Introduction A belly landing or gear-up landing occurs when an aircraft lands without its landing gear fully extended and uses its underside, or belly, as its primary landing device. Normally the term gear-up landing refers to incidents in which the pilot forgets to extend the landing gear, while belly landing refers to incidents where a mechanical malfunction prevents the pilot from extending the landing gear. During a belly landing, there is normally extensive damage to the airplane. Belly landings carry the risk that the aircraft may flip over, disintegrate, or catch fire if it lands too fast or too hard. Extreme precision is needed to ensure that the plane lands as straight and level as possible while maintaining enough airspeed to maintain control. Strong crosswinds, low visibility, damage to the airplane, or unresponsive instruments or controls greatly increase the danger of performing a belly landing. Still, belly landings are one of the most common types of aircraft accidents, and are normally not fatal if executed carefully.
Identify the field of research and justify the choice. The field of research is belly landing This is my choice because am interested in the topics such as belly landing and I would like to go in the deeper study of belly landing which happened with the US airways in the Hudson river.
Acknowledgement First and foremost I offer my sincerest gratitude to my Almighty. Next I thank my Parents for theconstant support and encouragement without whom it was impossible for me to complete my presentation. Then I humbly acknowledge the assistance of all Frankfinn Staff especially my External Faculty Mrs. Kaveri Pratap who showed me the perfect way to complete my customer relationship management presentation. Last but not the least I am great full to all my friends & well-wishers who helped me in all the possible aspects.
Research proposal (opinion, advantage,disadvantage, types) OPINION My opinion to the Hudson river belly landing is that the pilot was well trained and he landed the aircraft in the proper place and was rewarded as a hero because 100% passenger’s were survived with no injuries to any pax or the crew. If it was not landed properly then there could be a death of minimum pax because there where 155 pax’s on board
ADVANTAGE•No major damage to the pax’s.•If there is a suitable landing spot within the aircrafts gliding or autorotation distance, an unplanned landing will often result in no injuries or significant damage to the aircraft.
DISADVANTAGE•One disadvantage of water landing is that it is dangerous in the presence of waves. Furthermore, the necessary equipment compromises the crafts aerodynamic efficiency and speed.
TYPESThere are several different types of emergency landings forpowered aircraft: planned landing or unplanned landing•Forced landing•Precautionary landing•Crash landing•Ditching
Forced landing The aircraft is forced to make a landing due to technical problems, or in rare situations with light aircraft, weather conditions. Landing as soon as possible is a priority, no matter where, since a major system failure has occurred or is imminent. This means that the forced landing may even occur when the aircraft is still flyable, in order to prevent a crash or ditching situation.
Precautionary landing May result from a planned landing at a location about which information is limited, from unanticipated changes during the flight, or from abnormal or even emergency situations. This may be as a result of problems with the aircraft, or a medical or police emergency. The sooner a pilot locates and inspects a potential landing site, the less the chance of additional limitations being imposed by worsening aircraft conditions, deteriorating weather, or other factors.
Crash landing Is caused by the failure of or damage to vital systems such as engines, hydraulics, or landing gear, and so a landing must be attempted where a runway is needed but none is available. The pilot is essentially trying to get the aircraft on the ground in a way which minimizes the possibility of injury or death to the people aboard.
Ditching Is the same as a forced landing, only on water. After the disabled aircraft makes contact with the surface of the water, the aircraft will most likely sink if it is not designed to float, although it may well float for hours, depending on damage.
HypothesisIF the pilot have not been landed the aircraft inthe correct manner in Hudson river as bellylanding THEN all the passenger’s may not besurvived and evacuated successfully.
How it helped me?How primary sources helped me?My primary source of data was ―Discussion with theaviation faculty‖. She helped me in sorting out thecorrect data and she also gave me tips which were veryuseful for the assignment.How secondary source helped me?Secondary source helped me to find out the data which wasrequired for the completion of the assignment. It also helpedme to compare all the data and convert it into usefulinformation.
MethodologyThe methodology I have used for doing research wasexisting data. I used this methodology because of thefollowing reasons: it provides a larger and higher-quality database It becomes easier to compare the data, as this methodology provides large database. It’s inexpensive. It’s not time consuming.
Code of ethics: The contents of the project should be bases on proper findings. Will monitor the progress of the project. Have discussion about the project with the faculty. Completion of the project in the allotted time. Always stick to the code of ethics. I shall put in my 100% of effort in doing this project.
US Airways Flight 1549 was US Airways scheduled domesticcommercial passenger flight from LaGuardia Airport in NewYork City to Charlotte/Douglas International Airport,Charlotte, North Carolina. On January 15, 2009, the aircraftflying this route, an Airbus A320-214, was successfully ditchedin the Hudson River adjacent to midtown Manhattan sixminutes after takeoff from LaGuardia Airport after beingdisabled by striking a flock of Canada geese during its initialclimb out. The incident became known as the "Miracle On TheHudson".
The windscreen "was literally filled with big, dark brown birds," Sullenberger told investigators with the National Transportation Safety Board. His instinct was to duck, said NTSB member Kitty Higgins, who revealed Sunday new details of the planes extraordinary safe landing in the Hudson River. Sullenberger, 58, and Skiles, 49, felt thuds as the birds slammed into the jet, which was flying more than 250 mph. The captain smelled "burning birds," he told investigators. Through a combination of good piloting, swift reactions from the three flight attendants and a rapid rescue effort, all 150 passengers and the five crewmembers escaped after perhaps the most remarkable emergency landing in the history of U.S. aviation. Federal accident investigators have slowly been piecing together what happened Thursday. The following account is based on investigators interviews with the pilots, flight attendants and a review of air-traffic control tapes, according to Higgins: Once the birds hit, Sullenberger immediately took control. "My aircraft," he said. An air-traffic controller radioed the jet at 3:27:32 p.m. — 98 seconds after the jet had been cleared for takeoff — with a routine heading change.
"Ah, this is Cactus 1549," came the clipped reply from one of the pilots, using the airlines shorthand identification and flight number. "Hit birds. We lost thrust in both engines. Were turning back towards LaGuardia." His engines silent, Sullenberger first stabilized the jet by pointing the nose down to maintain speed, he said. What he did next proved fortuitous. Responding to the distress call, the air-traffic controller told them to turn left toward the southwest so they could circle back to LaGuardia. That put them on a flight path directly toward the wide waters of the Hudson adjacent to Manhattan. Luckily, the skies were sunny, the winds calm. But where to land? Stabilized for the moment, Skiles was desperately trying to restart the engines. Without power, their Airbus A320 was a glider weighing more than 100,000 pounds. At its peak, it was 3,200 feet in the air. The glide to the ground would be about 3½ minutes. To Sullenbergers left was LaGuardia Airport and densely populated Queens. Sullenberger was concerned that the area was too heavily populated, with too many buildings. A few miles to the right lay Teterboro Airport in New Jersey. It was even farther away, and he had never landed there. He "didnt think he could make it. And was concerned that if he didnt make it, it was also a populated area," Higgins said.
The only alternative lay directly ahead of them: the Hudson River. Back on the ground, air-traffic controllers were desperately clearing the skies around Flight 1549 and preparing LaGuardia for an emergency landing. Which runway did they want to land on, a controller radioed. "Were gonna be in the Hudson," responded one of the pilots, most likely Skiles. "Brace for impact," one of the pilots said over the public-address system. "Brace, brace! Heads down," the flight attendants shouted. At the front of the cabin, two attendants said the impact felt like a hard landing, Higgins recounted. They didnt realize they were in the water until they looked outside. At the tail, the landing was more violent. Items in the galley jostled loose. Sullenberger opened the cockpit door moments later to order an evacuation. After opening the front exit doors and inflating rafts, passengers opened doors over both wings. The attendant at the rear of the jet said she tried to order passengers to go forward to evacuate, but one woman insisted on trying to open one of the rear exit doors. Frigid waters began flowing into the plane. Sullenbergers concern was to make sure everyone had gotten off. "He returned to the plane a couple of times to make sure that no one was there," Higgins said. On Sunday, Newell Arnerich, mayor of Sullenbergers California hometown of Danville, said the pilot and his family will be going to President-elect Barack Obamas inauguration, the Associated Press reported. An Obama aide told the AP that all five members of the crew have been invited to the event Tuesday. The aide spoke on condition of anonymity because details were still being worked out.
Captain Chesley B. "Sully" Sullenberger, III―HERO‖ who saved 155 passenger’s in the Hudson river belly landing US airways flight 1549.
Flight path of US Airways Flight 1549 before crash landing in the Hudson River
US Airways Flight 1549 glided only 900 feet above the George Washington Bridge
On January 15, 2009, US Airways Flight 1549 landed in the Hudson River, New York.
US Airways safely landed in the Hudson riverPassengers getting evacuated from the Flight 1549
All passenger’s where evacuated safely from the flight1959 and through ships they where safely reached tothe land
Current situation:Saudi jet makes emergency belly landing in Pakistan on 25 dec 2011. KARACHI—A Saudi Arabian chartered jet made an emergency belly landing in the Pakistani port city of Karachi on Sunday after one of its nose wheels jammed, a civil aviation spokesman said. The MD-83 Saudi plane, carrying 72 passengers and crew members, was en route from the northern Saudi city of Tabuk to Quetta in Pakistan when the pilot diverted the jet to Karachi over concerns about the wheels. ―The aircraft made an emergency belly landing. All 72 passengers and crew remained safe,‖ Pervez George, spokesman for Pakistan’s Civil Aviation Authority, told Agence France-Presse. George declined to give further details when asked about damage sustained by the plane in the landing.
Summary and conclusionThe research on this was a very great source to me. I got tolearn many things about belly landing and its types, I alsolearnt how it affects the recession. So, I can conclude that thisresearch was a great learning experience for me which willdefinitely help in years to come.
I would have helped the passenger’s throughthe help of the cabin crew in those evacuationtime while ditching or belly landing. And mostly Iwill help the old people and kids to get out of theaircraft first.
If hypothesis is valid or notIn this research the hypothesis is valid because it didnt cause any severe harm fromthe belly landing Flight 1549 carrying 155 passenger’s on board where safely landedand evacuated from the flight with no damages to the passenger or crew.
Recommendation/solution of the problemAfter this accident which happened with flight 1549 US airways the it was recommended to implement pre flight safety belly landing.
My experience of doing this projectI liked to do this research because I am really interested in bellylanding and all the fatal accidents that happened with the aircraft’s, Ienjoyed a lot while doing this research. I would like to do the futurestudy on the belly landing and I would like to go more deeper in thestudy.
Seven star hotelsif I get a chance to do research again , I would like toresearch on the hospitality. My topic for the researchwould be Seven star hotels.My question for hypothesis would be – “Does seven star hotels really exists?”
ConclusionThis assignment was a very great source of knowledge for me. From theassignment , I come to know the meaning of belly landing and how it occurs.I also learnt how the aviation sector is affected by the belly landing. I got toknow, how belly landing is affecting the aviation industry.So, I can conclude that the assignment was a great learning experience forme which will definitely help in years to come.