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Monitoring by Ethnicity in the Czech Republic: Experiences and Challenges - Pavla Polechova, Iveta Nemeckova

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Monitoring by Ethnicity in the Czech Republic: Experiences and Challenges - Pavla Polechova, Iveta Nemeckova

  1. 1. Monitoring by Ethnicity in the Czech Republic: Experiences and Challenges <br />Working Seminar on Sharing GoodPractices in Ethnical Data Collection<br />October 5, 2010<br />Pavla Polechová, Iveta Němečková<br />
  2. 2. Current situation in the Czech Republic (hereafter CR)<br />CR deflects a high percentage of children, pupils and students out of the mainstream (EU, OECD)<br />CR did not transfer experiences from the „old“ EU countries related to openness of mainstream schools and classrooms to pupils with disabilities, difficulties and disadvantages, including minority pupils YET<br />The school reform, on the other hand, opened door widely – to inclusion as well as to segregation<br />
  3. 3. A triggering moment:D.H. and Others v. Czech Republic<br />The case referred to the Grand Chamber of European Court of Human Rights, heard on 17 January 2007, the final judgment issued on 13 November 2007<br />18 Roma (Czech nationals) *1985-1991 placed in special schools in 1996-1999<br />Denied access to secondary education as a result<br />The applicants alleged, inter alia, that they had been discriminated against in the enjoyment of their right to education on account of their race or ethnic origin.<br />
  4. 4. The case ≈ 1996 -1999. And in 2008? <br />Allegedly, it is not possible to collect data on ethnicity because of personal and sensitive data protection law and the protection of rights and freedoms of members of minorities<br />Flashbacks: <br />Czech School Inspectorate – 2002<br />„It is OK to collect statistical data about Romani – Jan Jařab, HR commissioner - Dec 2003 X „Ostensible blindness - Ivan Veselý, Dženo<br />Finnish inspectors visiting a school in Prague – 2005<br />Numbers of Roma from census 1991 and 2001 (self-defined ethnicity) X rough estimates (see the policy paper)<br />
  5. 5. Potential of the verdict in D.H. and Others (James Goldston)<br />To lead other European states to better look after the education of minority children (e.g. Turkish minority in Germany and Algerians in France). <br />To benefit the most the Czech society as a whole, Romanies, Czechs as well as other citizens and foreigners who have a permanent residence in this country. <br />To contribute to our integration into the EU.”<br />…while one possible outcome of the ruling, from the standpoint of Roma students, is “nothing“.<br />letter to Dobes czech-minister-education-20100730.pdf<br />
  6. 6. Analyses related to monitoring by ethnicity commissioned by MoEYS<br />Sociological research aimed at the analysis of the image and causes of segregation of children, pupils and young people from the socially and culturally disadvantaging environment“ (GAC Ltd., 2008-2009)<br />A comparison of educational trajectories and chances of Roma pupils descending from the socially disadvantaging environment attending various types of elementary schools with the trajectories and chances of their peers who attend the same schools.<br />Analysis of individual approach of teachers to pupils with special educational needs (preparedness of schools for inclusive education; People in need, 2008-2009)<br />Monitoring of Framework of Educational Programmes (Programmes used for education of Roma pupils; Institute for Information on Education)<br />
  7. 7. Numbers of Roma and non-Roma children leaving the mainstream (GAC)<br />
  8. 8. Monitoring of achievement by ethnicity (GAC)<br />(aggregation, i.e. grouping)<br />
  9. 9. Defining the target group in the three analyses<br />Method of „attributed identity“<br />Fit and effective for purpose, though it is a qualified estimate<br />All data made anonymous<br />
  10. 10. Willingness to give total numbers(not individual data) 50 schools‘ reactions Analysis of individual approach of teachers to pupils with special education needs <br />17 schools willing / able to communicate “exact“ numbers, <br />3 of them with respect to concrete placement of pupils regarding educational programmes<br />28 schools communicated a “qualified estimate“<br />
  11. 11. Willingness to give total numbers(not individual data) 50 schools‘ reactions Analysis of individual approach of teachers to pupils with special education needs - continued<br />5 schools refused. Justification? <br />They do not carry out statistics of that kind and refuse to do so as their pupils do not recognize themselves as Roma <br />They do not distinguish between majority and minority children, approaching all children equally<br />
  12. 12. Analysis of individual approach of teachers to pupils with special education needs - continued<br />6 respondents (out of 50) understand Roma and socially disadvantaged as one category<br />All respondents “approach all socially disadvantaged pupils equally“ – and yet Roma…<br />…“have aversion against education“<br />…“are not ambitious“<br />…“do not have an example to follow in their family“<br />…“undervalue preparation for school“<br />…“are not able even to understand that schooling is obligatory“<br />…“their specificity is a position of education among their values“<br />Perceived degree of acceptance is also possible to monitor by ethnicity<br />
  13. 13. Analysis of individual approach of teachers to pupils with special education needs - continued<br />The analysis concludes (i.a.) that the stereotypes can serve as an explanation of - or used as an excuse for – failure (who fails??) <br />…and in consequence the stereotypes make it possible to resign on the mission of the school<br />… but anyway:<br />How many schools understand the change of fate of disadvantaged pupils as their mission?<br />
  14. 14. Challenges and measures<br />Challenge:<br /><ul><li>Situation of social exclusion</li></ul>Measures:<br />Active targeting of children at risk of social exclusion<br />Policy of early intervention for children at risk of social exclusion<br />
  15. 15. Challenges and measures<br />Challenge:<br />Insufficient system of support of childrens‘ at risk school success<br />Measures:<br />Partnership at all levels (from governmental departments to local)<br />Interconnection of pedagogical and social intervention<br />Mobile advisory services for school and family<br />Teachers‘ assistants<br />
  16. 16. Challenges and measures<br />Challenge:<br />No pre-school facilities attendance of children at risk of social exclusion <br />Measures:<br />Open kindergartens<br />Preparatory classrooms<br />Support of NGOs‘ programs of in the field<br />

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