Facilitation 1223881339031768-8


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  • (8:30) PG 1 Welcome to today’s EFFECTIVE meeting facilitation workshop. I’m pleased to be here today to work with you in improving our skills of meeting facilitation. No matter how long we’ve been doing it, we can always get better! In fact, we may be using many or all of the meeting best practices and still lead ineffective meetings! Whenever we facilitate a meeting, we are engaged in a growth experience in many competency or job skill areas. Most notably, interpersonal savvy, time management and drive for success and achievement.
  • So what will we accomplish at this particular meeting? PG 2 By the end of this workshop we will -understand the best practices for effective meeting facilitation -write a clear purpose and agenda item for an upcoming meeting -practice and coaching opportunities during a facilitation activity
  • Refer to Agenda This is how we will accomplish our Desired Outcomes for the Workshop. We’ll complete our Welcome and Introduction to the workshop shortly, then we will review and discuss the purpose and functions of our meetings as they relate to decision making, communication and action steps. Then we will review Facilitation Fundamentals—Language use Challenges, etc. After that, we will work through the 3 main meeting components: Pre-work, Process and Progress. Then we take action and Practice a condensed version of an upcoming meeting, and conclude with a review summary and evaluation of the training session.
  • PG 4 In order to prove effectiveness, evaluation must take place. We need to measure our progress after each meeting we conduct to ensure the work done at the meeting is effective. If we don’t evaluate our meetings, how do we determine their effectiveness?
  • PG 31 First we have Pre work or Pre-positioning: Planning!!!!!! (40-80%) First we have Pre-work. When we spend the time up from to plan and prepare for our meetings it not only charts our course for the meeting it also improves our meeting effectiveness. It also sets us up for success. Meet with “sponsor”. Explain process if necessary. Ask sponsor for expectations. Clarify realistic expectations. Gather : Background information to the situation, any history to date. Reason for Facilitation Desired Outcomes Scope, who, what and how much to include and or exclude Constraints:budgets, resources, timeframes, equipment, policies,legislation, other restrictions Group Requirements-Who to include/exclude Logistics-what’s needed to meet facilitation, stuff, place etc. Agree on how to communicate results of the session to the “sponsor” (Put this in writing and review for agreement with sponsor) Preparation: Written Desired Outcomes, Agenda, Proposed Activities, Post Session Action plans—agreed upon and published with “sponsor” approval Roles and Responsibilities of the Participants—review expectations with sponsor (resource availability, basic ground rules, etc. Time, Place Logistics confirmation Once we’ve finished the pre-work, the time eventually comes for us to conduct the meeting. That’s our Process, when we’re navigating through our agenda. When we are active in working towards fulfilling our Desired Outcome. Second: Process—The session will follow the agenda Do (10-20%) Third: Progress: Review (30-40%) Session debrief with action items Minutes and findings are written and submitted for review, Session will be evaluated, Actions and Outstanding issues are noted. Facilitator may meet again with sponsor to review any additional planning that may be needed for next session or steps. Once we’ve actually sailed through our agenda, we should have made progress if our meeting is an effective meeting. To measure progress meeting minutes can be our documentation of this progress. It may lead us to additional steps or meetings for completion. If so, then we have the information necessary to begin our planning or Pre-work for our next effective meeting.
  • PG 14
  • PG 14 continued
  • PG 14 continued Neutrality is a way to ensure that all ideas & participants are respected and legitimized. It is difficult when… When possible… Ask another… The opposite of Neutrality is Advocacy. If advocacy I our purpose—we may want to involve those we are advocating for. Might also want a true “neutral” facilitator to work with the group. HT foster Neutrality? Chart ideas? Ask impartial non-biased questions No judging 1 idea over another ensure participation from all maintain focus to the discussion Protect people and their ideas from attack Keep the meeting focused on D.O.s Handle challenging behaviors Validate the decisions and commitments that are made
  • PG 15 Competencies -Managing Expectations ------------- PG 16 –Creative and Mature Person ------------------ Understanding Adults Chart!
  • PG 15 Competencies -Managing Expectations ------------- PG 16 –Creative and Mature Person ------------------ Understanding Adults Chart!
  • Not only do we need to have an understanding of personality styles, thinking, learning & working –we also need to understand the characteristics and process of groups and group dynamics. PG 17 These are all things believed to be held true—otherwise, why would we bother to work together? Why would we have a culture that prefers face-to face meetings for communication and project/program work? Collective… Building… Productivity… Improved…
  • When are group is functioning well, these behaviors are being exhibited. PG 17 Contributing Clarifying Supporting Mediating
  • PG 22 First we have the category of Over Participators: You may know them as: Curt the Clown Tries to crack a joke at every opportunity Quinn the Questioner Has a question for almost every topic-usually unrelated to the topic Laura must Look good Makes comments about how she’s done this and that, she knows it all Don the Dominator May do all of the above and more Tips for handling the Over Participator: Acknowledge and move on: “Thanks for your comments Don, let’s move on to…” Refer to the Ground Rules as a reminder: “We agreed to stay on task-let’s get back to…” Ask them to link it to the topic, otherwise ask the to park it on a Parking Lot: “ That’s an interesting insight, how does that relate to the EFFECTIVE meeting?” Ask other participants their opinion: “Does anyone see things differently?” “What do you all think?” Summarize and move on: “Let me make sure I understand, I heard you say… thanks for the clarification, let’s refocus our attention to…” If the discussion gets off track: Acknowledge or state that we’re off track and ask a question to refocus the group Rambler: Find a natural break –yes, and…or It sounds like you’ve had challenges with ____there are a few more questions to cover with our limited time—perhaps we could take this offline?
  • PG 23 Unfortunately, some of our meetings can be controversial and we may be faced with Aggressive behaviors. Such as: Natalie Negativity Loudly expresses her opinion that nothing is good-everything is wrong Arnold Attacker Makes harsh personal comments directed at others and their ideas What we can do: Move closer to them balance the negative comments with positive Remain a relaxed posture Remain Non-defensive Clarify and acknowledge when necessary confirm understanding of what they are saying--paraphrase Refer to Ground Rules of respecting others and their opinions Clearly state the behaviors that are Aggressive and the behavior change needed “ Natalie, you’ve raised your voice 3 times, please lower your voice or leave until you can speak in a respectful tone.” Let the group help “What can we say to Natalie from a different perspective?” Focus on the issue at hand “Arnold, the issue is meeting time, not Natalie’s negativity.” Have a Private Discussion “Should we schedule a time for just the 2 of us to hash this out?” If it’s an issue for later—park it! You’ve raised a good point. It would be most appropriate to address it when we get to…or offline…I’ll follow up. Overall allow all challengers the opportunity to save face by remaining calm cool and collected. (To be effective, we need to maintain control of our own behavior, and not allow ourselves to be pulled in by the force of our challengers.) Often this is easier said than done. Yet, it CAN be done!
  • PG 24 Not only do we have over-participators that detract from the meeting objectives, the under-participator can wreak as much havoc, sometimes more. You may know the under-participator as: Chuck Chronic lateness almost always a late arrival at the start and after breaks Mr. Unprepared Has a role in the meeting and is given instruction with plenty of lead time, still comes unprepared and tries to quickly get it done while others are presenting might wing it Little Miss Lack of Follow Will volunteer and rarely takes action on her item assigned Becky Bored She may bring other work to the meeting, or she might sit staring out the window, or look down with her arms folded across her chest. She is physically in the room but mentally somewhere else-and she’s not ashamed to show it. What we can do: For those with closed body language or those that have zipped lips-Invite them in “ Looks like you’re in deep thought about this, what do you think? Use polling: Let’s take a poll-raise your hand if… “Becky, you remained a conscientious objector, what’s your perspective?” get closer proximity—make direct eye contact with non-participators Reinforce “Little Miss Lack of, and Mr. Unprepared, when can you have that for us?” Ask open ended questions & allow silence! Also, network with them at break times, be available to them after the meeting on a 1-1 basis. “ Let me know how I might help.” or “You seem to be holding back- is there something that you would like to discuss at another time?” Restate purpose & roles, objectives—we’re all here to ___ and it will help us all by___ if we can’t get moving, we may need to_______
  • PG 25
  • PG 26
  • PG 26 ------------------------------ Activity with the 7 Dwarves Hi Ho!
  • PG 6 Other pitfalls that we may be unaware of . This was lacking in the follow up and process of the meetings for the committee mentioned previously. After that, we now have a document that has primary and secondary responsibilities for delivering materials—and assigned deadlines. What about your meetings—are these things communicated clearly & how? WDYD? Decision Making is an area that this committee needs to get a better handle on. ------------------------------------- Let’s spend some time reviewing the intricacies of decision making PG 7 What traps may be at play in your current meeting?
  • PG 33 Let’s focus on the first Pre-work component: Our Desired Outcome(s) Well Written D.O.s are: Positive stated in term of what we want rather than what we DON’’T want Clear & Concise Stated as simple as possible Control & Influence within our control and influence especially if what we want to accomplish involves changing behaviors (know your AUDIENCE!!!) Whenever possible D.O.s should be Measurable Establish criteria to see results. Ask : What are observable metrics or performance indicators can we use to measure this? How do we quantify our outcomes? Resource-based Begin with the resources you have. Ask: With our current resources available, how or what can we achieve? Ecological Ecological in the sense that the relationship between our section or department should be fostered by what we do. If our outcomes aren’t aligned with our division or department’s mission or key initiatives, our work environment could become unhealthy, and become counterproductive. When we write our D.O.’s we need to answer the Question: Does this fit with our current business strategies?
  • PG 33 This was my first stab at writing a desired outcome. Let’s see if it meets the criteria. Is it Positive? No What are some of the negative words—wasting time, take so long, avoid Is it clear and concise? Maybe concise but certainly not clear. It’s very broad. Is this within my control or influence? Yes and No. I can control and influence the meetings I lead. If I practice what I preach-it’s a start. I certainly don’t have the authority to mandate that all meetings are conducted effective;y—even if I wanted to! Is it measurable? Not take so long is not really specific. Resource based? Perhaps Ecological? Yes So how can I make this more positive, clear and , measurable? Reign it in and focus on 1 best practice for effective meetings with one audience. Let’s look at my second attempt.
  • PG 33 The desired outcome of this session is to establish Ground Rules for all special project team meetings held during the duration of the special project! Does this meet the criteria? Positive Clear Concise Control Influence Measurable Resource based Ecological Now it’s your turn!
  • PG 34 More Practice! Separate participants into groups and have them re-write this D.O. (Pick a card 1,2,3,4) (Example #1: This meeting is to stop wasting too much money. By the end of this meeting we will have identified ways for our department to save money in order to increase our budget numbers.) 5 minutes to write in groups 5 minutes to present for passing the PCCCIMRE test in debrief.
  • PG 35 These are just a few reasons for calling a Meeting: Problem identification- problem solving Idea generating, Brainstorming Establishing plans and goals Training or Education Some more: (chart) Resolving Conflicts Generating Team SPIRIT Building Trust Consulting Informational Briefing of a procedure change Others?—Decision Making
  • PG 35 Some reasons not to meet: Can be handled via phone, fax, email, informal conversation Not prepared/Leader or participants Decision makers are unable to attend No Desired Outcome or established agenda A decision has already been made Some More: (chart) Too many scheduling conflicts (Let’s face it, the reality is that we may have one heck of a difficult time getting everyone together at once. We need to find the best time, place, channel etc. for MOST of the people involved. We can make provisions for those that can’t attend and have them send in advance their input to the agenda items and brief them on the decision or progress in the meeting minutes.) You’ve decided that you or just 1 other person will put on their Nikes and “Just do it.” Too many cooks spoil the meal and make the meeting boring Haven’t had time to prepare for allies or adversaries Improper visuals Too many interruptions Focusing too much on the Why & not the How Travel Expense is too great Ongoing Newsletter or Discussion Board will suffice Others?
  • PG 36 What exactly is an Agenda? For our purpose of EFFECTIVE meeting facilitation, an Agenda is a written document that has critical information to get the right people together at the same time in order to accomplish common Desired Outcome(s).
  • PG 37 Now we need to know what information we need to have to reach our D.O. This is the “stuff” that needs to get done during the meeting. Presentations Activities Demonstrations Group Assignments The words at the meeting are critical and they may be part of a paradigm shift for you at some of your meetings. Anything that can be done outside of the meeting, reading, research, pre-work, room set-up, etc.- MUST/SHOULD be done outside of the meeting. (Input on ideas prior to meeting for agenda?-buy in) (When appropriate?) If people come to your meeting unprepared for their assignment, they simply should not be there. Conduct any other part of the meeting if you can, or decide to cancel altogether if needed. Document in meeting minutes what did or did not occur in preparation for the next meeting. Having multiple short meetings is better than having a long drawn out meeting due to lack of preparation. When there is a written account as to why meetings were shortened or pushed out, it may help participants to be better prepared for future meeting. (Remember from our list of reasons not to meet. If you or others are not prepared. Don’t Meet!) AVOID HAVING “OTHER” as an Agenda item!!!!!!!!!!-never get to it or never get done on time! (My lesson at Marquette)
  • HO Sample Agenda Let’s review this sample Agenda. Does it include any of these things listed? Use it as a guide as you prepare your agenda for your next meeting.
  • PG 36 We’ve got a start at the written part-we have a written Desired Outcome now we need to determine the right people, critical information, time and place. --How have you determined who should be invited to your meetings? Who to invite? Some things to consider: -Whether or not I like them, -if I know I’ll catch flack if I don’t invite them (Maleficent in Sleeping Beauty)-they know more than I do-Just guess -someone with unique experience or historical knowledge -analytical ability/energy/initiative or passion for the topic-SME -have strong internal and external influence/relationships Who not to ask? Sometimes it’s hard to know who should and shouldn’t be there. When deciding who to invite ask this question first: Can this person help us reach the Desired Outcome? Some additional questions to ask would be: Whom are you obligated to invite? Who might be in favor of the Desired Outcome(s) that has influence? Who might be opposed to the Desired Outcome(s) that has influence? Who might be on the fence that has influence? Who might cause trouble if not invited? -------------------------- Work Group Hand Out
  • PG __ When possible publish the Agenda at least 48 hours in advance. The sooner the better!!! Assign start and end times for the entire session and for each topic or item. ------------ Review Today’s Agenda
  • PG __ ------------- HO -Pre Meeting Checklist -Low to no-cost places to meet
  • PG __ Additionally-- Membership activities are designed to build trust and interdependence within a group that will be meeting regularly. Membership activities should be built into meetings, especially as the group is still getting to know one another. While membership activities are not mandatory, time invested in them will pay-off in future meetings when tough, critical decisions need to be made. These are typically used for ritual or regular meetings, Training Sessions, Problem Solving Sessions and Group Facilitations. For the purposes of our skill practice, we will be conducting a brief membership activity that could add to the effectiveness of your “real” meeting after the class. Individually Read page 40 & then select a membership from the list on page 41 or write your own to use during the skill practice. ----------- HO Energizers and Icebreakers
  • Ask: Does anyone currently use GR for their meetings? If so, what are they? How have you found them helpful? (hopefully you’ll get a segue into the next slide item-if not…) There are 2 key reasons to use Ground Rules during a meeting… First, Ground Rules are designed to identify potential hazards to having a productive meeting. What might be some of these hazards? People having side-bar conversations People doing other work during the meeting People repeatedly taking phone calls during the meeting. Etc. Second, they are also intended to minimize the impact that these hazards may have on the meeting’s effectiveness. What steps have you all taken to keep your meetings productive? Save questions for the end. Save all applause until all winners have been announced! Etc. These steps could be considered Ground Rules. (Just don’t mandate having fun)
  • PG __ Some General Ground Rule Best practices are listed here. Start and end on time. If you’re waiting for a key presenter or decision maker to start the meeting on time look for any opportunity to flex the schedule with other agenda items. Be prepared! Cell phone & pager etiquette. Turn to vibrate or better yet off. What other than an emergency response can’t wait until break time? Even if we flex the schedule to start on time, our flexing should still be focused on the agenda (example of waiting for the commissioner at a FH meeting) It should be agreed upon to avoid side-bar conversations-if we are leading or facilitating and a side-bar conversation commences, what can we do? Use active listening skills Stop talking Ask for them to share with the large group, etc. Maintain respect for all views even if you don’t agree. There is more than one way to tie a shoe. No Q or idea is dumb! Avoid making judgments. Even though we’re all adults, some type of ground rule relating to language should be made. I have seen destructive behaviors when swearing and name calling was allowed at meetings or even off-color jokes or comments. I like to say to the groups I lead that I’d like to keep keep the discussion rated G or at a very minimum rated PG-13. Anything else could lead to anarchy! --When problems arise focus on solutions—deal with conflict directly—establish consensus—all will support the decision made! Don’t mandate FUN! What else might we add? If you would like some additional GR at your meetings, list them on page 42.
  • Common activity when facilitating is to brainstorm. There are many ways to do it.
  • Rules of thumb when Administering Brainstorming: -on target -l -p -c General BS Guidelines: PG 44
  • PG __ continued Another key activity when facilitating can be problem solving. These 4 questions are a technique to use at or before a meeting. Each member answers on own ahead of time—Instruct to BE Specific! How will having these answered ahead of time prior to the meeting be helpful? (Much time & energy can be saved) — (Can get to decision making more quickly)--Anonymously write all BEST solutions down and then vote or tweak What’s the downside? not done Option—Can do all at the meeting may take more time but create more synergy? Decisions Matrix on P 11 was 1 activity we already reviewed foe D-M. Let’s look at a few more- HO—Last page In groups, what kind of activity will you use to meet DO written on P 34? Now you have some activity ideas for your practice session—would encourage BS, PS, or DM for the skill practice rather than discussion.
  • PG __ We often hear we will make decisions by consensus and unless we know what consensus really is…we may be falling into a trap and have unhappy campers participating in our meetings. Let’s Another way to make decisions as a group is to have an evaluative process. On PG 11 we have a sample matrix. Might be similar to something used to make decisions on RFP’s to determine who will receive the $ to do the work. The same can apply to any decisions on work that will be completed in house”. You will need to identify the criteria that you are rating and then individually each group ember can rate and weight each criteria. Q, C, C? Let’s move to our next agenda item.
  • P 43 These roles are: Leader Facilitator Recorder Time-keeper Another role that might occur during the meeting is that of a presenter. What is the difference between a presenter and a Leader or Facilitator? The Presenter is responsible for delivering some or all of the meeting content. The Leader is responsible for establishing the Agenda and takes ownership of meeting the desired outcomes. The Facilitator runs the meeting. Their main focus is to keep the meeting on track. The Recorder is responsible for documenting notes from the meeting-captures all the important information, laptop, flipcharts, notepad-audio cassette- whatever. The time-keeper is the one who keeps track of the times allotted for each agenda item and will give reminders at various places during that portion of the meeting. For example, if there is a brainstorming portion, the time keeper might state at 10 minutes remaining 5 min, 2 minute warning etc. They may ask the group at the end of the time frame if we should continue or move on-getting consensus from the group and/or deferring to the Leader. If continuing-a specific time must be stated and adhered to. (example-MOC if we only had time for 1 item- what is it?) Resources may be facilitator’s of certain parts of the meeting. My be SME’s or special presenters called in—may be the participant’s or committee members—role to follow established processes of the group.
  • P 43 Let’s look at some more characteristics of the Meeting Leader and Facilitator Roles. One of the most difficult tasks of being a Leader is to resist the urge to dominate the meeting and or get in the way of the facilitator—(especially if you’re playing both roles) As a Facilitator it’s very difficult to draw the line in determining if one person is dominating the meeting or letting emotions get in the way of maintaining a neutral frame of mind—(especially if you’re playing more than one role!) What have you seen me do as a: Presenter Leader Facilitator Time-keeper Recorder ? (examples: OEP plan, MOC planning, class)
  • More Opening Session BP’s: As mentioned before, the Opening of the Session sets the stage for the “work” environment of the meeting. If well established, more likely it will go smoothly. Opening: Shapes Participant perceptions and Expectations If necessary, give additional background information to help shape the focus of the meeting or set up any of the activities or agenda topics. This can be referred to as Staging the activities or discussion.
  • Stage activities to create a comfortable environment Activities should: Stimulate personal interest Foster an open and relaxed atmosphere Convey enthusiasm for session content Model Facilitator Excellence: Focusing on group dynamics, issues & behaviors Responsible to safeguard self-esteem & confidence of all Initiating and maintaining constructive relationships Optimizing learning opportunities Leading by example This is really the meat of the meeting. This is probably the main focus or only focus of our meetings currently. If we have difficulty staying on track during this part of our meeting, we could be headed for more time wasted. For the purposes of the class, I’m assuming you’re the SME and know what you want to do at your next meeting. Let’s review some typical tools that we can keep in place to assist us in conducting our effective meeting.
  • PG 48 Each Agenda item should be reviewed with a Summary that includes: The Decision reached The Action to be taken The Due Date for the Action item(s) The Accountability for each action item is assigned to a meeting member(s) Whenever possible write these out on a flip chart or White board for all to see before moving on–it’s in black & white and can be referred to at the next meeting on progress. (Accountability) Another option is to have each person write their action item and due date on a 3 X 5 index card, then all will read their item aloud for consensus. After all agenda items have been discussed and assignments have been given, develop a follow-up plan to ensure that action is taken on time. Agree on all action items and determine how the Parking Lots will be addressed.
  • When we take the time at the end of the session to summarize: these are the benefits to us as a facilitator: -Helps -Reinforces -Provides Let’s jot down 1 or 2 ideas for more effectively summarizing our meetings on PG page 48.
  • PG 50 (11:55)? We should have achieved some progress at this point. What will help us ensure that the progress continues is to publish meeting minutes within 48 hours of the meeting. That way the information is fresh for all involved. Unless otherwise agreed upon, the meeting leader should be responsible for sending out the minutes. Not the recorder. Follow-up with those as due dates arise. (Action items) A Best Practice could be to set-up checkpoint meetings (could be phone e-mail, 1-1) this can help minimize any potential roadblock that might arise. Then Begin Planning for Future meetings using: The action items Post meeting evaluation comments Follow-up information Any new issues that might have surfaced that need attention Another Best practice suggestion is to have periodic updates if there is considerable time until the next meeting. For example, publishing the accomplishments as actions items have been met can allow the group to see progress as it happens! What other additional communication considerations need to be reviewed? Executive summary? Reporting to constituents? (Break 12-1)
  • So what will we accomplish at this particular meeting? PG 2 By the end of this workshop we will -understand the best practices for effective meeting facilitation -write a clear purpose and agenda item for an upcoming meeting -practice and coaching opportunities during a facilitation activity
  • How did our meetings go? What was the biggest challenge? What was most beneficial? What do you plan on doing differently at your next meeting as a result of this workshop?
  • Facilitation 1223881339031768-8

    1. 1. Welcome to: . .E M .V ee .I .T t in .C g E F.F.E. Facilitation
    2. 2. Facilitating Meetings challenges :Challenging Allowing Lateness Behaviors Enough Time & Leave Early Getting Determining Keeping Actions Agenda Group on Acted On Activities TaskGetting too Phone-ee- Other much or ness too little or Response Distractions
    3. 3. Session Outcome Understand the best practices for effective meeting facilitation
    4. 4. AgendaWelcome/IntroE.F.F.E.C.T.I.V.E Meeting Components: Pre-work Process ProgressWrap Up, Summary & Evaluations
    5. 5. EFFECTIVE• Essential• Focused• Framework• Established• Collaborative• Time-phased• Initiative minded• Valuable• Evaluated
    6. 6. Meeting ComponentsPre-work - Charts the courseProcess - Navigates the meetingOpening-Setting up the SessionConducting the SessionConcluding the SessionProgress - Ensures action
    7. 7. Facilitator• Focus is on ensuring that application of necessary activities, assignments and learning will occur
    8. 8. Facilitator•  Guides the session being presented•   Establishes the session ground rules with the participants•   Navigates back to the issue(s) at hand•    Hosts the team and diplomatically acts as a referee or works through issues
    9. 9. Facilitator– Designs problem-solving activities– Frames the medium used for the process– Maintains a neutral perception throughout the facilitation process
    10. 10. Educator• Focus is on content mastery and understanding
    11. 11. Educator– Instructs the projects team as needed– Provides content though self or others– Determines the learning needs throughout the life of the project– Tutors team members when appropriate
    12. 12. Coach• Focus is on improving and enhancing performance
    13. 13. Coach– Strategizes-assigns positions, tasks– Understands the players’ abilities– Provides feedback to redirect, reinforce or extend performance– Asks, encourages and offers help when needed
    14. 14. Administrator• Focus is on format and structure of event(s) to meet project outcomes
    15. 15. Administrator– Organizes team meetings • (pre and post meeting logistics)– Acts as the liaison between team, stakeholders and sponsor– Reports project status
    16. 16. Administrator– Manages and revises plan– Procures resources– Navigates through additional changes that might occur– Documents project activities, outcomes, products
    17. 17. Communicator• Focus is on ensuring that information is flowing productively
    18. 18. Communicator– Manages communication within the group such as meeting summaries, project updates, etc.– Serves as the bridge to all– Translates content and concepts by effectively using various mediums to communicate, such as presentations, written documents, conferencing, etc.– Connects the right people and resources
    19. 19. Communicator– Negotiates issues as they arise in order to complete the project– Promotes the product(s) resulting from the project– Informs the sponsor to ensure ongoing support during the project life– Contacts stakeholders as necessary throughout the life of the project
    20. 20. Motivator• Focus is to foster a motivating environment
    21. 21. CHEE R! Motivator – Encourages – Congratulates – Recognizes – Affirms – Reinforces – Rewards All involved with the project
    22. 22. Miscellaneous• Time-keeper• Scribe• Spokesperson
    23. 23. Characteristics of Facilitation• Protects participants self-esteem• Understands and senses group energy and productivity and acts accordingly to keep ideas flowing and energy up• Monitors the pace and quality• Helps summarize and prioritize content• Moves group to consensus & to define and assign next steps
    24. 24. Characteristics of Facilitation• Creates a participatory environment with active listening, dialogue creativity• Directs group to focus and achieve desired outcomes• Suggests helpful processes to meet outcomes• Remains neutral on content
    25. 25. Neutrality• Difficult when we have multiple roles• When possible, facilitate parts of the meeting where you are more apt to be neutral• Ask another group member to facilitate topics that you have more content input needs
    26. 26. Additional Facilitator Skills Content Process
    27. 27. Facilitation Competencies• Providing a Motivating Environment• Demonstrating Leadership Excellence• Providing Feedback• Managing Discussions & Activities• Effective Communication-clear & timely, using various tools (Written & Oral)
    28. 28. Delivery Do’s & Don’ts• “Professional Presence” – Appropriate Body Language• Appropriate Language – Inclusive – Certain• Asking Questions – Open – Closed – Polling
    29. 29. Group Dynamics• Collective experience adds more than individual experience• Building on the ideas and experiences of many increases synergy and creativity• Productivity, quality and efficiency improve or are enhanced• Improved communication skills through the group interactions
    30. 30. Functional Behaviors• Contributing – Suggest ideas – Offer facts, speculations and solutions – Provide information relevant to the issue• Clarifying – Paraphrase, explain, ask clarifying questions, seek additional ideas & connect one idea to another• Supporting – Praise, encouragement, agreement, open communication• Mediating – Seek to understand other’s point of view – Attempt to reconcile differences, “referee”
    31. 31. Challenging BehaviorsThe Over-ParticipatorSelf-Appointed SpokespersonDoting on DispleasureReadily RepetitiveI’m Important
    32. 32. Challenging BehaviorsThe Aggressive-ParticipatorSideshow BarkingEnormous EmotingConstant CombatingKnow-it-all
    33. 33. Challenging Behaviors The Under-Participator “I have better things to do…” “Excuse me for a minute…” “I’ll have to check on that…” “Could you do it?”
    34. 34. What’s Up?• What possible resistance could there be?• Why?• What else might need consideration?• What potential concerns are there?• What else might I need to know?
    35. 35. General Rules of Thumb• Stay Calm• Relaxed & Open (non-verbal)• Reinforce Acceptable Behavior• Refer to Ground Rules/Roles• Allow Group to Discourage• Refocus to D.O./Topic Activity• Make a Direct Statement• Time Out!
    36. 36. ACT B.I.G.• Describe the BEHAVIOR as you’ve seen and heard it• Describe the IMPACT of the behavior —what it’s done to you, others, or what resulted from the act• Explain the GROWTH needed to get a positive outcome
    37. 37. B.I.G.“When you _______________,I felt_________and I noticed _________.I would like to see you __________if a similar situation comes up.”
    38. 38. Planning for Your Audience• Types of behavior: – Over – Aggressive – Under • Strategies to try
    39. 39. Communication Considerations • Are there issues where information is not communicated clearly? – Actions – Goals – Progress
    40. 40. Pre-work: Determining Desired Outcomes Well Written D.O.s are: –Positive –Clear & Concise –Control & Influence – Measurable – Resource-based – Ecological
    41. 41. Desired Outcome• This meeting is to decide on a mandatory class to teach all staff on how to act professionally.
    42. 42. Desired Outcome• The desired outcome of this meeting is to decide on a training program that promotes a harassment free workplace.
    43. 43. More Desired Outcomes• This meeting is to stop wasting too much money.• To reduce the number of people who show up late each day.• To find ways to change the sagging morale in our department because there is too much tension and we’re not as productive as we should be.• To have a team meeting.
    44. 44. Reasons to Meet1. To identify problems1. To solve identified problems3. Generate ideas, Brainstorming4. Establish Goals or Plans5. Training or Education
    45. 45. Reasons NOT to Meet1. Conversation, phone, or e-mail1. Not prepared, you and/or others3. Decision makers are not available1. Desired Outcome is not clear (or written)5. A decision has already been made
    46. 46. Desired Outcomes• Considerations: – Purpose/Charge/Mission of Group – Communication Needs • Actions • Goals • Progress – Decision-Making Protocol • Guidelines
    47. 47. Pre-work: Creating the AgendaAGENDA: a written document with critical information to get the right people together at the same time to accomplish a common Desired Outcome(s).
    48. 48. Pre-work: Creating the AgendaWhat is the critical information? –This is the stuff you need to do at the meeting in order to accomplish your Desired Outcome(s). •Presentations •Activities, etc.
    49. 49. Pre-work: Creating the AgendaContents:Desired Outcome(s)Start/End timesLocation(s)/AccommodationsMeeting and Pre-work AssignmentsTopics/Items with times allocated
    50. 50. Pre-work: Creating the Agenda–Who are the right people?–Can this person help reach the Desired Outcome(s)?
    51. 51. Pre-work: Creating the AgendaWhenever possible, publish theAgenda at 48-72 hours prior tothe meeting.–Assign a start and end time to the meeting–Assign a timeframe for each topic
    52. 52. Pre-work: Creating the AgendaWhen and where should wemeet?–If you have access to schedules-set it up in the calendar system–Ask participants to accept or decline
    53. 53. Managing ExpectationsDesigned to Build TrustTypically used: Ritual or Regular Meetings Training Sessions Problem Solving Sessions Group Facilitations
    54. 54. Managing Expectations: Ground RulesIdentify Potential Hazards – What are some of the things you’ve seen go wrong in a meeting?Minimize the Impact of Hazards – What steps can be taken to keep the meeting as productive as possible?
    55. 55. Basic Ground Rules• Start & end on time• Cell phones & pagers silent/off• Stick to the agenda/participate• Avoid side-bar conversations• Maintain respect for all views• Professional language• Maintain confidentiality
    56. 56. Managing Expectations: Parking Lots• Conventional• Unconventional
    57. 57. Brainstorming• Generate New Ideas• Spur Creativity• Encourage Idea Association• Stimulate Competition Among Teams
    58. 58. Brainstorming• Administrate to keep it: – On Target – Lively – Productive – Creative
    59. 59. Problem Solving• What is the problem?• What are all of the possible causes?• What are all of the possible solutions?• What is the best solution & why?
    60. 60. Decision-Making• Does the group have established guidelines?• What are they?• How are they defined?
    61. 61. Consensus• Consensus: general agreement…a view or stance reached by a group as a whole or by majority will.• (In practice, consensus often means that not all in the group agree a given plan is ideal; rather, they may agree they can accept it and stand behind it.)
    62. 62. Logistics: Assigning Roles Leader Facilitator Recorder Time-keeper Resources
    63. 63. Meeting RolesLeader FacilitatorEstablishes Direction Keeps on TrackWorks to Decision Ensures ParticipationEnsures Action Keeps it PositiveEnsures Accountability Establishes Trust Sticks to Agenda
    64. 64. Logistics: Room Set Up• U shape• Classroom• Conference Style• Table Groups
    65. 65. Logistics: Charts & Whiteboards• 2-3 Bold Colors• Use Their Words• Color for Consistency• Touch & Turn Technique• Parking Lot(s)
    66. 66. Process: Conducting the SessionOpening: Setting the Stage Welcome and Introduction Review Agenda Establish Ground Rules Membership Activity Establish Roles Review Desired Outcome(s) (Review necessary background 411)
    67. 67. Process:Conducting the SessionContent & CommunicationRemain PositiveCover Activities to the D.O.
    68. 68. Process: Closing the SessionSummarizing the Meeting:The Decision reached The Action to be takenAssign Accountability for each itemAssign Due Date for each item
    69. 69. Process: Closing the SessionAssign/Review Action Items• Helps members commit to action• Reinforces key decisions/learning points• Provide support and encouragement• Stimulates personal commitmentEvaluate the Meeting
    70. 70. ProgressPublish the Minutes within 48-72 hoursFollow-upBegin PlanningPublish Results
    71. 71. Meeting Outcome? Understand the best practices for effective meeting facilitation
    72. 72. Were we EFFECTIVE? Pr s es og oc rePr Meeting ss Facilitation Pre-work