Ahrd Presentation 2010

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Presentation of findings from integrated literature review focused on selected listening and questioning theory and research to inform executive coaching practice and future research. Presented @ AHRD Internatioanl Research Conference in February 2010 with Rajashi Ghosh and Victoria Marsick.

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Ahrd Presentation 2010

  1. 1. Learning from Experience Through the Executive Coaching Competencies of Listening and Questioning: Reviewing Literature to Inform Practice and Future Research Symposium 34: Learning, Collaboration & Problem Solving Terrence Maltbia, Rajashi Ghosh & Victoria Marsick February 27, 2010
  2. 2. Outline Foundations – Problem, Purpose and Research Questions – Method: Conceptual Framework Findings – Selective Integrative Literature Review: (1) Listening and Questioning Competencies & (2) Learning from Experience Insights & Connections to HRD 2 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  3. 3. Research Foundations Problem, Purpose, RQs, Method & Conceptual Framework
  4. 4. Framing Problem… Drivers… Problem Statement  Learning Demands on Leaders Lack of Agreement…  Coaching as Supported LFE  Meaning & Role of Coaching  Accelerated in Pace & Depth  Major Investment: 2 Billion + 2006  Rapid Organizational Change Gap  Learning & Competitive Advantage Lack of Clear Framework…  Innovative Work Climates  Call for coach-specific research  Attract/Retain Talent  Growing research interest (Grant 2008)  None focused on providing empirical  Top 5 Leadership Development grounding of 2 central competencies Practices (Grant 2008) 4 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  5. 5. Professional Associations Association Coaching Competencies International Since the early 1990s ICF has developed, refined, and promoted the use of 11 core coaching competencies: 1. Coach Federation meeting ethical guidelines and profession standards 2. establishing the coaching agreement 3.establishing trust (ICF) and intimacy with the client 4. coaching presence, 5. active listening, 6. powerful questioning 7. direct communication 8. creating awareness (LFE) 9. designing actions 10. planning and goal setting 11. managing progress and accountability. Worldwide Since 1997 WABC has worked to define the emerging practice of business coaching and distinguish it from Association of other forms of coaching—WABC promotes an elaborate competency structure where coaching skills is one of Business Coaches the 3 major clusters—the skills include: working within established ethical guidelines and professional (WABC) standards; agreeing on a clear and effective contract for the coaching relationship; establishing trust and respect; establishing rapport; listening to understand; questioning effectively; communicating clearly; facilitating depth of understanding (LFE); promoting action; focusing on goals; building resiliency; managing termination of coaching; maintaining and improving professional skills. International ICC has identified 9 key competencies coaches need to demonstrate as part of the certification process Coaching including: 1. general (i.e., ethics, distinctions between process and content, and client choice) 2. knowledge Community (i.e., background/ history of coaching, distinctions between coaching and other helping practices such as (ICC) counseling and therapy, and criteria for testing process and outcomes) 3. relationship 4. listening 5. self- management 6. enquiry and questioning 7. feedback (LFE) 8. goals, values and behaviors 9. design actions and task. GSAEC In 2007 GSAEC identified the following coaching skills as part of a broader, more comprehensive set of 20 academic standards targeted for university based coaching programs: 1. research and assessment skills 2. questioning 3. listening 4. feedback (LFE) 5. challenging and constructive confrontation 6. encouraging 7. process and facilitation skills and 8. education and change management skills. 5 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  6. 6. Problem & Purpose Statements The problem this paper addresses grows out of the lack of a clearly documented theory and research to support the use of 2 commonly-espoused, core coaching competencies of listening and questioning. Our aim is to understand what evidence exists that support claims of the centrality of listening and questioning as conversational coaching competencies used by practitioners to help clients learn from, and through their experience, in order to achieve desired results. 6 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  7. 7. Research Questions… In what ways are the concepts of listening, questioning, and learning from experience defined in selected literature? In what ways does the available literature: – (a) inform the practice of executive coaching (with an emphasis on developing the core competencies of listening and questioning) and – (b) suggest implications for further competency research in the area of executive coaching in organizations? Method: Selective Integrated Literature (Torraco 2005 & see our paper) 7 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  8. 8. Conceptual Framework Goal, Reality, Obstacles/Options, Way Forward (GROW) (Topic/Focus: of Coaching Conversation) Coaching Competencies: • Listening & Questioning Concrete • Others Experience Active Reflective Experimentation Observation Theoretical Basis: • Kolb (e.g., 1984, 2005a, 2005b) • Roberts & Jarrett (2006) Abstract • Whitmore (e.g., 2002, 1996) Conceptualization • Gallwey (1971, 1980, 2001) Goal Progress, Attainment, Outcomes 8 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  9. 9. Emergent Findings Summary of Key Discoveries…
  10. 10. Executive Coaching Competencies: Listening and Questioning Structure of Findings… Describe the various ways listening, questioning and learning from experience have been defined List the major components of each Make connections between these concepts including sample research Outline insights gains from this inquiry 10 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  11. 11. Executive Coaching Competencies: Listening, Questioning & LFE Key Words… “Definitions” Levels of Questions – “Listening” and “Questioning” Taxonomy of Listening Organizational Listening Question Hierarchies Listening Competency Cross-cultural Listening Questioning Skill Experiential Learning Theory Listening Style Learning from/through Experience 11 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  12. 12. Executive Coaching Competencies: Listening and Questioning 2 Sides of the Same Coin Listening Questioning Chronological Review (35 yrs 1974-2009) • Two Schools of Thought… • Three major fields… • 1. Intrapersonal (e.g., Goss, 1982; Wolvin & Coakley 1988) • Linguistics analysis, Education & Practical • Cognitive Process (perceiving, remembering, attending to, • Common factors: (1) Thinking skills, interpreting, understanding, assigning meaning, analyzing) (2) Learning Outcomes, & (3) Problem • Listening as aspect of human intelligence solving • 2. Relational Perspective (e.g., Rhodes 1993) • Bloom’s taxonomy • Includes interpersonal skills of “responding” (e.g., Ridge 1993) • Behavior in context (Dillon 1990) • Included in 50 definitions of listening (Glen 1989) • Three Cognitive Levels of Questions: (1) • HURIER model (Brownell 1986) Input, (2) Processing & (3) Output • Listening Style Profile (Watson, Barker & Weaver, 1985) Shepardson & Pizzini, 1991) • Cultural Differences (e.g., Imhof & Janusik, 2006) 12 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  13. 13. Learning From Experience Propositions inform practice of L & Q in Executive Coaching… Proposition 1: Experience is the foundation of, and the stimulus for, learning (i.e., past, present and anticipated) – questioning competencies as vehicle to surface relevant past, current & anticipated experiences/listening to help make connection to personal history and potential, future action; Proposition 2: Learners actively construct their experience (i.e., mind-set, mental models and/or worldview) – use of listening and questioning competencies to unearth client’s mental models as prerequisite for deep & sustainable change; Proposition 3: Learning is a holistic process (i.e., affective, cognitive, and behavioral) – use questioning & listening to meet client as a “whole person” – with thoughts, feelings and behavioral tendencies; Proposition 4: Learning is socially and culturally constructed – surface & identify client’s— taken-for-granted assumptions acquired through socialization can present an opening to attend to expectations & conceptual baggage; and Proposition 5: Learning is influenced by the socio-emotional context in which it occurs – attend to inter-play between experience and the role others as supportive and/or then need to address barriers that potentially impact goal attainment (Boud, Cohen, & Walker 1993, pp. 8-17). 13 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  14. 14. Insights Listening and questioning foundational of ORID guided dialogue process at the core of executive coaching Key enablers… – Kolb’s (1984) Experiential Learning Stages – Jackson’s (1991) Science of Human Performance 14 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  15. 15. Coaching as Strategic Learning Theoretical Basis… Clarifying the Science of Human Strategic Performance (Jackson, Context 1991) Informal & Incidental Taking Learning (Marsick & Identifying the Watkins, 1990) Informed, “Vital Few” Strategic Success Action Factors Experiential Learning Cycle (Kolb, 1984) 15 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  16. 16. Phases—Core Questions/Data Forms… Engagements/Sessions Phase I Phase II Phase III What’s up? What matters? What’s next? Outcome Focus: Learn for perspective Outcome Align: learn for knowledge Outcome Perform: learn from Experience 16 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  17. 17. Coaching Process PHASES & COMPONENT DESCRIPTIONS Context Content Conduct Entry and Contracting Feedback Action Strategies (Trigger & Framing) (Giving and Receiving) (Experimentation & Focus: Topic & Need/Fit Focus: Broaden Perspective & Pilots/Reflection-on-Action) Implications Focus: Confidence & Capacity Developmental Frames Exploring Options Growth & Renewal (Mental Models/Worldview) (Payoffs & Unintended (Strategic Insight) Consequences) Focus: Whole Person Focus: Understand client’s Focus: Expand Options & Engagement / Sustain baseline/self-concept & values Envision a Positive Future Progress Situation Analysis Planning Execution (Data Collection & (Priorities, Goals & Critical (Reflection-in-Action) Synthesis) Success Factors) Focus: Adding Value – Making Focus: From Data to Insight + Focus: From Aspiration to Value of Coaching Process Reframing & Pivoting Commitment to Action Explicit Phase I Outcome: Focus Phase II Outcome: Phase III Outcome: (learn for perspective) Alignment (learn for Performance (learn from 17 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching knowledge) experience) © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  18. 18. Integration—ORID: Conversation Tool, Origins “Art Form Method” What’s happening? How am I feeling/reacting? CE RO AE AC What do I What does it do/respond? mean? 18 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia (2003) © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  19. 19. Four Level Guided Dialogue - ORID OBJECTIVE DATA REFLECTIVE DATA Focus… Focus… Facts, observation and information (i.e., relatively direct Reactions, emotions, mood, feelings, and associations observable data) (i.e., the impact of the external “reality” on you/others) Access… Access… What you (and/or others) see, hear, say or do (our senses) Images, related experiences, metaphor (highs/lows) Learning Capability… Learning Capability… Contextual Awareness (i.e., Context) – External Focused Contextual Awareness (perspective taking – Internal Focused DECISIONAL DATA INTERPRETATIVE DATA Focus… Focus… Options, Consequences & payoffs, priorities, goals and planning Patterns, themes, meaning and values (i.e., What really matters) Access… Response, experiments/pilots, and execution Access… Exploring for impact, significance, learning, and insight Learning Capability… Informed Action (leveraging contextual awareness and deep Learning Capability… conceptual clarity – i.e., Conduct) – External/Internal Conceptual Clarity in formed by Context to Focus & Align Priorities (i.e., Content) – External and Internal Focus 19 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  20. 20. Implications for HRD Practice Theoretical and empirical support (definitions, taxonomies, types, levels and types) for the inclusion of listening and questioning as core competencies in coach preparation programs Document important connections between the listening and questions literature combined with “experiential learning theory” (i.e., listening and questioning skills as enablers to question thinking, insight, & helping clients take informed action) Listening & questioning skills are both interactive and relational in ways that, when taken together provide executive coaches with a foundation for using dialogue to help their clients construct productive responses to the changing demands of the world of work (including the cultural dimension) The ORID serves as an integrating heuristic for informing coaching and dialogue sessions in that it parallels Kolbs’ (1984) experiential learning cycle, Argryis et al.’s (1985) ladder of inference stages to test assumptions, & Jackson’s (1991) strategic learning framework to guide the coaching process 20 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  21. 21. Implications for Research Devise a more complete picture of how different listening styles might influence the effectiveness of dialogues in organizational coaching (Watson, Barker, and Weaver’s 1995 Listening Styles Profile) Explore data collected through instruments such as Learning Styles Profile (LSI), Neethling Brain Inventory (NBI-thinking style) and Listening Style Profile (LSP) to analyze the potential relationships (or interactions) among these constructs (i.e., learning from experience, listening and questioning) by creating a profile for participants in preparation programs to provide a baseline to guide development agenda Expand understanding of the ORID framework by integrating a number of the listening and questioning taxonomies presented in our paper to inform research design (i.e., integrated into the 7 themes of attending, being a sounding board, understanding, remembering, interpreting, evaluating and responding) Collect and examine data about the coach’s and client’s observable learning, thinking, and listening styles at the start, during, and at the end of coach preparation programs through video recordings of the conversations between a coach and the client, based on the listening and questioning taxonomies (these can serve to guide HRD professionals to tailor coaching interventions in organizations) 21 Learning from Experience Through Executive Coaching © Maltbia, Ghosh and Marsick (2010)
  22. 22. Learning from Experience Through the Executive Coaching Competencies of Listening and Questioning: Reviewing Literature to Inform Practice and Future Research Symposium 34: Learning, Collaboration & Problem Solving Terrence Maltbia, Rajashi Ghosh & Victoria Marsick February 27, 2010

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