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EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS[1] jyoti.pptx

ANIMALS USED IN EXPERIMENTAL PHARMACOLOGY

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ANIMALS USED IN EXPERIMENTAL PHARMAcology
MICE
BY JYOTI YADAV
M.PHARM (PHARMACOLOGY)
UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF DR.SAUMYA DAS
ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR
Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology
(Pharmacy Institute) Greater Noida
EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
MICE
The common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, the most commonly used animal in
biomedical research, is an ideal experimental animal for several reasons: abundance of
literature published regarding them, ease of handling, high fertility rate, short gestation
period, low maintenance and disease model for various human disorders and diseases.
HANDLING OF MOUSE
How to pick up a mouse
Gentle handling will minimize stress. The stress of handling mice may
affect physiological parameters and behavior, and therefore have a significant
impact on scientific outcomes.
Whenever possible, consider using alternative methods to avoid handling
mice by their tail to reduce handling stress, e.g., using cupped hands or tubes
to scoop mice.
Before opening the cage, observe the animals within. Nervous or young
mice can jump out very quickly and escape.
For quick transfers from cage to cage, use cupped hands or a tunnel. Picking up
mice by the tail may induce aversion and anxiety ad should be avoided whenever
possible. When mice are to be picked up by the tail, the base of the tail should be
used; never hold a mouse by the tip of the tail.
General biology and physiological data
Most active at night(nocturnal)
Curious and investigative
Poor vision, acute sense of hearing and smell
Social animals, although adult males may require separation if aggressive
Average body temperature:37 C
Respiratory rate: 95-165breaths/minute
Heart rate: 325-800beats/minute
Daily water consumption: 5ml
Daily food consumption: 5 g
Estrous cycle length: 4-5days
Duration of estrus: 12 hours
Average litter size:6-12
Gestation period:19-21days

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EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS[1] jyoti.pptx

  • 1. ANIMALS USED IN EXPERIMENTAL PHARMAcology MICE BY JYOTI YADAV M.PHARM (PHARMACOLOGY) UNDER THE GUIDENCE OF DR.SAUMYA DAS ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR Noida Institute of Engineering and Technology (Pharmacy Institute) Greater Noida
  • 3. The common laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, the most commonly used animal in biomedical research, is an ideal experimental animal for several reasons: abundance of literature published regarding them, ease of handling, high fertility rate, short gestation period, low maintenance and disease model for various human disorders and diseases.
  • 4. HANDLING OF MOUSE How to pick up a mouse Gentle handling will minimize stress. The stress of handling mice may affect physiological parameters and behavior, and therefore have a significant impact on scientific outcomes. Whenever possible, consider using alternative methods to avoid handling mice by their tail to reduce handling stress, e.g., using cupped hands or tubes to scoop mice. Before opening the cage, observe the animals within. Nervous or young mice can jump out very quickly and escape.
  • 5. For quick transfers from cage to cage, use cupped hands or a tunnel. Picking up mice by the tail may induce aversion and anxiety ad should be avoided whenever possible. When mice are to be picked up by the tail, the base of the tail should be used; never hold a mouse by the tip of the tail.
  • 6. General biology and physiological data Most active at night(nocturnal) Curious and investigative Poor vision, acute sense of hearing and smell Social animals, although adult males may require separation if aggressive Average body temperature:37 C Respiratory rate: 95-165breaths/minute Heart rate: 325-800beats/minute Daily water consumption: 5ml Daily food consumption: 5 g Estrous cycle length: 4-5days Duration of estrus: 12 hours Average litter size:6-12 Gestation period:19-21days
  • 7. MICE REPRODUCTIVE FACTS Estrus Cycle 4 - 5 Days Gestation 19 - 21 Days Weaning 21 - 28 Days of Age Sexual Maturity 5 - 6 Weeks of Age Reproductive Life Span 6 - 8 Months of Age Litters Produced 1 - 4 Litters per Female Litter Size 2 - 12 Pups per Litter Generation Time 9 Weeks (conception to sexually mature mice)
  • 8. Mice have been used as research subjects for studies ranging from biology to psychology to engineering.They are used to model human diseases for the purpose of finding treatments or cures. Some of the diseases they model include: hypertension, diabetes cataracts obesity seizures respiratory problems, deafness
  • 9. NUDE MICE  A nude mouse is a laboratory mouse from a strain with a genetic mutation that causes a deteriorated or absent thymus, resulting in an inhibited immune system due to a greatly reduced number of T cells. The phenotype of the mouse is a lack of body hair, which gives it the "nude" nickname.
  • 10. LIFE SPAN The life span of nude mice is normally 6 months to a year. In controlled, germ free environments and with antibiotic treatments found in many laboratories that routinely use nude mice, they can live almost as long as normal mice (18 months to two years).
  • 11. NUDE MICE USED FOR Nude mice were first discovered in 1962 by Dr. Norman R. Grist at Ruchill Hospital's Brownlee virology laboratory in Glasgow Because they lack a thymus, nude mice cannot generate mature T lymphocytes Therefore they are unable to mount many types of adaptive immune responses
  • 12. 1.antibody formation that requires CD4+ helper T cells 2.cell-mediated Immune responses, which require CD4+ and/or CD8+ T cells 3.delayed-type hypersensitivity responses (require CD4+ T cells) 4.killing of virus-infected or malignant cells (requires CD8+ cytotoxic T cells 5.graft rejection (requires both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells)