Learning styles online

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Learning styles online

  1. 1. Terumi Miyazoe, PhD Tokyo Denki University ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  2. 2. Presentation plan <ul><li>Research question </li></ul><ul><li>Research background </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ATTLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dougiamas & ATTLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CCS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pilot study </li></ul><ul><li>Research method </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><li>Implications </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  3. 3. <ul><li>Research question </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  4. 4. <ul><li>How are learning styles, gender, and a sense of learning community related in interactive online learning environments? </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  5. 5. ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto Learner factor Instructional Design factor Community factor
  6. 6. <ul><li>Research background 1: ATTLS </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  7. 7. <ul><li>The Attitudes Toward Thinking and Learning Scale (ATTLS) </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-installed survey on Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>A learning (or knowing) style inventory developed by Galloti et al. (1999) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Women’s Way of Knowing” (Belenky et al., 1986) </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
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  9. 9. ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto 20
  10. 10. ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  11. 11. ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto 1986
  12. 12. <ul><li>Reactions to a poem : </li></ul><ul><li>CKs : “What is this poem trying to say to me?” </li></ul><ul><li>SKs : “What standards are being used to evaluate my analysis of this poem?” </li></ul><ul><li>(Belenky et al., 1986, p. 103) </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  13. 13. <ul><li>Connected Knowers (CKs): </li></ul><ul><li>communicative and compassionate </li></ul><ul><li>Separate Knowers (SKs): </li></ul><ul><li>analytical and solitary </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  14. 14. ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto Acculturation
  15. 15. <ul><li>Research background 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Dougiamas & ATTLS </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  16. 16. <ul><li>ATTLS application to find particular behaviors of online learners </li></ul><ul><li>Online course called Constructivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More CK students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dialogical and constructive online learning needs appropriate training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help system improvement </li></ul></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
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  19. 19. <ul><li>Research background 3: </li></ul><ul><li>CCS </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  20. 20. Classroom Community Scale (CCS) <ul><li>Invented by Alfred P. Rovai (2002a) </li></ul><ul><li>Measures the strength of class unity for learning </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty statements of five-point Likert scale </li></ul><ul><li>(strongly disagree to strongly agree) </li></ul><ul><li>Two subscales </li></ul><ul><ul><li>learning (10) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>connectedness (10) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Potential total score: 20-100 </li></ul><ul><li>Higher CCS score = higher learning and satisfaction </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  21. 21. Original CCS ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto 10 × 2 = 20 items  ->  20 ~ 100 points
  22. 22. Prior research on CCS <ul><li>Few studies available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rovai (2002a): perceived interaction, learning, and CCS are correlated in distant education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rovai and Jordan (2004): compared F2F, online, and blended learning , the last CCS as the highest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dawson (2006): strong correlation between interaction and CCS </li></ul></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  23. 23. CCS applicability <ul><li>Female students scored higher in CCS than males students. </li></ul><ul><li>Distance education </li></ul><ul><li>-> F2F, online, and blended learning </li></ul><ul><li>US </li></ul><ul><li>-> Australia </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  24. 24. <ul><li>Summary of </li></ul><ul><li>prior research </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  25. 25. <ul><li>Females tend to be CKs </li></ul><ul><li>Female learners tend to show </li></ul><ul><li>higher CCS scores </li></ul><ul><li>under interactive online learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>-> in Western-based research/culture </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  26. 26. <ul><li>Pilot study </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  27. 27. <ul><li>44 students of two classes in one university taught by myself </li></ul><ul><li>Males 35: Females 5 (Valid N = 40) </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire including ATTLS and other measurements </li></ul><ul><li>Tried to find any correlation between ATTLS results and other factors </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  28. 28. <ul><li>ATTLS and gender distribution </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto CK type SK type Males 24 3 Females 5 0 Total 29 3
  29. 29. Unexpected finding 2 ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto SK males CK females GAP
  30. 30. <ul><li>Main study </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  31. 31. <ul><li>Three universities in Tokyo </li></ul><ul><li>A total of 238 (valid N = 190) </li></ul><ul><li>Males 130: Females 60 </li></ul><ul><li>9 classes </li></ul><ul><li>Two instructors including myself </li></ul><ul><li>Subjects: </li></ul><ul><li>English for overseas studies/information and technology studies </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  32. 32. Course design ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto Blogs and forum discussions In class Out of class Moodle /Blackboard
  33. 33. Moodle for course content ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  34. 34. Moodle for activities ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  35. 35. Questionnaire <ul><li>ATTL </li></ul><ul><li>CCS </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation on the blended course design </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for online written interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic questions (age and gender) </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  36. 36. <ul><li>Examination day towards the end of course to ensure a high response rate </li></ul><ul><li>After enough experience of online learning for 10, 15, or 30 weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Paper-and-pen than online </li></ul><ul><li>to avoid sample bias </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  37. 37. <ul><li>Reliability test (Cronbach's test coefficiency alpha) </li></ul><ul><li>ATTLS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CKs: .751 (n = 147) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SKs: .683 (n = 151) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CCS total: .839 (n = 151) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning items: .755 (n = 158) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected items: .786 (n = 154) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Higher than .700 is very good. </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  38. 38. <ul><li>Results </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  39. 39. ATTLS distribution ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  40. 40. ATTLS distribution by gender <ul><li>Male students </li></ul><ul><li>Female students </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  41. 41. CK and SK score distribution by gender ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto US Japan
  42. 42. Ranking of mean scores by ATTLS type and gender ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto Rank CCS Score Online interaction Score Course evaluation Score 1st CK females 70.35 CK males 3.76 SK females 4.40 2nd CK males 64.21 CK females & SK males 3.56 CK females 4.29 3rd Even males 63.62 -- -- CK males 4.11 4th SK males 62.67 Even males 3.25 Even males 3.75 5th SK females 62.60 SK females 2.40 SK males 3.67
  43. 43. CK and SK score distribution by gender ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  44. 44. <ul><li>Discussions </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  45. 45. Major findings <ul><li>CK-type learners may show higher adaptability to interactive online learning, as Dougiamas and Taylor (2003) hypothesized. </li></ul><ul><li>Learners in different contexts may show different tendencies in CK versus SK classification. </li></ul><ul><li>ATTLS scores can be a viable indicator of the level of adaptability to an interactive online learning environment. </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  46. 46. A virtuous circle or a vicious circle? ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  47. 47. <ul><li>If you have any questions, please contact me: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.slideshare.net/Terumi_Miyazoe </li></ul><ul><li>Thank you very much! </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  48. 48. References <ul><li>Anderson, C. M. (2005). Ways of knowing: their association with gender and higher order thinking. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Wichita State University, College of Education. Wichita, Kansas, US. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10057/741 </li></ul><ul><li>Dougiamas, M., & Taylor, P. C. (2003). Moodle: Using learning communities to create an open source course management system . Paper presented at the ED-MEDIA 2003, Honolulu, Hawaii. Retrieved from http://dougiamas.com/writing/edmedia2003/ </li></ul><ul><li>Dawson, S. (2006). A study of the relationship between student communication interaction and sense of community. The Internet and Higher Education , 9 (3), 153-162. </li></ul><ul><li>Galotti, K. M., Clinchy, B. M., Ainsworth, K. H., Lavin, B., & Mansfield, A. F. (1999). A new way of assessing ways of knowing: The Attitudes Towards Thinking and Learning Survey (ATTLS). Sex Roles, 40 (9/10), 754-766. </li></ul><ul><li>Garrison, D. R., & Anderson, T. (2003). E-learning in the 21st century: A framework for research and practice . New York: RoutledgeFalmer. </li></ul><ul><li>McMillan, D., & Chavis, D. (1986). Sense of community: A definition and theory. Journal of Community Psychology, 14 (1), 6-23. </li></ul><ul><li>Miyazoe, T. (2009a). LMS-based EFL blended instructional design: Learning community, learning styles, and online written interaction. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, International Christian University. Tokyo, Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>Miyazoe, T. (2009b). Sense of class community in an LMS-based blended learning. In Proceedings of World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia and Telecommunications (ED-MEDIA) 2009 (pp. 67-72). Chesapeake, VA: AACE. </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto
  49. 49. <ul><li>Miyazoe, T. & Anderson, T. (2010a). Learning outcomes and students' perceptions of online writing: Simultaneous implementation of a forum, blog, and wiki in an EFL blended learning setting, System, 38 (2). Accessible at . http://www.sciencedirect.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>Miyazoe, T. & Anderson, T. (2010b). The Interaction Equivalency Theorem. The Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 9 (2) , in press. </li></ul><ul><li>Rovai, A. P. (2002). Development of an instrument to measure classroom community. The Internet and Higher Education, 5 (3), 197-211. </li></ul><ul><li>Rovai, A. P. (2003). The relationships of communication style, personality-based learning style, and classroom community among online graduate students. The Internet and Higher Education, 6 (4), 347-363. </li></ul><ul><li>Rovai, A. P., & Jordan, H. (2004). Blended learning and sense of community: A comparative analysis with traditional and fully online graduate courses. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 5 (2). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/192/274 </li></ul>ED-MEDIA 2010 Toronto

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