Few historical documents are written in Filipino. FACTORS:• the elite Filipinos who studied abroadduring the Spanish era took theresponsibility to write our history inEnglish• what was taught to them is what theywrote (aka foreign perspective of ourhistory)• they wrote for foreigners to understandour history and not for our own sakes• there are more American “experts” of ourhistory than Filipinos
Different kinds of perspectivesof Philippine History A. Pangkaming Pananaw - written by Filipinos in English - POV of Filipino writers - meant to be read by foreigners to understand our history in our POV -used to correct or argue against false accounts written by foreigners Example writers: the elite Filipino youth, La Solidaridad Example work: Manlavi‟s History of Palawan
B. Pansilang Pananaw̶ written by foreigners in English ̶ POV of foreigners ̶ meant to be read by foreigners to understand our history (part/in relation to their history)Example work: Zafra‟s accountsC. Pangkayong Pananaw- written by foreigners in English- POV of foreignors- what is produced when texts byforeigners about our history areread by Filipinos
D. Pantayong Pananaw̶ written by Filipinos in Filipino/ Katutubong Salita ̶ POV of Filipino writers ̶ meant to be read by Filipinos ̶ revolves around the use of Filipino concepts in order to explain other Filipino concepts Example: no use of explanations like “The Abraham Lincoln of the Philippines” because the American hero is a foreign concept
We are in need of a more comprehensive collection of historical accounts under Pantayong Pananaw. WHY?. . because it should be understood by our own peopleIndividual histories of ethnic groupsare independent of each other but areall still part of the whole history ofthe PhilippinesAka concept of ethnohistory – the ethnicgroup‟s history is based on its ownexperience and not the whole country‟s
REALIZATIONSOur “colonial mentality” is rootedin our foreign education system (asmanifested by how we learn our ownhistory)We should also consider the entireeducation system and learning othersubjects in Filipino/native tongueas well.
Sikolohiya sa Pilipinas: theentirety of “Philippine Psychology”- concepts such as Babaylan andKatalonan, Mañana Habit and Ningas Kugon- Education from the West (ergo, greatlyinfluenced by the West aka America)- American Psychology is superior thanPhilippine Psychology Filipinos think it‟s universal &objective, but it‟s not “American Psychology is a relatively new discipline for the Filipinos but Philippine psychology is as old as the Filipino himself.” ~ Enriquez, 1975
Sikolohiya ng Pilipino o ng mgaPilipino: the most common among the three forms- we treat traits of Filipinos andethnic groups as if these are the onlybases of the Psychology of Filipinos- more emphasis on the physicalattributes instead of considering whatthe person truly feels and his or hergoals and experiences- we tend to generalize Filipinos (i.e.ningas kugon, “Filipino Time”, etc.)because it‟s the easiest way
Sikolohiya ng Pilipino o ng mgaPilipino: the most common among the three forms- we misuse Filipino as a language andit is worse than not using it at all“There is no such thing as Filipinofood.” fiesta influenced by colonizers Filipino foods are not called„Filipino‟, but more onIlokano, Kapampangan, Bicol, etc.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: the result of experiences, culture and Philippine orientation- is the definition of PhilippinePsychology from a Filipino perspective- a study of emotions and experiencedknowledge, awareness of one‟ssurroundings, information andunderstanding, habits and behaviours andthe soul.GOAL: to foster national identity andconsciousness, social involvement, andpsychology of language and culture.
Four Filiations of Sikolohiyang PilipinoA. The Academic-Scientific Psychology- At the same time as Scientific Psychology and the beginning of Western Psychology in the PhilippinesB. Academic-Philosophical Psychology- Study of Psychology as part of Philosophy. Started in the University of Santo Tomas (UST)
Four Filiations of Sikolohiyang PilipinoC. Ethnic Psychology- Major basis of Sikolohiyang Pilipino- Includes indigenous psychology, psychology of Filipinos and the practice of psychology by FilipinosD. Psycho-medical- Religion as a cohesive element and explanation
The nature of Sikolohiyang Pilipino- empirical philosophy, academic-scientific psychology, the ideas andteachings of Ricardo Pascual, logicalanalysis of language- rational philosophy, the clericaltradition, Thomistic philosophy andpsychology- liberalism, the Propagandamovement, the writings of Philippineheroes like Jacinto, Mabini, delPilar, ethnic psychology
The nature of Sikolohiyang Pilipino- It is against those factors whichtolerate the colonial thinking ofFilipinos, the exploitation of themasses and the application of thepsychology of well-developed countriesin the Third World.- It is not anti-Western theories andmethods, but more on the non-selectiveuse of imposition of Western knowledge(Marceline & Pe-Pua, 2000).
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: the development of indigenous concepts and theoriesPoints to be considered:A. Filipino Values- “Bahala na”- “Hiya”- “Utang na loob”B. Indirect Communication- Our culture is full of non-verbal cues as part of our communication
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: the development of indigenous concepts and theoriesC. Internality and Externality- The Filipino language has two words for the English word „honor‟ One is „puri‟ which refers to honor that is physical Second is „dangal‟ which is honor from withinD. Cultural division- It is not the regions which divides Filipinos, but the culture, itself.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Research MethodologyNature of Research:* The participants are included in the research as a group, and not as individuals (aka an umpukan, or natural cluster - is required to serve as the participants)* The researcher is introduced to a natural cluster by a tulay (bridge), who is a part of the umpukan and is a well-respected man in the community
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Research MethodologyResearch Methods:A. Pakikipagkuwentuhan- the researcher engages in a story- telling with an umpukan. The researcher merely serves as the facilitator, while the kalahok or participants are the one who are talking.B. Panunuluyan- the researcher stays in the home of his kalahok while he conducts the research with consent by the host family, whose head serves as the tulay to an umpukan.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Research MethodologyResearch Methods:C. Pagdadalaw-dalaw- the researcher occasionally visits the house of his host or tulay, as opposed to staying in the house.D. Pagtatanung-tanong- the researcher undergoes a kind of questioning session with his kalahok. Lead questions are not supposed to be asked, instead the questions to be asked should be derived from the kalahoks answers.
Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Research MethodologyResearch Methods:E. Pakikiramdam- the researcher uses entirely his/her own feelings or emotions to justify if his participants are ready to be part of his research or not.F. Pakapa-kapa- the researcher uses groping, or a mixture of feelings as well as circumstances, to justify his intrusion into the life of his/her participants.
RealizationsWe are still colonized by the Americans(aka education as well as the economy)Not just because we‟ve grown up toAmerican Psychology, doesn‟t mean wehave to adopt it forever.We should give emphasis on the conceptsthat give justice to Philippine culturePhilippine Psychology is one of theways towards the success of thePhilippines.
Suggestions- use FIlipino as a medium- be open-minded about the changes ofPsychology in our country- be universal and particular at thesame time- respect for our own ability- let the world know that Philippinepsychology exists by having opinionsand perspectives about it
ASSUMPTIONS- there are a variety of productsand services in the market- people cannot buy everything sothey must choose- most popular products in themarket today are under transnationalcompanies- Advertisements help convincebuyers to buy a particular product- Stealth advertising is stilladvertising
FOUR STEPS IN MAKING ADS1. research about consumers - class, age, source oflivelihood, problems, motivations, personality, needs, lifestyle2. know what needs of the consumer andhow the product can answer3. know what aspect/characteristic ofthe product can be emphasized in the adbased on #1 and #24. make the ad, consider the effect ofall its features(medium, content, message, color, imagery, etc.)
HOW ADS WORK1. Ads are backed-up by research onconsumers- personality- needs- Lifestyle2. Ad agencies use gathered data toknow what and where to put emphasisin their ads3. Philippine ads BOTH reflect andshape the Filipino way of thinkingand living
4. Through the analysis ofPhilippine ads, Psychologists canalso learn the priorities andinclinations of Filipinos5. By using data from research onconsumers, some ads trick theFilipino viewer into thinking thisis what he or she wants/needs6. Proper education on consumptionis a must in the Philippineadvertising scene
Consumer Psychology: a new branch of Psychology Aspects that affect consumers choice acc. to consumer psychology: 1. consumer him/herself - attitudes, values, priorities, et c. 2. product/service itself - appearance, packaging, reputation, e tc. 3. message of the ad - what image the ad gives of the
Consumer Psychology: a new branch of Psychology Other aspects: 1. period of time the ad is used to represent the product/service ("lifespan" of the ad) 2. number of ads per product/service 3. change in the market itself
Consumer Psychology: a new branch of Psychology Four Categories of Consumer needs that shape ads (Yankelovich, 1971) 1. need for a comfortable lifestyle 2. search for happiness and new experience 3. negative reactions to everyday scenes (i.e. shanty houses, traffic, inconvenient spaces, etc.) 4. interests of people that affect their consumerism (family, personal, lovelife, etc.)
Consumer Psychology: a new branch of Psychology Schultz (1979) Two Techniques As Use 1. Positive appeal -what will happen when the product is used 2. Negative appeal -what will happen if one does not use the products
“Ads may affect decisions of people, but the meanings/content of ads are shaped by the consumers themselves.”~ Crisostomo, 1966; Lent, 1969
ADVERTISEMENTS IN GENERAL:- reflect the Philippine psychology andmany attitudes, beliefs, and values- seem to emphasize our colonial mentalityand our inclination to "branded" products- reflect social norms; what is acceptablein society (i.e. ads tell us how we shouldsmell, dress)- the models and endorsers are reflectionsof the perspectives of Filipinos towardswhat is beautiful and admirable (i.e. whiteskinned women, ideal body types etc.)
ADVERTISEMENTS IN GENERAL:- give the illusion of INDUSTRIALIZATION inthe Philippines (Nofuerte, 1976), thatthese internationally based products are asign that we are in the ranks of the highlyindustrialized countries- exaggerate via "gimmicks"; use fallaciousclaims (i.e. they tell us if we have whiteskin we will find love)- are manipulative because companies/adagencies prioritize income over consumerswellbeing (Landicho, 1978)
HOW ADS AFFECT CHILDREN: TO CENSOR OR NOT YES, please. NO, just no.Because ads create an image of Even censored in TV, children willwanting things that are not really still and see these in other mediumsneeded by children (because budgets will be allocated in radio/print, etc.Teaches kids to become materialistic Programming for kids will decrease in number (no ads = no money)Tolerates kids in eating foods that If the product is bad for theare not nutritious (i.e. junk foods) health, its ads shouldn‟t be the only ones banned. The product itself should also be.takes of advantage of the fact that Violates the rights to be informedkids find it hard to see the fineline between ads and reality
“is a process of social research by and within the community members to resolve issues (aka disabling perplexities). These disabling perplexities hinder the community from moving forward, “thus rendering its members helpless and feeling trapped in a vicious cycle” ~ Diaz Lecture Notes, 2007 from Alfonso, 2000
Definition of Terms - uncertainty: perceiving options on what to do without a clear understanding of possible consequences or whose connection to the DP is not yet clear or is inadequately understood. - self-reflexivity: knowledge which individuals have of their own situation that goes into the way they define that situation - recursion: repeated questioning, examining, probing and inquiring by the members themselves into aspects of their own community
Definition of Terms - enabler: outside facilitator or researcher who would open up possibilities for the community - frame: structure of concepts constructed to clarity and draw boundary around a DP - operational construct: would provide a functional explanation of the DP and constitute an effort to make the frame operative - consensus: coming to a decision supported by everyone (or majority)
Definition of Terms - authentication: explicit confirmation by the members to no longer question the consensus that has been decided upon - institutionalizing: a transition from re-search procedures from outside to internalized research procedures where members could engage on their own - community competence: when the community‟s institutions enable its members to cope with problems beyond the particular project at hand and on their own
Criteria for SSI Applicability- Involvement of the members of thecommunity in the process- Presence of a well-defined community- Members of the community can bemotivated, and convinced by theenablers to see the benefits of theirparticipation- Ability to translate the DisabilityPerplexity into a suitable frame orstructure of concepts
Objectives- to reach a consensus of a decisionfully supported by everyone, in aprocess where everyone‟s contributionis recognized- to achieve community competence wheremembers are enabled and empowered tocope with problems without guidancefrom outside
HOW DOES IT WORK?Translate a DP into a suitable frame Draw a boundary around a DP Produce poieta, generated informationfrom the frames Create aoperational construct Arrive at aconsensus Authenticate Institutionalize = A COMPETENTCOMMUNITY
Critique of SSI- requires resources which somecommunities do not have (e.g.money, time)- affects the image of the communitysince the process is public
LIST OF REFERENCESAlfonso, Dr. Herminia Corazon M. (2000). Socially Shared Inquiry: A self- reflexive emancipatory communication approach to social research. Quezon City.Diaz, Dr. Paz H. (2007). Lecture notes on socially shared inquiry. PICA Class, July-August 2007.Crisostomo, I.E. (1966). Modern Advertising for Filipinos. Manila: Social Communication Inc.Pe-Pua, R. (1986). Pagtatanong-tanong: Katutubong Metodo ng Pananaliksik. In New Directions in Indigenous Psychology: Sikolohiyang Pilipino, Isyu, Pananaw at Kaalaman. Manila: pp 416-430.Pe-Pua, R. (1990). Sikolohiyang Pilipino: Teorya, metodo, at gamit. Philippines: Surian ng Sikolohiyang Pilipino.Pe-Pua, R. at E. Protacio-Marcelino (1998). Sikolohiyang Pilipino Filipino Psychology): A legacy of Virgilio G. Enriquez. < http://www.indigenouspsych.org/Members/PePua,%20Rogelia/PePua_Mar celino_2000.pdf>Salazar, Z.A. (1997). Ang pantayong pananaw bilang diskursong pangkasabihasnan. In Navarro, A., rodriguez M.J., and Villan V. (Eds.). Pantayong pananaw: Ugat at kabuluhan, pambungad na pag- aaral ng bagong kasaysayan. Mandaluyong City: Palimbagang Palawakan, pp. 79-125.