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CDMA2000 Principle ISSUE4.0
Page 2ObjectivesAfter this presentation, you will be familiar with: the development of mobile communication system the s...
Page 3Course OrganizationChapter 1: IntroductionChapter 2: CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesChapter 3: CDMA Air InterfaceChap...
Page 41stGeneration1980s (analog)2ndGeneration1990s (digital)3rdGenerationcurrent (digital)3G provides: Complete integrat...
Page 5Transmission TechniquesTraffic channels: differentusers are assigned uniquecode and transmitted overthe same frequen...
Page 6Standards for3G3G systemCDMA20003GPP2FDD modeWCDMA3GPPFDD modeTD-SCDMACWTSTDD modeIntroduction
Page 7A Comparison b/w 3G standardsWCDMA CDMA2000 TD-SCDMAReceiver type RAKE RAKE RAKEClose loop powercontrol Supported Su...
Page 8IS95A9.6kbpsIS95A115.2kbpsCDMA2000 307.2kbps Heavier voiceservice capacity ; Longer period ofstandby timeCDMA20003...
Page 9Frequency Allocation In CDMA2000Band Class 0 and Spreading Rate 1IntroductionTransmit Frequency Band (MHz)BlockDesi...
Page 10Frequency Allocation In CDMA2000Band Class 1 and Spreading Rate 1IntroductionTransmit Frequency Band (MHz)BlockDes...
Page 11CDMA2000 1XNetworkStructureMS: Mobile Station BTS: Base Transceiver StationBSC: Base Station Controller MSC: Mobile...
Page 12Course ContentsChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesChapter 3 CDMA Air InterfaceChapter 4 ...
Page 13Correlation(a)Correlation 100% so thefunctions are parallelCorrelation 0% so thefunctions are orthogonalCDMA Techni...
Page 14Orthogonal Function Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequencesare orthogonal if their “XOR” ...
Page 15Information spreading overorthogonal codesCDMA Techniques & Technologies1 0 0 1 10110 0110 0110 0110 01101001 0110 ...
Page 16Information recovery CDMA Techniques & Technologies1 0 0 1 1+1-1Rx Data1001 0110 0110 1001 10010110 0110 0110 0110 ...
Page 17Spreading and De-spreadinginformation pulse interference White noiseThe improvement of time-domain information rate...
Page 18Signal flowInterleavingSourcecodingConvolution&InterleavingScrambling Spreading ModulationRFtransmissionSourcedecod...
Page 19Common Technical Terms Bit, Symbol, Chip: A bit is the input data which contain information A symbol is the outp...
Page 20In a typical duplex call, the duty ratio is less than 35%. To achievebetter capacity and low power consumption, bas...
Page 21Channel CodingConvolution code or TURBO code is used in channel encodingConstraint length=shift register number+1.E...
Page 22Turbo CodeTurbo code is used during the transmission of large data packet. Characteristics of the Turbo code: The...
Page 23InterleavingThe direction of the data stream1 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 ...
Page 24Out0 0 11 1 0Scrambling (M) sequence Two points are important here: Maximum number of shift register (N) Mask T...
Page 25Long Code The long code is a PN sequence with period of 242-1chips The functions of a long code: Scramble the fo...
Page 26PNaPNcPNbShort CodeCDMA Techniques & Technologies Short code is a PN sequence with period of 215chips Sequence wi...
Page 27Walsh CodeW2n=Wn WnWn WnW1=0W2=0 00 1W4 =0 00 10 00 10 00 1Walsh code64-order Walsh function is used as a spreading...
Page 28 In forward direction, each symbol is spread with Walsh code Walsh code is used to distinguish the user in forwar...
Page 29Variable Walsh codes64481632129600 19200 38400 76800 153600 307200 614400Data rate -bps-W01 =0W02=00W12=01W04=0000W...
Page 30Modulation-QPSKIQI channel PN sequence1.2288McpsQ channel PN sequence1.2288McpsBaseband filterBaseband filterCos(2p...
Page 31Power ControlHandoffDiversity and RAKECDMA Techniques & Technologies
Page 32PowerControlReverse power controlOpen loop power controlClosed loop power control− Inner loop power control: 800...
Page 33Reverse Open Loop PowerControl• The transmission power required by the mobile station is determined bythe following...
Page 34Reverse Closed Loop PowerControlBTSPower Control BitEb/Nt Value FER ValueInner Loop Power ControlOuter Loop Power C...
Page 35Forward PowerControl MS measures the frame quality and informs the base station to theresult i.e. whether it is in...
Page 36Forward Closed Loop PowerControl Compared with IS-95 system, CDMA2000 the forward quickpower control is fast.Power...
Page 37HandoffSoft handoffIt is a process of establishing a link with a target sector beforebreaking the link with the ser...
Page 38Soft/SofterHandoff• Multi-path combination in the BSC during soft handoff• Multi-path combination in the BTS during...
Page 39Pilot SetActiveSetCandidateSetNeighborSetRemainingSetThe pilot set, corresponding to the basestation being connecte...
Page 40T_ADD,T_DROP,T_TDROPTimeEc/IoSectorA SectorBGuard Time(T-TDROP)Add Threshold(T_ADD)DropThreshold(T_DROP)Soft Handof...
Page 41Comparison Thresholdt0 t1 t2Pilot P1Pilot P2Pilot P0T_COMP×0.5dBT_ADDPilot strengthP0-Strengh of Pilot P0 in Candid...
Page 42Transition Between Pilot SetsT_ADDT_DROPPilot 1PilotstrengthPilot 2T_TDROPNeighborSetCandidateSetActiveSetNeighborS...
Page 43Transmit Diversity Time diversity Block interleaving, error-correction Frequency diversity The CDMA signal ener...
Page 44Transmission Diversity The forward transmission diversity types in CDMA2000 1X are TD (Transmit Diversity)− OTD (...
Page 45Transmission DiversityThe Transmission Diversity Technology enhances the receive performance of MS.Transmissiondive...
Page 46The Principle of RAKE ReceiverRAKE antennas help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhancethe receive perfor...
Page 47Course ContentsChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesChapter 3 CDMA Air interfaceChapter 4 ...
Page 48Physical Channel in IS-95AForward channel Forward Pilot Channel Forward Sync Channel Forward Paging Channel For...
Page 49Pilot channel(all-zeros)W064Pilot ChannelA pilot channel: Assist mobile station to be connected with CDMA network...
Page 50ToQPSKcoder2.4kbps 4.8kbps 4.8kbpsCodesymbolRepetitivecodesymbol1.2kbpsConvolutionencoderr=1/2,K=9symbolrepetitionB...
Page 51ToQPSKcoderPagingchannel bitsPaging channel addressmaskLongcode PNgeneratordecimator1.2288McpsPaging Channel The p...
Page 52Forward Traffic ChannelCDMA Air InterfaceI Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps)PN 1.2288 McpsRepetitivesymbol19.2kbps8.6kbp...
Page 53Reverse Access Channelused by MS to initiate communication or respond to Paging ChannelCDMA Air Interface4.8 kbps(3...
Page 54Reverse Traffic Channel CDMA Air Interfaceused to transmit data and signaling information8.6kbps9.6kbps4.8kbps2.4kb...
Page 55Initialization of the MS Synchronous Channel message contains the LC_STATE, SYS_TIME,P_RAT, and synchronizes with ...
Page 56CDMA2000 Forward ChannelForward CDMA2000 channelF-CACH F-CPCCH F-PICH F-CCCHF-DCCH F-FCHF-PC F-SCCH F-SCHF-PICH F-T...
Page 57Forward channelThese channels are newlydefined in CDMA2000 system.CDMA physical channels are classified in common c...
Page 58F-QPCH It transmits OOK-modulated signal which can be demodulated by MSsimply and rapidly. The channel adopts 80m...
Page 59F-SCH F-SCH is typically used for high speed dataapplications, while F-FCH is used for common voiceand low speed d...
Page 60F-DCCH It is used for the transmission of specific user signalinginformation during a call. Each forward traffic ...
Page 61Forward Radio Configuration (RC)Radio Configuration(RC):A set of Forward Traffic channel and Reverse Traffic Channe...
Page 62Reverse ChannelReverse CDMA2000 channelR-ACHR-TCHoperation(RC1~2)R-EACHoperationR-CCCHoperationR-SCCHR-FCHR-TCHoper...
Page 63Types of Reverse Channel Reverse channel includes reverse common channel and reversededicated channel. Reverse co...
Page 64MUX APilot( all 0s)Power Control BitN is the Spreading Rate numberPilot PowerControlPower Control Group= 1536 NPN C...
Page 65Reverse Channels Fundamental Channel: Fundamental Channel is used for the transmission of user informationto the ...
Page 66Reverse Radio Configuration (RC)RC: Radio ConfigurationRC1~RC2:IS-95A/BRC3~RC4:CDMA2000 1XRC5~RC6: CDMA2000 3xR...
Page 67RC 1RC 2RC 3RC 4RC 5RC 1RC 2RC 3RC 4RC 5RC 3RC 4RC 4RC 3F-FCHRCsR-DCCH/SCHRCsF-DCCH/SCHRCsR-FCHRCsRC Combination Re...
Page 68Course ContentsChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesChapter 3 CDMA Air InterfaceChapter 4 ...
Page 69Definition of Coverage AreasLocation areaMSC areaPLMN areaService areaSectorareaCDMA Number PlanningCell area
Page 70Parameters InvolvedIn a CDMA system, the following parameters are defined toidentify a user and his location:MIN/I...
Page 71MIN/IMSIMobile subscriber identity/international mobile subscriber identityFor example, 0907550001/460030907550001N...
Page 72MDNCC + MAC + H 0H1H 2H 3 + ABCDInternational mobile subscriber DNNational valid mobile subscriber numberMobile dir...
Page 73ESNA unique Electronic Serial Number (ESN) is used to identify singleMS. An ESN includes 32 bits and has the follow...
Page 74TLDN+CC MAC H0H 1H2 ABC+ ++44Temporary local directory numberFor example, 8613344755001CDMA Number Planning
Page 75SID/NIDMSCID (Exchange Identity)= System Identity (SID) + Exchange number (SWIN)is used to represent a certain set ...
Page 76Location Area Identity (LAI) PAGING message is broadcast within a local area, the size of which depends ontraffic,...
Page 77Global Cell Identity (GCI) The unique ID of a cell in PLMN Format: LAI+CI CI: Cell Identity, a 2-byte-long hexad...
Page 78Sender Identification Number(SIN)MSC numberThe MSC number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 +1000.HL...
Page 79Sub-System Number(SSN) SSN of MSC: 8 SSN of VLR: 7 SSN of HLR: 6 SSN of AC: 10 SSN of SMC: EE SSN of SCP: EF...
Page 80Review Chips rate: 1.2288Mcps IS-95A/B is a subset, RC1/RC2 Apply the coherent demodulation to the reverse pilot...
Page 81Why CDMA2000? Increase the system capacity Forward quick power control Forward transmit diversity: OTD,STS Cohe...
Page 82Why CDMA2000? Support high rate SCH, with the maximum rate of a singlechannel being up to 307.2kbps. Improve the ...
Page 83Summary Brief Development History of Mobile Communication Analog--digital--code division Objectives of 3G and co...
Page 84Questions What power control modes are there in CDMA2000 systemand how are they implemented? Describe the soft ha...
CDMA 2000 Principle Issue4.0
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CDMA 2000 Principle Issue4.0

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the development of mobile communication system
the structure of CDMA2000 network
the number planning in CDMA2000 network
the techniques used by CDMA system including:
source coding, channel coding, interleaving, scrambling, spreading and modulation etc.
power control, soft handoff, RAKE receiver
F-PCH,F-PICH,F-SYNCH,F-FCH,F-SCH,R-ACH,R-PICH
Long code, short code and Walsh code
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: CDMA Techniques & Technologies
Chapter 3: CDMA Air Interface
Chapter 4: CDMA Number Planning

Published in: Education, Technology, Business
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CDMA 2000 Principle Issue4.0

  1. 1. CDMA2000 Principle ISSUE4.0
  2. 2. Page 2ObjectivesAfter this presentation, you will be familiar with: the development of mobile communication system the structure of CDMA2000 network the number planning in CDMA2000 network the techniques used by CDMA system including:source coding, channel coding, interleaving, scrambling,spreading and modulation etc.power control, soft handoff, RAKE receiverF-PCH,F-PICH,F-SYNCH,F-FCH,F-SCH,R-ACH,R-PICH Long code, short code and Walsh code
  3. 3. Page 3Course OrganizationChapter 1: IntroductionChapter 2: CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesChapter 3: CDMA Air InterfaceChapter 4: CDMA Number Planning
  4. 4. Page 41stGeneration1980s (analog)2ndGeneration1990s (digital)3rdGenerationcurrent (digital)3G provides: Complete integrated servicesolutions High bandwidth Unified air interface Best spectral efficiency and……………… a step towards PCSAMPSAnalog to DigitalTACSNMTOTHERSGSMCDMAIS95TDMAIS-136PDCUMTSWCDMACDMA2000TD-SCDMADevelopment of Mobile CommunicationsIntroductionVoice to Broadband
  5. 5. Page 5Transmission TechniquesTraffic channels: differentusers are assigned uniquecode and transmitted overthe same frequency band,for example, WCDMA andCDMA2000FDMATraffic channels: different frequency bandsare allocated to different users,for example,AMPS and TACSTraffic channels: different time slotsare allocated to different users, forexample, DAMPS and GSMFrequencyTimePowerFrequencyTimePowerFrequencyTimePowerTDMACDMAUserUserUserUserUserUserIntroduction
  6. 6. Page 6Standards for3G3G systemCDMA20003GPP2FDD modeWCDMA3GPPFDD modeTD-SCDMACWTSTDD modeIntroduction
  7. 7. Page 7A Comparison b/w 3G standardsWCDMA CDMA2000 TD-SCDMAReceiver type RAKE RAKE RAKEClose loop powercontrol Supported Supported SupportedHandoff Soft/hard handoffDemodulationmodeCoherentChip rate (Mcps) 3.84 N*1.2288 1.28Transmissiondiversity modeTSTD, STTDFBTDOTD, STS NoSynchronizationmodeAsynchronous Synchronous AsynchronousCore network GSM MAP ANSI-41 GSM MAPCoherentCoherentSoft/hard handoffSoft/hard handoffIntroduction
  8. 8. Page 8IS95A9.6kbpsIS95A115.2kbpsCDMA2000 307.2kbps Heavier voiceservice capacity ; Longer period ofstandby timeCDMA20003XCDMA20001X EV1X EV-DO1X EV-DV1995 199820002003Development of CDMA Higher spectrum efficiency and network capacity Higher packet data rate and more diversified services Smooth transit to 3GIntroduction
  9. 9. Page 9Frequency Allocation In CDMA2000Band Class 0 and Spreading Rate 1IntroductionTransmit Frequency Band (MHz)BlockDesignatorCDMA ChannelValidityCDMAChannelNumberMobile Station Base StationA(10MHz) Valid 1-311 825.030-834.330 870.030-879.330B(10MHz) Valid 356-644 835.680-844.320 880.680-889.320A’(1.5MHz) Valid 689-694 845.670-845.820 890.670-890.820B’(2.5MHz) Valid 739-777 847.170-848.310 892.170-893.310The transmit frequence point for Base Station is computed by:F=870+N*0.03N: CDMA Channel Number
  10. 10. Page 10Frequency Allocation In CDMA2000Band Class 1 and Spreading Rate 1IntroductionTransmit Frequency Band (MHz)BlockDesignatorCDMAChannelValidityCDMAChannelNumberMobile Station Base StationA(15MHz) Valid 25-275 1851.250-1863.750 1931.250-1943.750D(5MHz) Valid 325-375 1866.250-1868.750 1946.250-1948.750B(15MHz) Valid 425-675 1871.250-1883.750 1951.250-1963.750E(5MHz) Valid 725-775 1886.250-1888.750 1966.250-1968.750F(5MHz) Valid 825-875 1891.250-1893.750 1971.250-1973.750C(15MHz) Valid 925-1175 1896.250-1908.750 1976.250-1988.750The transmit frequence point for Base Station is computed by:F=1930+N*0.05N: CDMA Channel Number
  11. 11. Page 11CDMA2000 1XNetworkStructureMS: Mobile Station BTS: Base Transceiver StationBSC: Base Station Controller MSC: Mobile Switching CenterHLR :Home Location Register VLR: Visitor Location RegisterPCF: Packet data Control Function PDSN: Packet Data Service NodeHA: Home Agent FA: Foreign AgentSCP: Service Control Point Radius: Remote Authentication Dial-in User ServiceAbisA1(Signaling)A2(Traffic)A11(Signaling)A10(Traffic)A3(Signaling &Traffic)A7(Singaling)Introduction
  12. 12. Page 12Course ContentsChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesChapter 3 CDMA Air InterfaceChapter 4 CDMA Number Planning
  13. 13. Page 13Correlation(a)Correlation 100% so thefunctions are parallelCorrelation 0% so thefunctions are orthogonalCDMA Techniques & Technologies+1-1+1-1(b)+1-1+1
  14. 14. Page 14Orthogonal Function Orthogonal functions have zero correlation. Two binary sequencesare orthogonal if their “XOR” output contains equal number of 1’sand 0’s000001010101EXAMPLE:CDMA Techniques & Technologies101001011111
  15. 15. Page 15Information spreading overorthogonal codesCDMA Techniques & Technologies1 0 0 1 10110 0110 0110 0110 01101001 0110 0110 1001 1001User InputOrthogonalSequenceTx Data+1-1+1-1
  16. 16. Page 16Information recovery CDMA Techniques & Technologies1 0 0 1 1+1-1Rx Data1001 0110 0110 1001 10010110 0110 0110 0110 01101111 0000 0000 1111 1111Correct Function? ? ? ? ?Rx Data1001 0110 0110 1001 10010101 0101 0101 0101 01011100 0011 0011 1100 1100Incorrect Function
  17. 17. Page 17Spreading and De-spreadinginformation pulse interference White noiseThe improvement of time-domain information rate means that the bandwidth of spectrum-domaininformation is spread.S(f) is the energy density.fS ( f )The spectrum before spreadinginformationf0The spectrum before despreadinginformationInterference/noiseS ( f )f0 f f0The spectrum after despreadinginformationInterference/noiseS ( f )fThe spectrum after spreadinginformationf0S ( f )fCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  18. 18. Page 18Signal flowInterleavingSourcecodingConvolution&InterleavingScrambling Spreading ModulationRFtransmissionSourcedecodingdeinterleavingDecovolution&DeinterleavingUnscrambling De-spreading Demodulation RF receivingCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  19. 19. Page 19Common Technical Terms Bit, Symbol, Chip: A bit is the input data which contain information A symbol is the output of the convolution, encoder, and the blockinterleaving A chip is the output of spreading Processing Gain: Processing gain is the ratio of chip rate to the bit rate. The processing gain in IS-95 system is 128, about 21dB. Forward direction: Information path from base station to mobile station Reverse direction: Information path from mobile station to base stationCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  20. 20. Page 20In a typical duplex call, the duty ratio is less than 35%. To achievebetter capacity and low power consumption, base station reducesits transmission power.Source Coding Vocoder:8K QCELP13K QCELPEVRC CharacteristicsSupport voice activityCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  21. 21. Page 21Channel CodingConvolution code or TURBO code is used in channel encodingConstraint length=shift register number+1.Encoding efficiency= (total input bits / total output symbols)convolution encoderInput(bits)Output (symbols)CDMA Techniques & Technologies
  22. 22. Page 22Turbo CodeTurbo code is used during the transmission of large data packet. Characteristics of the Turbo code: The input information is encoded twice and the two output codes canexchange information with each other during decoding. The symbol is protected not only by the neighborhood check bits, but alsoby the separate Check Bits.The performance of a Turbo code is superior to that of a convolution code.CDMA Techniques & Technologies
  23. 23. Page 23InterleavingThe direction of the data stream1 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 51 1 111 11 12 22227 7 777 77 76 6 666 66 63 3 333 33 34 4 444 44 41 2 873 64 51 2 873 64 55 5 555 55 58 8 888 88 8interleavingCDMA Techniques & Technologies2 2 2
  24. 24. Page 24Out0 0 11 1 0Scrambling (M) sequence Two points are important here: Maximum number of shift register (N) Mask The period of out put sequence is 2N-1 bits Only sequence offset is change when the mask is changed PN stands for Pseudorandom Noise sequenceCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  25. 25. Page 25Long Code The long code is a PN sequence with period of 242-1chips The functions of a long code: Scramble the forward CDMA channel Control the insertion of power control bit Spread the information on the reverse CDMA channel to identify themobile stationsCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  26. 26. Page 26PNaPNcPNbShort CodeCDMA Techniques & Technologies Short code is a PN sequence with period of 215chips Sequence with different time offset is used to distinguish differentsectorsMinimum PN sequence offset used is 64 chips, that is, 512 PNoffsets are available to identify the CDMA sectors (215/64=512).
  27. 27. Page 27Walsh CodeW2n=Wn WnWn WnW1=0W2=0 00 1W4 =0 00 10 00 10 00 1Walsh code64-order Walsh function is used as a spreading function andeach Walsh code is orthogonal to other.Walsh Code is one kind of orthogonal code.A Walsh can be presented by Wimwhere ith(row) is theposition and m is the order. For example, W24means 0101code in W4 matrixCDMA Techniques & Technologies1 11 0
  28. 28. Page 28 In forward direction, each symbol is spread with Walsh code Walsh code is used to distinguish the user in forward link For IS95A/B, in the reverse, every 6 symbols correspond to one Walsh code.For example, if the symbol input is 110011,the output after spreading is W5164(110011=51). For CDMA2000, in the reverse, Walsh function is used to define the type ofchannel (RC 3-9)Walsh CodeCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  29. 29. Page 29Variable Walsh codes64481632129600 19200 38400 76800 153600 307200 614400Data rate -bps-W01 =0W02=00W12=01W04=0000W24=0011W14=0101W34=0110W08=00000000W48=00001111W28=00110011W68=00111100W18=01010101W58=01011010W38=01100110W78=01101001( W016,W816)( W416,W1216)( W216,W1416)( W616,W1416)( W116,W916)( W516,W1316)( W316,W1116)( W716,W1516)The different Walsh codescorresponding to different data ratesCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  30. 30. Page 30Modulation-QPSKIQI channel PN sequence1.2288McpsQ channel PN sequence1.2288McpsBaseband filterBaseband filterCos(2pfct)Sin(2pfct)I(t)Q(t)s(t)A1.2288Mcps: the PN chip rate of the system.After being spread, all the forward channels in the same carrier aremodulated by means of QPSK(OQPSK in the reverse), convertedinto simulation signals and transmitted after clustering.CDMA Techniques & Technologies
  31. 31. Page 31Power ControlHandoffDiversity and RAKECDMA Techniques & Technologies
  32. 32. Page 32PowerControlReverse power controlOpen loop power controlClosed loop power control− Inner loop power control: 800 Hz− Outer loop power controlForward power controlMessage transmission mode:− threshold transmission− periodic transmissionClosed loop power control.CDMA Techniques & Technologies
  33. 33. Page 33Reverse Open Loop PowerControl• The transmission power required by the mobile station is determined bythe following factors: Distance from the base station Load of the cell Circumstance of the code channels• The transmission power of the mobile station is relative to its receivedpower.BTSMobileReverse Open LoopPower ControlBTSBTSTransmittingPowerCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  34. 34. Page 34Reverse Closed Loop PowerControlBTSPower Control BitEb/Nt Value FER ValueInner Loop Power ControlOuter Loop Power ControlChange in Eb/Nt ValueCDMA Techniques & TechnologiesBSCBTS
  35. 35. Page 35Forward PowerControl MS measures the frame quality and informs the base station to theresult i.e. whether it is in the threshold or periodical mode. Base stationdetermines whether to change the forward transmitting power or not. In IS-95 system, the forward power control is slow but in CDMA2000system it is fast.CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesMessage Transmission Mode
  36. 36. Page 36Forward Closed Loop PowerControl Compared with IS-95 system, CDMA2000 the forward quickpower control is fast.Power Control BitEb/Nt ValueCDMA Techniques & TechnologiesBTS
  37. 37. Page 37HandoffSoft handoffIt is a process of establishing a link with a target sector beforebreaking the link with the serving sectorSofter handoffLike the soft handoff, but the handoff is occurred between multi-sectors in the same base stationHard handoffHard handoff occurs when the two sectors are not synchronizedor are not on the same frequency. Interruption in voice or datacommunication occurs but this interruption does not effect theuser communicationCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  38. 38. Page 38Soft/SofterHandoff• Multi-path combination in the BSC during soft handoff• Multi-path combination in the BTS during softer handoffsCombine all thepower from eachsectorPower received froma single sectorCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  39. 39. Page 39Pilot SetActiveSetCandidateSetNeighborSetRemainingSetThe pilot set, corresponding to the basestation being connectedThe pilot set, not in the active set butpotential to be demodulatedThe pilot set, not included in the active set orthe candidate set but being possible to beadded in the candidate setOther pilot setsthe set of the pilots having same frequency but different PN sequence offsetCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  40. 40. Page 40T_ADD,T_DROP,T_TDROPTimeEc/IoSectorA SectorBGuard Time(T-TDROP)Add Threshold(T_ADD)DropThreshold(T_DROP)Soft Handoff RegionT_ADD, T_DROP and T_TDROP affect the percentage of MS in handoff.T_ADD & T_DROP is the standards used to add or drop a pilot.T_DROP is a timer.CDMA Techniques & Technologies
  41. 41. Page 41Comparison Thresholdt0 t1 t2Pilot P1Pilot P2Pilot P0T_COMP×0.5dBT_ADDPilot strengthP0-Strengh of Pilot P0 in Candidate Set.P1,P2-Stength of Pilot P1,P2 in Active Set.t0-Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>T_ADDt1-Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>P1+T_COMP*0.5dBt2 -Pilot strength Measurement Message Sent, P0>P2+T_COMP*0.5dBCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  42. 42. Page 42Transition Between Pilot SetsT_ADDT_DROPPilot 1PilotstrengthPilot 2T_TDROPNeighborSetCandidateSetActiveSetNeighborSetTIME1 2 3 4 5 6CDMA Techniques & Technologies
  43. 43. Page 43Transmit Diversity Time diversity Block interleaving, error-correction Frequency diversity The CDMA signal energy is distributed on the whole 1.23MHZbandwidth. Space diversity The introduction of twin receive antennas . The RAKE receivers of the mobile station and the base station cancombine the signals of different time delay. During a handoff, the mobile station contacts multiple base stationsand searches for the strongest frameCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  44. 44. Page 44Transmission Diversity The forward transmission diversity types in CDMA2000 1X are TD (Transmit Diversity)− OTD (Orthogonal Transmit Diversity)▪ The data stream is divided into two parts, which will bespread by the orthogonal code sequence, andtransmitted by two antennas.− STS (Space Time Spreading)▪ All the forward code channels are transmitted by themulti-antennas.▪ Spread with the quasi-orthogonal code Non-TDCDMA Techniques & Technologies
  45. 45. Page 45Transmission DiversityThe Transmission Diversity Technology enhances the receive performance of MS.TransmissiondiversityprocessingData stream 1Data stream 2Data stream Restoring data streamPath 1Path 2Antenna 2Antenna 1CDMA Techniques & Technologies
  46. 46. Page 46The Principle of RAKE ReceiverRAKE antennas help to overcome on the multi-path fading and enhancethe receive performance of the systemReceive setCorrelator 1Correlator 2Correlator 3Searcher correlatorCalculate thetime delay andsignal strengthCombiner The combinedsignaltts(t) s(t)CDMA Techniques & Technologies
  47. 47. Page 47Course ContentsChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesChapter 3 CDMA Air interfaceChapter 4 CDMA Number Planning
  48. 48. Page 48Physical Channel in IS-95AForward channel Forward Pilot Channel Forward Sync Channel Forward Paging Channel Forward Traffic Channel (including power control sub-channel)Reverse channel Access Channel Reverse Traffic ChannelCDMA Air Interface
  49. 49. Page 49Pilot channel(all-zeros)W064Pilot ChannelA pilot channel: Assist mobile station to be connected with CDMA network Handles multi-path searching Provide the phase reference for coherent demodulation and help the mobile stationestimate the transmission power The mobile station measures and compares the pilot channel powers from the basestations during the handoffForward pilot channel is spread over W0 and modulated with short code directlyBTS transmits the pilot channel continuouslyCDMA Air Interface
  50. 50. Page 50ToQPSKcoder2.4kbps 4.8kbps 4.8kbpsCodesymbolRepetitivecodesymbol1.2kbpsConvolutionencoderr=1/2,K=9symbolrepetitionBlockinterleavingSync Ch bitsW3264Sync Channel The sync channel is used by the mobile station to synchronize with the network.W32 is used to spread Sync Channel. The synchronization message includes:− Pilot PN sequence offset: PILOT_PN− System time: SYS_TIME− Long code state: LC_STATE− Paging channel rate: P_RAT Here note that, sync channel rate is 1200bpsCDMA Air Interface
  51. 51. Page 51ToQPSKcoderPagingchannel bitsPaging channel addressmaskLongcode PNgeneratordecimator1.2288McpsPaging Channel The paging channel transmits:− System parameters message− Access parameters− Neighbors list− CDMA channels list message The paging channel accomplishes:− Paging to MS− Assign traffic channel to MS The frame length of a paging channel is 20ms W1~W7 are spared for the Paging Channels spreadingCDMA Air Interface19.2/9.6Kbps 19.2kbps19.2kbpsCodesymbol9.6/4.8 kbpsConvolutionencoderr=1/2,K=9SymbolrepetitionBlockinterleaving19.2kbpsRepetitivecodesymbolW164
  52. 52. Page 52Forward Traffic ChannelCDMA Air InterfaceI Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps)PN 1.2288 McpsRepetitivesymbol19.2kbps8.6kbps9.6kbps4.8kbps2.4kbps1.2kbpsAdd framequality indicatorbits(12,10,8,6)Add 8encoded tailbitsConvolutionencoderr=1/2,K=9SymbolrepetitionForward trafficchannal(172/80/40or16bits/frame)Blockinterleaver19.2kbpsMUXLong codegeneratorPower control bitsQ Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps)BasebandfilterI(t)Q(t)decimator+∑QPSK Modulation4.0kbps2.0kbps0.8kbps19.2ksybps9.6ksybps4.8ksybps2.4ksybpsSin(2pfct)Cos(2pfct)is used to transmit data and signaling information.Walsh codedecimator++Basebandfilter++
  53. 53. Page 53Reverse Access Channelused by MS to initiate communication or respond to Paging ChannelCDMA Air Interface4.8 kbps(307.2kbps)PN chips1.2288 McpsOrthogonal spreadingRepetitivesymbol8.8 kbpsCodesymbol14.4 kbps4.4 kbps 4.8 kbpsAdd 8encoder tailbitsConvolutionencoderr=1/3,K=9SymbolrepetitionAccesschannel(80bits/frame)Blockinterleaving28.8 kbpsData burstrandomizerLong codePNgeneratorFrame rateLong code maskRepetitivesymbolWalsh codeI Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps)BasebandfilterI(t)Q(t)∑QPSK ModulationSin(2pfct)Cos(2pfct)++Basebandfilter++Q Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps)1/2 PN chips Delayedtime=406.9ns
  54. 54. Page 54Reverse Traffic Channel CDMA Air Interfaceused to transmit data and signaling information8.6kbps9.6kbps4.8kbps2.4kbps1.2kbpsAdd framequality indicatorbits(12,10,8,6)Add 8encoded tailbitsconvolutionencoderr=1/3,K=9SymbolrepetitionReverse trafficchannel(172/80/40 or16bits/frame)Blockinterleaver4.0kbps2.0kbps0.8kbps28.8Ksybps14.4Ksybps7.2Ksybps3.6Ksybps4.8 kbps(307.2kbps)PN chips1.2288 McpsOrthogonal spreadingData burstrandomizerLong codePNgeneratorFrame rateLong code maskWalsh codeI Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps)BasebandfilterI(t)Q(t)∑QPSK ModulationSin(2pfct)Cos(2pfct)++Basebandfilter++Q Ch PN sequence (1.2288 Mcps)1/2 PN chips Delayedtime=406.9ns
  55. 55. Page 55Initialization of the MS Synchronous Channel message contains the LC_STATE, SYS_TIME,P_RAT, and synchronizes with the system.CDMA Air InterfaceBTSPilot channelSynchronous channelPaging channelAccess channel
  56. 56. Page 56CDMA2000 Forward ChannelForward CDMA2000 channelF-CACH F-CPCCH F-PICH F-CCCHF-DCCH F-FCHF-PC F-SCCH F-SCHF-PICH F-TDPICH F-APICH F-ATDPICHF-SYNCH F-TCH F-BCH F-PCH F-QPCHsubchannel (RC1~2) (RC3~9)Note: Only the channels with black color are being implemented inHuawei equipment. The function of F-PICH, F-SYNCH, F-FCH, F-PC, F-SCCH, F-PCH are the same as those of IS95. We will only discuss F-SCH,F-QPCH F-DCCH in the following slides.CDMA Air Interface
  57. 57. Page 57Forward channelThese channels are newlydefined in CDMA2000 system.CDMA physical channels are classified in common channels and dedicated channels:Common physical channels:Forward Pilot Channel(F-PICH)Forward Synchronous Channel(F-SYNC)Forward Paging Channel(F-PCH)Forward Broadcast Control Channel(F-BCCH)Forward Quick Paging Channel(F-QPCH){not compatible wid is95}Forward Common Power Control Channel(F-CPCCH)Forward Common Assignment Channel(F-CACH)Forward Common Control Channel(F-CCCH)These channels are compatiblewith IS-95 systemDedicated physical channel:Forward Dedicated Control Channel(F-DCCH)Forward Fundamental Channel(F-FCH)Forward Supplemental Channel(F-SCH)These channels are used to establish the connection between a base station and aspecific mobile station.The CDMA2000 system adopts multiple data rates and the different combinations ofchannels can achieve a performance superior to that in IS-95 system.CDMA Air Interface
  58. 58. Page 58F-QPCH It transmits OOK-modulated signal which can be demodulated by MSsimply and rapidly. The channel adopts 80ms as a QPCH timeslot. Each timeslot is divided intopaging indicators, configuration change indicators and broadcastindicators, all of which are utilized to inform the MS whether to receivepaging message, broadcast message or system parameters in the next F-PCH. Rapid and simple demodulation. MS no need to monitor F-PCH for longtime, so the standby time is prolonged.CDMA Air Interface
  59. 59. Page 59F-SCH F-SCH is typically used for high speed dataapplications, while F-FCH is used for common voiceand low speed data application. When a data call is established, firstly, F-FCH will beallocated to the user. If the speed of data for userexceeds 9.6kbps, F-SCH will be allocated.CDMA Air Interface
  60. 60. Page 60F-DCCH It is used for the transmission of specific user signalinginformation during a call. Each forward traffic channel may contain one F-DCCH. Support 5ms frame. Support discontinuous transmission.CDMA Air Interface
  61. 61. Page 61Forward Radio Configuration (RC)Radio Configuration(RC):A set of Forward Traffic channel and Reverse Traffic Channel transmissionformats that are characterized by physical parameters such as data rates,modulation characteristics, and spreading rate.Spreading Rate: Equivalent to chips rate, e.g., 1.2288Mcps.RadioConfigurationSpreadingRateMax Data Rate*(kbps)Effective FECCode RateOTDAllowedFEC Encoding Modulation1** 1 9.6 1/2 No Conv. BPSK2** 1 14.4 3/4 No Conv BPSK3 1 153.6 1/4 Yes Conv and Turbo QPSK4 1 307.2 1/2 Yes Conv and Turbo QPSK5 1 230.4 3/8 Yes Conv and Turbo QPSK6 3 307.2 1/6 Yes Conv and Turbo QPSK7 3 614.4 1/3 Yes Conv and Turbo QPSK8 3 460.8 1/4 or 1/3 Yes Conv and Turbo QPSK9 3 1036.8 1/2or 1/3 Yes Conv and Turbo QPSKCDMA Air Interface
  62. 62. Page 62Reverse ChannelReverse CDMA2000 channelR-ACHR-TCHoperation(RC1~2)R-EACHoperationR-CCCHoperationR-SCCHR-FCHR-TCHoperation(RC3~6)R-EACHR-PICHR-CCCHR-PICHR-DCCHR-PICH0~7 0~1R-SCHR-FCH0~20~1subchannelR-PCOnly the channels in dark color are used in Huaweiequipment. The function of R-ACH,R-FCH,R-SCCHare the same as those in IS95. We will only discussR-PICH,R-SCH in the following slides.CDMA Air Interface
  63. 63. Page 63Types of Reverse Channel Reverse channel includes reverse common channel and reversededicated channel. Reverse common channel: Reverse Access Channel(R-ACH) Reverse Enhanced Access Channel(R-EACH) Reverse Common Control Channel(R-CCCH) Reverse Dedicated Channel Reverse Pilot Channel(R-PICH) Reverse Dedicated Control Channel(R-DCCH) Reverse Fundamental Channel(R-FCH) Reverse Supplemental Channel(R-SCH) Reverse Supplemental Code Channel (R-SCCH)CDMA Air Interface
  64. 64. Page 64MUX APilot( all 0s)Power Control BitN is the Spreading Rate numberPilot PowerControlPower Control Group= 1536 NPN Chips384 NPN ChipsReverse Pilot ChannelR-PICH The Function of Reverse Pilot Channel Initialization Tracing Reverse Coherent Demodulation Power Control Measurement Base station enhances the receivedperformance and increases the capacity bymeans of coherent demodulation of the ReversePilot Channel.CDMA Air Interface
  65. 65. Page 65Reverse Channels Fundamental Channel: Fundamental Channel is used for the transmission of user informationto the base station during a call, and can be used to transmit defaultedvoice services as an independent Traffic Channel. Dedicated Control Channel The Dedicated Control Channel is used for the transmission of userand signaling information to a base station during a call. Supplemental Channel/Supplemental Code Channel These channels are used for the transmission of user information,mainly data services, to the MS. The Reverse Traffic Channel containsup to two supplemental channels and up to seven supplemental codechannels.CDMA Air Interface
  66. 66. Page 66Reverse Radio Configuration (RC)RC: Radio ConfigurationRC1~RC2:IS-95A/BRC3~RC4:CDMA2000 1XRC5~RC6: CDMA2000 3xRadioConfigurationSpreadingRateMax Data Rate*(kbps)Effective FECCode RateOTDAllowedFEC Encoding Modulation1** 1 9.6 1/3 No Conv 64-ary ortho2** 1 14.4 1/2 No Conv 64-ary ortho3 1 153.6 1/4 Yes Conv or Turbo BPSK(307.2) (1/2)4 1 230.4 3.8 Yes Conv or Turbo BPSK5 3 153.6 1/4 Yes Conv or Turbo BPSK(614.4) (1/3)6 3 460.8 1/4 Yes Conv or Turbo BPSK(1036.8) (1/2)** Same as IS95CDMA Air Interface
  67. 67. Page 67RC 1RC 2RC 3RC 4RC 5RC 1RC 2RC 3RC 4RC 5RC 3RC 4RC 4RC 3F-FCHRCsR-DCCH/SCHRCsF-DCCH/SCHRCsR-FCHRCsRC Combination Regulation RC1 and RC2 corresponds respectively torate set 1 and rate set 2 in IS- 95A/B system. CDMA2000 Forward RC: RC1~RC5Reverse RC: RC1~RC4 Rules: Forward RC1, Reverse RC1 Forward RC2, Reverse RC2 Forward RC3 or RC4,Reverse RC3 Forward RC5, Reverse RC4CDMA Air Interface
  68. 68. Page 68Course ContentsChapter 1 IntroductionChapter 2 CDMA Techniques & TechnologiesChapter 3 CDMA Air InterfaceChapter 4 CDMA Number Planning
  69. 69. Page 69Definition of Coverage AreasLocation areaMSC areaPLMN areaService areaSectorareaCDMA Number PlanningCell area
  70. 70. Page 70Parameters InvolvedIn a CDMA system, the following parameters are defined toidentify a user and his location:MIN/IMSI MDN ESN TLDN SID/NID LAI GCI SIN SSNCDMA Number Planning
  71. 71. Page 71MIN/IMSIMobile subscriber identity/international mobile subscriber identityFor example, 0907550001/460030907550001Not more than 15 digits3 digits 2 digitsIMSIMCC MNC MSINNMSICDMA Number Planning
  72. 72. Page 72MDNCC + MAC + H 0H1H 2H 3 + ABCDInternational mobile subscriber DNNational valid mobile subscriber numberMobile directory numberFor example, 8613307550001CDMA Number Planning
  73. 73. Page 73ESNA unique Electronic Serial Number (ESN) is used to identify singleMS. An ESN includes 32 bits and has the following structure:31......24 23......18 17......0 bitManufacturer’s number retained equipment SNFor example, FD 03 78 0A (the 10th Motorola 378 mobile phone)The equipment serial number is allocated by a manufacturer.CDMA Number Planning
  74. 74. Page 74TLDN+CC MAC H0H 1H2 ABC+ ++44Temporary local directory numberFor example, 8613344755001CDMA Number Planning
  75. 75. Page 75SID/NIDMSCID (Exchange Identity)= System Identity (SID) + Exchange number (SWIN)is used to represent a certain set of equipment in anNSS network. For example,Unicom CDMA Shenzhen MSC is labeled as 3755+01CDMA Number Planning
  76. 76. Page 76Location Area Identity (LAI) PAGING message is broadcast within a local area, the size of which depends ontraffic, paging bearer capability, signaling flow , etc. Format: MCC+MNC+LAC MCC: Mobile Country Code, 3 digits. For example, China is 460. MNC: Mobile Network Code, 2 digits. For example, the MNC ofUnicom is 03. LAC: Location Area Code, a 2-byte-long hexadecimal BCD code.0000 cannot be used with FFFE. For example, 460030100CDMA Number Planning
  77. 77. Page 77Global Cell Identity (GCI) The unique ID of a cell in PLMN Format: LAI+CI CI: Cell Identity, a 2-byte-long hexadecimal BCD code, pre definedby the engineering department. The first 3 digits and the last digitrepresent the base station number and the sector numberrespectively. For an omni-directional site, the last digit of CI is 0. For example, 4600301001230 shows base station number 123contains an omni-directional siteCDMA Number Planning
  78. 78. Page 78Sender Identification Number(SIN)MSC numberThe MSC number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 +1000.HLR numberThe HLR number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 +0000.SMC numberThe SMC number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 +2000.SCP numberThe SCP number stipulated by Unicom is 460 + 03 + 09 + H0H1H2H3 +3000.CDMA Number Planning
  79. 79. Page 79Sub-System Number(SSN) SSN of MSC: 8 SSN of VLR: 7 SSN of HLR: 6 SSN of AC: 10 SSN of SMC: EE SSN of SCP: EF SSN of A interface: FE/FC SSN of SCCP management: 1CDMA Number Planning
  80. 80. Page 80Review Chips rate: 1.2288Mcps IS-95A/B is a subset, RC1/RC2 Apply the coherent demodulation to the reverse pilot channel Forward transmit diversity: OTD and STS Forward quick power control at 800HZ rate Improve the standby time by introducing the quick paging channel. Variable frames: 5ms, 20ms, 40ms and 80ms Introduce TURBO code into channel encoding The maximum rate of a physical layer is up to 307.2KCDMA Technology
  81. 81. Page 81Why CDMA2000? Increase the system capacity Forward quick power control Forward transmit diversity: OTD,STS Coherent modulation applied on the pilot channel.(about3dB) The introduction to Turbo code The stronger ability to resist interference The improved error-correcting encoding (applying Turbocode in medium/high rate data transmission)
  82. 82. Page 82Why CDMA2000? Support high rate SCH, with the maximum rate of a singlechannel being up to 307.2kbps. Improve the standby time Use the quick paging channel Forward compatibility Radio-frequency part Baseband part, such as RC
  83. 83. Page 83Summary Brief Development History of Mobile Communication Analog--digital--code division Objectives of 3G and comparison of 3 systems Technical features of CDMA Key technologies: power control, soft handoff,RAKE receiver andcell breath Other technologies: source coding, channel coding, interleaving,scrambling, spreading and modulation Channel structure: pilot, synchronization, paging, access andservice Technical features of CDMA2000 1X Walsh and Turbo codes
  84. 84. Page 84Questions What power control modes are there in CDMA2000 systemand how are they implemented? Describe the soft handoff process? Describe the process and functions of cell breath? Describe the implementation process of service channels(forward and reverse)? Describe the technical features of CDMA2000? Describe the initialization process of a mobile phone? What are the functions of a long code, short code and Walshcode in CDMA system?

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