Chap012

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Motivation

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Chap012

  1. 1. Motivation <ul><li>Motivation is a fundamental management skill, - about getting people to do things . </li></ul><ul><li>The top 15 percent of workers in any particular job produced from 20 to 50 percent more output than the average worker. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating highly motivated and satisfied followers depends, most of all on understanding others. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer <ul><li>12.1 What’s the motivation for studying motivation? </li></ul><ul><li>12.2 What kinds of needs motivate employees? </li></ul><ul><li>12.3 How do factors other than rewards affect motivation? </li></ul><ul><li>12.4 What’s the best way to design jobs? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Major Questions You Should Be Able to Answer <ul><li>12.5 What are the types of incentives I might use to influence behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>12.6 How can I use compensation and other rewards to motivate people? </li></ul>
  4. 4. 12.1 What’s the motivation for studying motivation? <ul><ul><li>the psychological processes that arouse and direct goal-directed behavior </li></ul></ul>Figure 12.1
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>The psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Your level of effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Direction towards goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your level of persistence </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Rewards <ul><li>Extrinsic rewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>payoff a person receives from others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic rewards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal satisfaction a person receives from doing something </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Question? <ul><li>Bethany is writing a paper for her Management class. She already has a strong 'A' in the class, and only needs to get a C on the paper to keep her A. As she prepares the final version of the paper, she takes special care that the paper is well-written, insightful, and error-free, something that she can be proud of. Bethany is experiencing: </li></ul><ul><li>An intrinsic rewar d </li></ul><ul><li>High equity </li></ul><ul><li>A belongingness need </li></ul><ul><li>A hygiene factor </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Motivation Equation Figure 9.1
  9. 9. 12.2 What kinds of needs motivate employees? <ul><li>Maslow hierarchy of needs </li></ul><ul><li>McClelland Acquired needs </li></ul>
  10. 10. Maslows Hierarch of Needs <ul><li>theory proposes that we are motivated by five levels of needs </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Belongingness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Esteem </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Self-actualization </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Figure 12.2
  12. 12. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Table 9.1 Self- actualization Realize one’s full potential Use abilities to the fullest Esteem Feel good about oneself Promotions and recognition Belongingness Social interaction, love Interpersonal relations, parties Safety Security, stability Job security, health insurance Physiological Food, water, shelter Basic pay level to buy items Needs Description Examples Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Highest-level needs Lowest-level needs
  13. 13. McClelland’s Acquired Needs Theory <ul><ul><li>states that three needs-achievement, affiliation, and power-are major motives determining people’s behavior in the workplace </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. McClelland’s Needs <ul><li>Need for achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire to achieve excellence in challenging tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for affiliation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire for friendly and warm relations with other people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desire to be responsible for or control other people </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Examples of McClelland’s <ul><li>Need for Achievement: </li></ul><ul><li>I try very hard to improve my past performance </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Affiliation: </li></ul><ul><li>I find myself talking with others about business and non-business matters </li></ul><ul><li>Need for Power: </li></ul><ul><li>I strive to be in command at work </li></ul>
  16. 17. Question? <ul><li>Patty prefers working alone, is comfortable taking moderate risks, and feels good when accomplishing a goal. Patty probably has a: </li></ul><ul><li>High need for achievemen t </li></ul><ul><li>High need for affiliation </li></ul><ul><li>High need for power </li></ul><ul><li>Low need for achievement </li></ul>
  17. 18. 12:3 Process perspectives <ul><li>Equity theory – how fairly treated </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy theory – how much you want something and expect it </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Setting theory – identifying goals that are effective </li></ul>
  18. 19. Equity <ul><ul><li>focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs >>>>what I do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>, outputs>>>> what I get </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>, how they compare >>> <<< </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Equity Theory Figure 12.6
  20. 21. Practical Lessons from Equity Theory <ul><li>Employee perceptions are what count </li></ul><ul><li>Employee participation helps </li></ul><ul><li>Having an appeal process helps </li></ul>
  21. 22. Expectancy Theory <ul><ul><li>suggests that people are motivated by two things: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) how much they want something and (2) how likely they think they are to get it </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Reward Expectancy theory highlights that motivation is driven by expectations – is my effort worth the reward. Effort vs. Reward is relative. Equity theory shows that if individuals believe that by exerting the same effort they will get a lesser reward than in the past, they will be less likely to exert the effort.
  23. 24. Expectancy Theory <ul><li>Expectancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>belief that a particular level of effort will lead to a particular level of performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instrumentality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>expectation that successful performance of the task will lead to the desired outcome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the value a worker assigns to an outcome </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Goal Setting Theory <ul><ul><li>Focuses on identifying the types of goals that are effective in producing high levels of motivation and explaining why goals have these effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goals should be specific </li></ul><ul><li>Goals should be challenging </li></ul><ul><li>Goals should be achievable </li></ul>
  25. 26. Why Bother? <ul><li>“ When a man does not know what harbor he is making for, no wind is the right wind.” </li></ul><ul><li>- Seneca, Roman philosopher </li></ul><ul><li>(quoted in Hughes, p. 470) </li></ul>
  26. 27. Goal Setting is important for motivation Goal Setting Employee Coaching, Feedback, & Support Communication Employee Coaching, Feedback, & Support Assessment Organization Goals
  27. 28. Benefits of Goal Setting <ul><li>Aligns employees with organizational goals and mission </li></ul><ul><li>Resolves some problems early </li></ul><ul><li>Invites opportunity for feedback and training </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards employees </li></ul><ul><li>Improves performance </li></ul>
  28. 29. Question? <ul><li>Last year, Diana’s boss promised her a big bonus if she met her goals. At the end of the year, after Diana had exceeded her goals, she found her bonus was very small. In the future, Diana’s _____ will probably be ____. </li></ul><ul><li>Valence; low </li></ul><ul><li>Instrumentality; lo w </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy; low </li></ul><ul><li>Expectancy; high </li></ul>
  29. 30. 12.4 Job Design Perspectives <ul><li>Job design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>division of an organization’s work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job simplification, job enlargement, job enrichment </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Question? <ul><li>Melvin, a manager, asks Edna, his subordinate, to work on one machine for three hours and then move to another machine every other hour. Melvin has engaged in: </li></ul><ul><li>Job enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>Job rotatio n </li></ul><ul><li>Job simplification </li></ul><ul><li>Vertical loading </li></ul>
  31. 32. Job Characteristics Model Figure 12.8
  32. 33. Five Job Characteristics <ul><li>Skill variety </li></ul><ul><li>Task identity </li></ul><ul><li>Task significance </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul>
  33. 34. 12.5 Reinforcement Perspectives on Motivation <ul><li>Reinforcement theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated, whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Types of Reinforcement <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of positive consequences to encourage desirable behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior </li></ul></ul>
  35. 36. Types of Reinforcement <ul><li>Extinction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>withholding or withdrawal of positive rewards for desirable behavior, so that behavior is less likely to occur </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>application of negative consequences to stop or change undesirable behavior </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. Question? <ul><li>When a manager stops nagging a subordinate, the manager is using: </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Negative reinforcemen t </li></ul><ul><li>Punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation </li></ul>
  37. 38. Using Reinforcement to Motivate Employees <ul><li>Positive reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Reward only desirable behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Give rewards as soon as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about what behavior is desired </li></ul><ul><li>Have different rewards and recognize individual differences </li></ul>
  38. 39. 12.6 Motivation & Compensation <ul><li>Employee engagement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heightened emotional connection that an employee feels for his organization, that influences him to exert greater discretionary effort in his work </li></ul></ul>
  39. 40. Popular Incentive Compensation Plans <ul><li>Piece rate </li></ul><ul><li>Sales commission </li></ul><ul><li>Bonuses </li></ul><ul><li>Profit-sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Gainsharing </li></ul><ul><li>Stock options </li></ul><ul><li>Pay for knowledge </li></ul>
  40. 41. Question? <ul><li>In Earl's department at Pencilchicken, Inc. employees get money based on how much the department has been able to save in costs. This is an example of a ____________ compensation plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Pay for performance </li></ul><ul><li>Pay for knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Bonus </li></ul><ul><li>Gainsharin g </li></ul>
  41. 42. Nonmonetary Ways of Motivating Employees <ul><li>Flexible workplace </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughtfulness </li></ul><ul><li>Work-life benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Skill-building & educational opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Sabbaticals </li></ul>
  42. 44. Management Techniques from the Best Damn Ship in the Navy <ul><li>See the ship through the eyes of the crew </li></ul><ul><li>Create discipline by focusing on purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Listen aggressively </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Help people grow strong </li></ul><ul><li>Power of praise </li></ul>

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