Pulmonary embolism

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Pulmonary embolism

  1. 1. Pulmonary Embolism Natalie Bermudez, RN, BSN, MS Clinical Educator for Telemetry Telemetry Course
  2. 2. Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul>Occurs in more than 600,000 patients annually in the U.S. Contributes to 50,000 to 200,000 deaths per year Two-thirds of patients with fatal cases will die within one hour of presentation (Woods et al, 2005, p.166)
  3. 3. Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>Statistics </li></ul>The mortality rate for hospitalized patients with PE has remained at approximately 15% over the past 40 years. (Woods et al, 2005, p.166)
  4. 4. <ul><li>An obstruction of the pulmonary artery or </li></ul><ul><li>one o f its branches by a thrombus (or </li></ul><ul><li>thrombi) that originates in the venous </li></ul><ul><li>system or the right side of the heart . </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism
  5. 6. <ul><li>Most common thromboembolic problem in patients with </li></ul><ul><li>heart failure </li></ul><ul><li>Also caused by fat, air, amniotic fluid or septic emboli </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism
  6. 7. <ul><li>Risk Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>DVT </li></ul><ul><li>Atrial Fibrillation </li></ul><ul><li>CAD </li></ul><ul><li>CHF </li></ul><ul><li>Hemostasis </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>Risk Factors: </li></ul><ul><li>Postpartum </li></ul><ul><li>Postoperative </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Contraceptives </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>SIGNS & SYMPTOMS: </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism <ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>Chest Pain </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoptysis </li></ul><ul><li>Tachycardia </li></ul><ul><li>Hypoxia </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Fever </li></ul><ul><li>Cough </li></ul><ul><li>Diaphoresis </li></ul><ul><li>S/S of DVT </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Diagnostic Evaluation </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism Chest x-ray
  9. 10. <ul><li>DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION: </li></ul><ul><li>CT Angiogram of Chest </li></ul><ul><li>V/Q Scan </li></ul><ul><li>D-dimer </li></ul><ul><li>ABG’s </li></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Vascular Studies (etiology) </li></ul><ul><li>EKG (etiology) </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism
  10. 11. <ul><li>DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION: </li></ul><ul><li>D-dimer </li></ul><ul><li>It is a fibrin degradation fragment </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs through fibrinolysis </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism
  11. 12. <ul><li>DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION: </li></ul><ul><li>V/Q Scan </li></ul><ul><li>Ventilation & Perfusion Scan </li></ul><ul><li>2-part Test </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism
  12. 13. <ul><li>TREATMENT OF SYMPTOMS: </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesics </li></ul><ul><li>Supplemental O 2 Therapy </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism
  13. 14. <ul><li>MEDICAL MANAGEMENT: </li></ul><ul><li>Anticoagulant Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Thrombolytic Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Bedrest </li></ul><ul><li>Surgical Embolectomy </li></ul>Pulmonary Embolism
  14. 16. References <ul><li>Hodgson, B. B., & Kizior, R. J. (2007). Saunders nursing drug handbook. St. Louis, MS: Saunders Elsevier. </li></ul><ul><li>Skidmore-Roth, L. et al. (2007). Mosby’s nursing drug reference, (20 th ed.). St. Louis, MS: Mosby Elsevier. </li></ul><ul><li>Smeltzer et al. (2008). Brunner and suddarth’s textbook of medical-surgical nursing, (11 th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. </li></ul><ul><li>Woods, S. L., Sivarajan Froelicher, E. S., Underhill Motzer, S., & Bridges, E. J. (2005). Cardiac Nursing (5 th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. </li></ul>

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