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Explainable AI for Ordinary Humans - Teresa Kubacka

Explainable AI for Ordinary Humans - Teresa Kubacka

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Talk given on the Swiss edition of World Usability Day 2020, organized by UX Schweiz.
https://uxschweiz.ch/events/world-usability-day-2020/programm/

http://www.teresa-kubacka.com

Talk given on the Swiss edition of World Usability Day 2020, organized by UX Schweiz.
https://uxschweiz.ch/events/world-usability-day-2020/programm/

http://www.teresa-kubacka.com

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Explainable AI for Ordinary Humans - Teresa Kubacka

  1. 1. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Explainable AI for ordinary humans Teresa Kubacka, PhD www.teresa-kubacka.com
  2. 2. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Translating between humans and computers What will this talk be about? Differential equations Philosophy of trust Terminator Comprehensive, end-to-end overview of a domain given by a Nobel laureate How to save the world Cool charts Looking into the kitchen Inspiring examples Mess People Becoming a bit nerdy Symbiosis
  3. 3. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 During the talk we will... - Explore the problem: what is Explainable AI (XAI)? - Build our own AI - Explore the symbiosis between data work and UX design - Look at some practical strategies around explainability
  4. 4. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 What is XAI? It depends! (It’s a mess…) (...but a beautiful and exciting mess!)
  5. 5. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 What do people think? Explainable is a synonym to... Interpretable Reproducible Responsible Tested Fair Auditable Accountable Certifiable Inspectable Justifiable Operational Ready-to-Use Reliable Repeatable Self-service Transparent Trusted Unbiased Understandable Verifiable
  6. 6. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 What do people need it for? http://aix360.mybluemix.net/consumer IBM Research Case Study: AI-powered credit approval system Audit and report if the model is treating different subgroups “fairly” Check stability of the models predictions Cross-check if the features make sense Introduce improvements to the model Actively monitor model performance ...
  7. 7. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Data scientist’s view on XAI https://www.kaggle.com/dansbecker/advanced-uses-of-shap-values https://fredhohman.com/papers/chameleon
  8. 8. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Everybody else https://www.kaggle.com/dansbecker/advanced-uses-of-shap-values https://fredhohman.com/papers/chameleon
  9. 9. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 What is XAI? It looks like what XAI is has a lot to do with humans! (It’s a mess…) (...but a mess we know how to deal with!)
  10. 10. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Let’s go back a step
  11. 11. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 What is AI? https://developer.nvidia.com/discover/convolutional-neural-network
  12. 12. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 What is machine learning? data rules resultscomputation Traditional programming data rules results Machine learning computation Training the model = process of discovering the rules Data, results = sets of numbers Rules = mathematical transformations
  13. 13. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Let’s do it together! % nuts price Let’s build a cookie classifier! https://medium.com/@kozyrkov/machine-learning-is-the-emperor-wearing-clothes-928fe406fe09 Example borrowed from Cassie Kozyrkov
  14. 14. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Let’s do it together! Maybe it’s a cookie with goji berries? Or maybe I wrote down 9 instead of 3? % nuts price Let’s build a cookie classifier!
  15. 15. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Find a line separating the two classes Decision trees SVMs Neural nets
  16. 16. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Pick the best line Train the model
  17. 17. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Pick the best line
  18. 18. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Count the mistakes Y N Y 11 2 N 1 17 Predicted Ground Truth Confusion Matrix: false positives, false negatives, sensitivity, precision, specificity, accuracy… Test Set vs Train Set: Hold out some “fresh” data for this!
  19. 19. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Save the model
  20. 20. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Use the model on new data ? ? N Prediction: Confidence: how sure is the model about this prediction What could explainability mean here?
  21. 21. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Translating between the two worlds Human reality Mathematical model Will I like them? ML Classifier Cookies Set of numbers Model prediction Probably not
  22. 22. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Translating between the two worlds Human reality Mathematical model Use case, problem ML task Reality Data Numerical result Insight
  23. 23. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 For XAI, I need to translate again Human reality Mathematical model Use case, problem ML task Reality Data Numerical result Insight Why Algorithm Numerical result Explanation
  24. 24. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 The most important question is about people Human reality Mathematical model Use case, problem ML task Reality Data Numerical result Insight Why Algorithm Numerical result Explanation Did it increase reliability, trust, safety? Did it influence what a user did? If we can design AI which is “reliable, trusted, and safe” we can dramatically enhance human performance in the coming decade.
  25. 25. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 - Data is never a perfect representation of reality - There is never a clear boundary - there are always points that are misidentified - Different algorithms will make their “decision” using different criteria - There may be more to “explain” than the algorithm itself (data collection, training process etc.) - If there is a signal, AI will pick it up What does it mean for us?
  26. 26. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 AI is really stupid https://www.topbots.com/chihuahua-muffin-searching-best-computer-vision-api/ https://arxiv.org/abs/1602.04938 https://deepai.org/publication/understanding-unequal-gender-classification-accuracy-from-face-images It only sees a surface It can be very confident for a wrong reason If there is a signal, it will find it Wolf → White background detector Gender → Make-up detector
  27. 27. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 What can we do?
  28. 28. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 What can we do? Interrogate the model What did you notice? What did you think? Work with the context and borrow best practices
  29. 29. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 “What did you notice?” Feature importances, activation maps, saliency maps, attributions, feature maps Cookie classifier: - % nuts - price - % raisins - producer - size - density - sweetness - # chocolate chips - % seeds - ... Explanation: - % nuts: 60 - price: 10 - % raisins: 13 - producer: 2 - size: 7 - density: 22 - sweetness: 10 - # chocolate chips: 90 - % seeds: 21 - ... Prediction: I would like it Input new cookie: 3% nuts, 1.5 CHF, 20% raisins...
  30. 30. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 “What did you notice?” Feature importances, activation maps, saliency maps, attributions, feature maps Explanation: - % nuts: 60 - price: 10 - % raisins: 13 - producer: 2 - size: 7 - density: 22 - sweetness: 10 - # chocolate chips: 90 - % seeds: 21 - ... LIME: locally interpretable explanations Shapley values / SHAP: game theory Attention, anchors, distillation, randomized input sampling... Many clever methods to get these numbers
  31. 31. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 It also works for images... https://arxiv.org/abs/1806.07421 http://shared-interest.csail.mit.edu Shared Interest - Saliency Explorer (MIT) Such insights are actionable!
  32. 32. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 ...and for text https://arxiv.org/abs/2009.05818 Classifying reviews, detecting emotions, automatizing client complaints, triaging documents...
  33. 33. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Information visualization matters Explanation: - % nuts: 60 - price: 10 - % raisins: 13 - producer: 2 - size: 7 - density: 22 - sweetness: 10 - # chocolate chips: 90 - % seeds: 21 - ...
  34. 34. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Information visualization matters Explanation: - % nuts: 60 - price: 10 - % raisins: 13 - producer: 2 - size: 7 - density: 22 - sweetness: 10 - # chocolate chips: 90 - % seeds: 21 - ...
  35. 35. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Information visualization matters Explanation: - % nuts: 60 - price: 10 - % raisins: 13 - producer: 2 - size: 7 - density: 22 - sweetness: 10 - # chocolate chips: 90 - % seeds: 21 - ...
  36. 36. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Information visualization matters Explanation: - % nuts: 60 - price: 10 - % raisins: 13 - producer: 2 - size: 7 - density: 22 - sweetness: 10 - # chocolate chips: 90 - % seeds: 21 - ... Maybe I’m a cookie domain expert and expect sweetness to be important
  37. 37. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Information visualization matters Explanation: - % nuts: 60 - price: 10 - % raisins: 13 - producer: 2 - size: 7 - density: 22 - sweetness: 10 - # chocolate chips: 90 - % seeds: 21 - ... Maybe I’m a cookie domain expert and expect sweetness to be important Maybe I am visually impaired and need completely another form of accessible data visualization? Maybe in my daily work I always use a particular chart type?
  38. 38. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Context: is 3.6 good or bad? Measurement Range, Unit - Context Accuracy - Uncertainty Danger - Context
  39. 39. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pdUTdaZpses David McCandless / Information is Beautiful Context and baselines Baseline could be statistical, or it could be another example that you can compare to (error bars!)
  40. 40. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Leverage mental models https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7dhEpx6tfE Jack the Checker (Evelyn Muenster / Chart Doktor)
  41. 41. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Many AI use cases are like medical tests Am I pregnant? Am I eligible for a mortgage? Is this transaction fraudulent? Will my customer terminate the subscription? Is this person a likely reoffender? ... How does my pregnancy test work? Am I pregnant, if the test result was X?
  42. 42. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1808
  43. 43. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 https://www.bmj.com/content/369/bmj.m1808 ...And you could think that since medical tests are so common, we can explain them well!
  44. 44. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Some strategies - Interrogate the model - Leverage context - Leverage information visualization - Leverage existing approaches - Leverage mental models - ...
  45. 45. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Take home message
  46. 46. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 (X)AI is a mess AI is stupid But it is still very useful! Make friends with your fellow data scientists And...
  47. 47. www.teresa-kubacka.com World Usability Day 2020 Switzerland – Human-Centered AI – 12.11.2020 Thank you! www.teresa-kubacka.com info@teresa-kubacka.com

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