Thoughts on Some Space App Challenges by Kamen Kozarev Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Space Challenges Educational Program and Nathan Darling Boston University’s Center for Space Physics
Episodic solar activity has a number of effects. Space weather can disrupt satellite operations, navigation,electric power, radio communications, geophysical exploration and much more.CHALLENGE:Create a physical or virtual representation of these invisible (to the human eye) phenomena that canaffect so many vital terrestrial activities.This open ideation challenge will create a large-scale virtual community dialogue to “think outside of thebox” on ways we can engage and use spaceflight data - and local experiments on how to make thattangible.CHALLENGE:How can we encourage people to interact with space data in new and meaningful ways to promotespace enthusiasm, education, research? Can this be done on a global scale with universal appeal? Couldthis be applied to other fields?
The Challenges• Big data: – Terrabytes/day of space physics data – How to share/analyze it in meaningful ways? – What does meaningful mean? Who would use it?• Data Visualization? – How to connect/combine datasets? • NASA’s SPICE library for solar system positions • Common visualization techniques for different missions? • SolarSoft (package for IDL – interactive data language) • AstroPy/SpacePy? – How to visualize multidimensional data in an easy way? – Interactive visualization = deeper insight for all Big problem for scientists as well!
Multi-viewpoint solar imaging! REAL-TIME 360-DEGREE MAP OF THE SUN!
Visualization of numericalsimulations t = 60 min Eruption Su n 1 1
Nate DarlingAbout Me: Staff Researcher at Boston University BA Spanish Language MS Mechanical EngineeringProjects: Interests: Small spaceflight projects (rockets, balloons, CubeSats), engineering STEM education and outreach, supporting research. The Venus Spectral ANDESITE Rocket (VeSpR) Ad-hoc networking Vacuum ultraviolet demonstration using telescope payload multiple deployed on sounding magnetometer nodes rocket, mission to to map the fine-scale understand water structure of earth’s history of Venus. magnetosphere. The Boston University NASA Flight Student satellite for Opportunities Applications and Microgravity Training (BUSAT test flight Modular, plug-and-play program for 27U CubeSat bus, BUSAT’s auroral imager, electron deployable spectrometer. solar panels.
Description:1. A website publicizing interplanetary destinations for CubeSats2. Publicize available launch opportunities3. Challenge public to find realistic trajectories4. Foster collaborative discussion about interplanetary CubeSat mission design5. Help to build an “interplanetary atlas” for such missions6. Help discover what is possible for CubeSat exploration7. Additional Challenge: Consider ways you could use a CubeSat to provide information about an asteroidItems to consider:1. Near-Earth asteroids2. Interplanetary missions3. 2015 launch date4. Current propulsion technology5. Standard CubeSat size6. Reasonable power requirements Complicated…7. NASA’s GMAT
The Engineering Challenge Vehicle: Mission: “Let’s do an Interplanetary ($$ CHEAP лв) CubeSat Interplanetary CubeSatMission!” Limited Volume Limited Mass Limited Power 10 x 10 x 10-30 cm 1-10 kg 3-5W Radiation Tolerance Propulsion Communications MiniaturizationAs vehicle volume and Low mass means you Limited power Often, missions aremass are limited, your can’t carry lots of generation ability (you accomplished withability to place shielding propellant, which limits don’t have very much remote sensingis also constrained. This how much acceleration surface area to cover instrumentationmeans more money you afford on your with solar panels) means developed for terrestrialspent on radiation- mission for adjusting the that your or large formathardened electronics, or attitude and changing communications system applications. Can thehigher risk of mission your orbit. This is cannot consume very science be done withfailure when a single- important for getting to much power in getting small form factor andevent upset or latchup your destination, but the signals back to earth, power budget?occurs. also affects and CubeSats can‘t have communications. big antennas. Space systems engineers tackle the complexity by creating a list of requirements – starting from the top with a mission statement.
Requirements Example Mission Statement: Structural requirements:My CubeSat will go to the • Survive launch vibrationfar side of the moon and Objectives: • Shield electronics fromrecord radio frequency Record radio frequency data radiation environmentnoise to learn about the from XXX MHz to XXX MHzhistory of the universe. within XX km of the dark Propulsion requirements: side of the lunar surface • Provide enough delta V to between longitude XX.XXXThe “Big Picture” achieve lunar orbit and XX.XXX for at least XX minutes, transmit data to Power requirements: earth. • Provide enough power for*Exactly* what you communications system, propulsion system, thermalhave to do in order management systemto achieve the Exactly what eachmission goals Thermal requirements: system has to do in • Keep satellite electronics order to support within operating the mission temperature range
Your Jobexploration byIntroduce the public to the realities of CubeSat space 1. characterizing the major players in a satellite’s life. This could include: • Hardware (structure, solar panels, propulsion system, radio, antennas, shielding, heaters, coolers, cameras, sensors, single board computers) • Missions (planets, asteroids, science questions to be answered) • How to get there (Launch vehicles, the “interplanetary highway”, secondary payload launch opportunities) • Ground-based systems (radio ground stations, telescopes) 2. introducing the public to the engineering constraints imposed when several of these components are chosen or combined: • Incorporate a feature that emulates requirements tracking (“so you want to go to the moon? … OK, you’re going to need …”). • Incorporate a feature that tracks interdependencies of the mission (“so you want a bigger propulsion unit? … OK, that’s gonna cost you …”). A mission design video game?
Possible Missions• Mineral surveys of asteroids• Solar system escape• Space weather monitoring• Phobos sample return• Earth-moon radio-quiet observatory• Out-of-Ecliptic(from Robert Staehle NASA/NIAC talk)http://amsat-uk.org/2013/03/09/interplanetary-cubesats/#more-14592