Average) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is simple </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning is frequently not clear </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling and punctuation and word order errors . </li></ul><ul><li>2 (Weak) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary is limited and repetitious </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning is unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling, punctuation and word order errors disrupt communication </li></ul><ul><li>1 (Very Weak) </li></ul><ul><li>Responds with a few isolated words </li></ul><ul><li>No complete sentences are written </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning is very unclear </li></ul><ul><li>Errors cause serious disruption in communication </li></ul>Portfolio Assessment
  51. 51. Samples of Pupils’ Reflection Changing Days 12/8/05 From worksheet A, I learnt about the cover. I learnt about the title, the writer and the people in the story 19/8/05 Today’s lesson, I learnt about the place of the story. I like the place because it is a jungle. 26/8/05 I feel sad for the king and queen. They have no children. But, they are happy with baby Taming 12/8/05 Today I learnt about the writer and the things on the cover of the book. I don’t know the ISBN number. 19/8/05 Today I learnt 5 words- jungle, canal, worries, kingdom, queen 26/8/05 I like this worksheet. I can fill in the blanks correctly
  52. 52. References Rees D; Raison G; Shortlland-Jones, B; Baraaatt-Pugh; Sinclair,A;Dewsbury,A and Lambert, S (1997) Reading Resource Book.Rigby Heinemann: Education Department of Western Australia. Brown, J.D ( 2003 ) New Ways of Classroom Assessment.Virginia:TESOL Carter,G (1992) Ideas for Developing Comprehension, New Zealand: Waiatarua Publishing. Farr,R and Tone B. (1998) Portfolio And Performance Assessments. Orlando:Harcourt Brace College Publishers. Andrew, M. (1990) Language in Colour . England: Belair Publications Limited. Burke,K., Fogarty R. and Belgrad S. (1994) The Portfolio Connection . USA: Skylight Training and Publishing Inc. Paulson, F.L. Paulson, P.R. and Meyer, CA. (1991). “What Makes a Portfolio a Portfolio?”. Educational Leadership. Paul S. George. (1995). What is Portfolio Assessment Really and How Can I Use It in My Classroom? Gainesville, FL: Teacher Education Resources. http://www. eduplace .com/ rdg / res /literacy/assess6.html