Second Language Writing 2011_0606


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Second Language Writing 2011_0606

  1. 1. Anonymity in EFL writing: Cultural dimensions in online writing Terry Anderson, PhD Athabasca University Terumi Miyazoe, PhD Tokyo Denki University
  2. 2. Publication <ul><li>Anonymity in Blended Learning: Who Would You Like to Be? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Journal of Educational Technology & Society , Vol.14, Issue 2, pp.175-187, 2011 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IEEE Education Society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open access: </li></ul></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  3. 3. Outline <ul><li>Research background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anonymity in computer-mediated writing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Language learning anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  4. 4. Definition of Anonymity <ul><li>Anonymity: </li></ul><ul><li>masking a writer’s real identity </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  5. 5. Anonymity in Writing Instruction SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  6. 6. Language Anxiety and Culture <ul><li>Language learning anxiety : “mental block against learning a foreign language” (Horwitz, Horwitz, & Cope, 1986, p.125) </li></ul><ul><li>Asian learners (i.e., Chinese, Taiwanese, and Hong Kong) show strong anxiety (Carson & Nelson, 1996) </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese show even stronger anxiety (Hosack, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>-> a solution: anonymity to reduce fear </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  7. 7. Pseudonym and Gender <ul><li>Pseudonym : </li></ul><ul><li>a false name used instead of a person’s real name </li></ul><ul><li>Women tend to choose gender-masking names, whereas men do not. </li></ul><ul><li>( Jaffe , Lee, Huang, & Oshagan, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>Women tend to choose male names; no man choses a female names; and posts by male names attracted more comments and attention. </li></ul><ul><li>(Pagnucci & Mauriello, 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>-> Do male names fortify authority and credibility? </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  8. 8. Research Questions <ul><li>How did the students perceive and evaluate online writing using pseudonyms ? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the students’ learning outcomes ? </li></ul><ul><li>in the Japanese context. </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  9. 9. Research Context <ul><li>63 students (males 37: females 26) </li></ul><ul><li>A university in Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>Quasi-random sampling </li></ul><ul><li>4 skills are covered </li></ul><ul><li>Blended format </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom with one PC per student </li></ul><ul><li>One semester (15 meeting sessions) </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  10. 10. Classroom in Blended Format SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  11. 11. Online Writings <ul><li>Forums : </li></ul><ul><li>topical discussions in groups </li></ul><ul><li>+ students’ moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Blogs : </li></ul><ul><li>free writing </li></ul><ul><li>no obligation </li></ul><ul><li>Forum and blog writing may develop different writing styles (Miyazoe & Anderson, 2010) </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei English only Pseudonym Topic example: “One trend described in the lecture is that people feel overly busy because they have to juggle many responsibilities. Is this true for you?”
  12. 12. Technical Issues SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei Edit profile Moodle
  13. 13. Methods <ul><li>Design-based research (Anderson, 2005; Brown, 1992; Collins, 1992) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed-methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper-based survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-structured interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-/post-course English proficiency tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ writings on the LMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students’ attendance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Written consent </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  14. 14. Results (Survey) SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei <ul><li>Forum and blog enjoyment by gender </li></ul>Forum Blog
  15. 15. Results (Survey) SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei *M: Male, F: Female, N: Neutral Examples of pseudonyms “ Ponyo Ponyo,” “Happy blue sea,” “Dustbox xxx” <ul><li>Pseudonym choice by gender (n = 56) </li></ul>Gender shifting M->M M->F M->N F->F F->M F->N Number of students 7 3 22 2 0 22
  16. 16. Results (Survey) <ul><li>Pseudonym versus real name usage </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  17. 17. Results (Interview) <ul><li>Two categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writer’s perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reader’s perspective </li></ul></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  18. 18. Results (Interview) <ul><li><Writer’s perspective> </li></ul><ul><li>Free themselves from others’ eyes and evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>“ Japanese people…worry about others’ opinions…therefore, stating opinions in the unidentifiable situation…is better.” (I.3) </li></ul><ul><li>Free themselves from making mistakes in front of others </li></ul><ul><li>“… it’s easy to state opinions when one is anonymous…I feel embarrassed that others see me making mistakes in English.” (I.4) </li></ul><ul><li>Be more honest with others </li></ul><ul><li>“… [with my real name] I feel I should not speak too strongly…” (I.8) </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  19. 19. Results (Interview) <ul><li><Reader’s perspective> </li></ul><ul><li>Help them concentrate on and appreciate the content of the posts of others’ rather than focus on who said what. </li></ul><ul><li>“… with anonymous blogs, people look at me objectively, without any preconception that my character should be this and that, so it’s very good. (I.6) </li></ul><ul><li>“… with anonymity, when I state my opinions, you do not know who might read them, so private emotions would not probably come in. No prejudice…and we can be more objective to find others.” (I.10) </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  20. 20. Results (English tests) <ul><li>Change in English proficiency </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei N Mean SD Male 37 2.34 5.645 Female 26 0.72 5.277   Test 1 Test 2 Max 40 41 Min 18 14 Mean 29.6 31.27 Test 1 Test 2 CEF Level Description B2 Upper Intermediate B1 Lower Intermediate A2 Elementary A1 Breakthrough (Beginner)
  21. 21. Results (Writing amount and English tests) SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  22. 22. Discussions <ul><li>Anonymity in Writing Instruction </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  23. 23. Discussion (cont’d) <ul><li>The need for different research designs and analysis methods </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei Blended F2F ( real identity ) Online ( virtual identity )
  24. 24. Conclusion <ul><li>Anonymity in online EFL writing instruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does have potential to induce higher participation and learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extra burden in terms of technology but rewarding </li></ul></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei
  25. 25. <ul><li>Thank you for listening! </li></ul><ul><li>For questions: </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei URL:
  26. 26. References <ul><li>Anderson, T. (2005). Design-based research and its application to a call centre innovation in distance education. Canadian Journal of Learning and Technology , 31 , from </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, A. L. (1992). Design experiments: Theoretical and methodological challenges in creating complex interventions in classroom settings. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 2 (2), 141-178. </li></ul><ul><li>Carson, J. G., & Nelson, G. L. (1996). Chinese students’ perceptions of ESL peer response group interaction, Journal of Second Language Writing , 5 , 1-19. </li></ul><ul><li>Collins, A. (1992). Towards a design science of education. In E. Scanlon & T. O'Shea (Eds.), New directions in educational technology (pp. 15-22). Berlin: Springer. </li></ul><ul><li>Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope  J. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70 , 125-132. </li></ul><ul><li>Hosack, I. (2004). The effects of anonymous feedback on Japanese university students' attitudes towards peer review. In Ritsumeikan Hogaku (Ed.), Special Issue, Language and its Universe (Vol. 3, pp. 297-322). Kyoto: Ritsumeikan Hogaku. </li></ul><ul><li>Jaffe, M. J., Lee, Y.-E., Huang, L.-N., & Oshagan, H. (1999). Gender identification, interdependence, and pseudonyms in CMC: Language patterns in an electronic conference. The Information Society, 15 , 221-234. </li></ul><ul><li>Miyazoe, T. & Anderson, T. (2010). Learning outcomes and students' perceptions of online writing: Simultaneous implementation of a forum, blog, and wiki in an EFL blended learning setting, System, 38 (2), 185-199. </li></ul><ul><li>Miyazoe, T. & Anderson, T. (2011). Anonymity in Blended Learning: Who Would You Like to Be?, Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 14 (2), 175-187 . </li></ul><ul><li>Pagnucci, G. S., & Mauriello, N. (1999). The masquerade: Gender, identity, and writing for the web. Computers and Composition , 16 (1), 141-151. </li></ul>SLW Symposium 2011 Taipei