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  1. 1. Challenges in building and using a Lifetime Personal Information Store based on MyLifeBits Gordon Bell Accelerating Change ─ 6 November 2004
  2. 2. The 1 TB Life <ul><li>1TB gives you 65+ years of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100 email messages a day (5KB each) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 web pages day (50KB each) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 scanned pages a day (100KB each) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 book every 10 days (1 MB each) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 photos per day (400 KB JPEG each) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 hours per day of sound - e.g. telephone, voice annotations, and meeting recordings (8 Kb/s) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 new music CD every 10 days (45 min each at 128 Kb/s) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It will take you 5 years to fill up your 80 GB drive </li></ul><ul><li>Want video? Buy more cheap drives (1 TB/year lets you record 4 hours/day of 1.5 Mb/s video) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Everything goes in a database <ul><li>You need all the features of a database (Consistency, Indexing, Pivoting, Queries, Speed/scalability, Backup, replication) </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t use one, you will find yourself creating one! </li></ul><ul><li>Files as blobs, also sync with file system for legacy apps </li></ul>SQL
  4. 4. MyLifeBits Software MyLifeBits store database Voice annotation tool Text annotation tool Telephone capture tool TV capture tool TV EPG download tool Radio capture & EPG PocketPC transfer tool PocketRadio player Import files MyLifeBits Shell files Legacy applications Browser tool Internet IM capture MAPI interface Legacy email client GPS import & Map display SenseCam Screen saver
  5. 5. Memex As We May Think, Vannevar Bush, 1945 <ul><li>“ A memex is a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility” </li></ul><ul><li>Full-text search, text & audio annotations, and hyperlinks </li></ul>
  6. 6. I am data
  7. 7. The guinea pig <ul><li>Gordon Bell is digitizing his life </li></ul><ul><li>Has now scanned virtually all: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Books written (and read when possible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal documents (correspondence including memos and email, bills, legal documents, papers written, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posters, paintings, photo of things (artifacts, …medals, plaques) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home movies and videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CD collection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And, of course, all PC files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Now recording: phone, radio, TV (movies), web pages… conversations and meetings to come </li></ul><ul><li>Paperless throughout 2002. 12” scanned, 12’ discarded . </li></ul><ul><li>Only 44 GB, incl. 10 wma, 14 SQL!!! Video: o(100) + 500 mov </li></ul>
  8. 8. Capture and encoding
  9. 9. I mean everything
  10. 10. 50+ year old newspaper clippings
  11. 11. 400 year old books
  12. 12. O(100s) tapes from videotape “black hole”
  13. 13. Personal LifeLog Applications Conservator Baby Book Companion Caretaker Babysitter Advisor Mentor Tutor Autobiography Photo Album Personal Assistant Diary/Journal Biography Medical Manager Executor Obituary Others Self Assistant for Elderly Application controlled by: Others Self Application used by: Personal Proxy Parole Officer Pers Flight Recorder Meeting Prep Captain’s Log Trustee Financial Manager
  14. 14. Personal Search is not Professional or Web search <ul><li>System sees every entry & access </li></ul><ul><li>Everything, not just a professional life </li></ul><ul><li>Limited to SIS, not an infinite amount, covers a profession & personal life </li></ul> Web as seen by search engines MyLifeBits Knowledge breadth e.g. Dewey classification Depth e.g. information item types & coverage Professional user
  15. 15. Why bother? ..some reasons <ul><li>Technologist: “we can” an opportunity e.g. 1 TB disks </li></ul><ul><li>For all of us with new media: a need e.g. jpg. Mp3 </li></ul><ul><li>Environmentalist: eliminates “atoms” (paper, CDs…) </li></ul><ul><li>For business--memory enhancement & faster search: Let content analysis and data mining discover trends and correlations in our lives…that even we don’t know. </li></ul><ul><li>Business: It costs more to delete than it costs to store </li></ul><ul><li>Preservationist: decays or disappears unless its saved </li></ul><ul><li>For the human pack rat: “I may need it some day.” </li></ul><ul><li>For posterity and nostalgia: “Maybe others will want it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Stories and ambience: basis for creating content </li></ul><ul><li>For the aging & failed memory: surrogate memory </li></ul>
  16. 16. So you’ve got it – now what do you do with it? <ul><li>“ A record if it is to be useful … must be continuously extended, it must be stored, and above all it must be consulted” </li></ul><ul><li>“ The difficulty seems to be, not so much that we publish unduly … but rather that publication has been extended far beyond our present ability to make real use of the record” </li></ul><ul><li>- Vannevar Bush </li></ul>
  17. 17. Using my life bits: beyond folders #1: Folders One item. One place. It worked for 1000s of years.
  18. 18. My docs and archive S Self E E X- Employer Employer Employer X-Employer Project Project Project Project Employer Library/file cab Library/file cab Library/file cab Library/file cab Library/file cab Library/file cab Active Employer Library/file cab Library/file cab Library/file cab <1995 Library/file cab Library/file cab Project Business Invests, family $s, & Legal Personal, including Medical Library/file cab
  19. 19. Freedom from hierarchy <ul><li>c:my documents alksMyLifeBits.ppt ID=location=organization=display string </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t make me invent unique names </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t make me file everything </li></ul><ul><li>Or let me pick multiple folders </li></ul>
  20. 20. Using my life bits: easily adding valuable content #2: Text annotations Making bits more valuable and retrievable.
  21. 21. “ Its just bits until it is annotated”
  22. 22. Getting the user to tell a story is the ultimate in media value <ul><li>A story is a “layout” in time and space </li></ul><ul><li>Most valuable content (by selection, and by being well annotated) </li></ul><ul><li>Stories must include links to any media they use (for future navigation/search – “transclusion”). </li></ul><ul><li>Cf: MovieMaker; Creative Memories PhotoAlbums </li></ul>Dapeng was an intern at BARC for the summer of 2000 We took him to lunch at our favorite Dim Sum place to say farewell At table L-R: Dapeng, Gordon, Tom, Jim, Don, Vicky, Patrick, Jim
  23. 23. Annotation like this… Voice Annotation
  24. 24. Annotation when you feel like it, how you feel like it <ul><li>Screensaver is the killer app! </li></ul>
  25. 25. Using my life bits: the value of time & time posts #3: “I remember when…” The 1 st or 2 nd most important retrieval handle.
  26. 26. MyLifeBits time overlap
  27. 27. MyLifeBits on-the-fly time clustering
  28. 30. MSR Next Media Team
  29. 31. M Stewart Lifeline v2 Mark Stewart’s Lifeline Copyright Mark Stewart, 2004
  30. 32. F: father F: mother F: self F: Sister Education Education Education F: spouse F: son F: grandChild F: grandChild F: daughter F: grandchild F: grandchild F: Significant Other W/Education Work Work Work Work Work Work Work Organization
  31. 34. Using my life bits: Where, an essential attribute #4: I remember where Just essential .
  32. 36. Using my life bits: pivoting on data to aid recall #5: Relationships (links) Using something near ‘it”, to find “it”.
  33. 37. MyLifeBits Entities & Links Annotates Caller in Phone Call Photo of Event Transcludes
  34. 38. PhotoFinder - Schneiderman and Kang
  35. 39. Using my life bits: never enough meta-data … but, can you afford it?b #6: more meta-data (properties) I remember something about the content (understanding a person’s work)
  36. 41. Lederberg Finder page
  37. 42. Dublin core of a given item
  38. 43. Using my life bits: classification of everything #7: classification Is any gain from non-automated classification worth the cost and pain?
  39. 44. Is traditional classification required? <ul><li>… at OCLC there was unanimous agreement among faculty and participants that “access to electronic resources requires controlled vocabulary and classification” OCLC Institute, “Knowledge Access Management: Tools and Concepts for Next Generation Catalogers”, 17-19 November 1997, Dublin, Ohio. </li></ul>
  40. 45. <ul><li>“ I have watched as hundreds of millions of dollars have been invested to re-invent the wheel - often badly.” </li></ul><ul><li>-Marcia Bates </li></ul>
  41. 46.
  42. 47. Professional Life: Organizations Administrivia Projects Library
  43. 48. Lederberg papers official reports Number of document segments
  44. 49. Lederberg Artifact types <ul><li>Abstracts </li></ul><ul><li>Agendas not </li></ul><ul><li>Announcements m; </li></ul><ul><li>Application forms </li></ul><ul><li>Articles m </li></ul><ul><li>Autobiographies m </li></ul><ul><li>Bibliographies m </li></ul><ul><li>Biographies m </li></ul><ul><li>Brochures m </li></ul><ul><li>Certificates m </li></ul><ul><li>Correspondence m </li></ul><ul><li>Diaries m </li></ul><ul><li>Drafts (documents) </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings m </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic images m </li></ul><ul><li>Essays m </li></ul><ul><li>Eulogies </li></ul><ul><li>Excerpts </li></ul><ul><li>Grant proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews m </li></ul><ul><li>Invitations </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory notebooks m </li></ul><ul><li>Laboratory notes </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture notes </li></ul><ul><li>Lectures m </li></ul><ul><li>Legal documents m </li></ul><ul><li>Legislative records </li></ul><ul><li>Lists </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestoes </li></ul><ul><li>Memoirs m </li></ul><ul><li>Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Monographs m </li></ul><ul><li>Narratives </li></ul><ul><li>Newsletters </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper columns m </li></ul><ul><li>Notebooks m </li></ul><ul><li>Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Obituaries </li></ul><ul><li>Official reports </li></ul><ul><li>Oral histories m </li></ul><ul><li>Petitions </li></ul><ul><li>Photographic prints m </li></ul>Press releases m Procedures Proceedings m Programs m Proposals m Questionnaires Reminiscences Reports m Resolutions Resumes Reviews m School records Speeches m Summaries Tables (documents) Technical reports m Transcripts m Typescripts Video recordings m
  45. 50. Species: Animals: Chordata: Vertebrata: bony fish
  46. 51. Computer structures: digital computer: minicomputer (refined: Digital Equipment Corp.)
  47. 52. Computer structures taxonomy: computers
  48. 53. Classification wish list <ul><li>Download classifications rather than build them </li></ul><ul><li>Definitions & synonyms should help find what I want </li></ul><ul><li>Today it is too expensive to manually classify my scanned paper. E.g. “right time” meta-data is critical! </li></ul><ul><li>Next year we hope “the system” can classify papers and other documents e.g. bills </li></ul><ul><li>In 10 years we expect all documents to appear electronically & classified with a little help from me </li></ul>
  49. 54. Using my life bits: Ontologies… useful? or fool’s errand? #8: “ontology”??? “ Succumbing to the ‘ontology’ fallacy” -Bates
  50. 55. MyLifeBits: Some Lives(t) <ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Parents, children, grandkids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CGB himself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GKB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SSF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close friends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GB $s; Legal entities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal incl. several legal structures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Properties: autos, real estate, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investments & contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Past prof. companies/organiz’ns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DEC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carnegie-Mellon U. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DEC, NSF, Encore, Ardent, Me Inc., Bell-Mason </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bell-Mason Director </li></ul><ul><li>Diamond & Vanguard Brds. </li></ul><ul><li>Startups & boards </li></ul><ul><li>CGB@ Microsoft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MLB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clusters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telepresence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WWW presence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer History Museum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BOD member </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fund-raising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CyberMuseum </li></ul></ul>
  51. 56. F: father F: mother F: self F: Sister Education Education Education F: spouse F: son F: grandChild F: grandChild F: daughter F: grandchild F: grandchild F: Significant Other W/Education Work Work Work Work Work Work Work Organization
  52. 57. Using my life bits: Providing insight, including… Where did I spend my time? What has been by output? #9: logging & reports
  53. 58. Interface to xls
  54. 59. TV Usage
  55. 60. Using my life bits: Recording everything! #10: CARPE Continuous archival recording of personal experiences
  56. 61. The A/V/real time data Future: new capture modes/devices SenseCam Deja View Body Media Quindi
  57. 62. Sensecam & Interactive jewellery
  58. 63. Open Problems
  59. 64. The Agenda for the Tbyte(s), Lifetime, PC: The killer app after office and mail.searching <ul><li>Guarantee that data will live forever! “dear appy” problem </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap, easy, and data-rich (e.g. time, place) capture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GPS and time everywhere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paper capture has to be as easy as discarding (scanner/shredder) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal meeting capture... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-book…e-magazines & journals need to have critical mass! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephony and audio capture with indexing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Center compatible for entertainment (photos, video, TV, radio) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content analysis (critical for photo & video!); doable for text. Needs doing! </li></ul><ul><li>Information control: privacy, security, expunge/deniability,… </li></ul><ul><li>Having to be schizophrenic or have a lobotomy when leaving a “life” </li></ul><ul><li>One dbase for everything (articles, books, conversations, ... financial transactions) …vs. long-term use of hierarchical files. Is dbase intuitive? </li></ul><ul><li>Annotations/meta-information add every-increasing value Easy annotation for aiding search and it becomes the content </li></ul><ul><li>Other “killer apps”: Alzheimer, immortality, surrogate memory? </li></ul><ul><li>GUI’s to improve use (e.g. time to learn, use, retention) </li></ul>
  60. 65.
  61. 66. The “dear appy” problem <ul><li>Dear Appy, </li></ul><ul><li>How committed are you? Please come back to me. Forever yours truly, Lost and forgotten data </li></ul><ul><li>Who’s responsible? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media or 8 track cassette, 8” floppy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolving platform, file, and database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolving, incompatible standards & formats for legacy data that disregard ancestors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolving and/or disappearing apps   </li></ul></ul>
  62. 67. A Storocratic Oath <ul><li>Do no harm to dates (File creation, Photo taken) </li></ul><ul><li>Do no harm to device created & other meta-data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camera data & location data are sacred. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Support & aid the creation of critical meta-data. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When/how the user feels like it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auto-magically! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintain user confidentiality </li></ul>
  63. 68. The killer app?? <ul><li>Input, File, Classify, and Find… </li></ul><ul><li>Operational </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Stuff I’ve Seen” (e.g. msg, name, paper, fact, birthday, phone call, photo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Observe every action… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time & motion (routing, communicating, scheduling … thinking) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Archival one’s self </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finder aka Table of Contents aka Site Map </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story telling. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Screen saver & personal ambience </li></ul>