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Progress of exhaust emission regulations in on road, off-road and marine engines


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Combustion Engines Finland

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Progress of exhaust emission regulations in on road, off-road and marine engines

  1. 1. Engine Technology Seminar - From Fuel to Performance 24/16/2019 Combustion Engines Finland, Branch Groupe of Technology Industries of Finland Progress of Exhaust emission regulations in on- road, off-road and marine engines Mika Laurén / Senior Lecturer / Turku University of Applied Sciences
  2. 2. What components does the exhaust gas contains? Typical exhaust gas components distribution in diesel engine in high load. ( n. 2…2,5), without aftertreatment, Sulphur free diesel fuel, based at TUAS lab measurements. Vol. % Nitrogen N2 (raw) 74.92 % Oxygen O2 12.00 % Water H2O 6.52 % Carbon Dioxide CO2 6.47 % Hydrocarbons (C1 ekviv.) 0.01 % Nitrogen oxides NOx 0.07 % Carbon Monoxide CO 0.01 % Particles < 0.01 % CO2 vs. regulated emissions !
  3. 3. Emission regulations in Heavy-Duty on-road vehicles – NOx HD Vehicles emission limits in EU and US are good example the progression steps. The most critical emission in diesel engines are NOx and Particulates. When NOx level decreased by changing engine calibration, the fuel consumption and particulate emissions typically increased.
  4. 4. Emission regulations in Heavy-Duty on-road vehicles - Particles Also the particulate mass limits were tightened at the same time with NOx EU add a new PN (Particulate number) limits in EURO 6 phase. The PN measurement seems to forced the manufacturers using the particulate filters.
  5. 5. Off-road engines (tractors, forest machines, generator engines) Emission limits in off-road engines were nearly similar in EU and US area in different steps. US Tier 4 final is the last step in US and those limits are similar than EU Stage IV EU Stage V limits come in to effect in -19…-20. The PN measurement is also included in Stage V
  6. 6. IMO –International Marine Regulations International Maritime organisation (IMO) regulates the maritime engines emission limits These limits are nowadays mainly focused to NOx and SOx emissions Tier III limits are only used in certain areas, so called ECA (Emission Control Areas) Source: Dieselnet –portal ( YEAR 2000 2011 2016
  7. 7. 84/16/2019 Combustion Engines Finland, Branch Groupe of Technology Industries of Finland IMO –International Marine Regulations Source: Dieselnet –portal ( IMO regulations set global and ECA area limits for marine fuel sulphur limits. High sulphur fuel can be used if SOx is removed from the exhaust gas after the engine using scrubber.
  8. 8. 916.4.2019 Technical Solutions to meet lowest emission limits Combined SCR and DPF aftertreatment unit for EURO 6 on-road vehicle. Source: Proventia Stringest EU and US on-land emission limits forced the diesel engine manufacturers use the exhaust gas aftertreatment system for NOx and particulates. In marine engines low sulphur fuel or scrubber are needed for SOx and SCR for NOx when are in ECA (Emission Control Areas)
  9. 9. 1016.4.2019 Future Emission Regulations On-road (Cars, Vans, Buses, HD Trucks)  Euro7/Euro VII, probably by 2023  RDE/PEMS and In-Service Compliance (ISC) rules are tightening Non-road Mobile Machinery  Adaption of similar kind In-Service Conformity testing program using PEMS device as in force on HD on-road vehicles  CO2 emissions regulation Marine  IMO is evaluating the needs for regional and global control of black carbon (BC), which is one of the constituents of PM. European emission standards for non-road mobile machinery (NRMM) limits CO, HC, NOx and PM for engines used in inland waterway vessels. Furthermore, particle number (PN) emission will be limited in 2020.
  10. 10. SUMMARY 114/16/2019 Combustion Engines Finland, Branch Groupe of Technology Industries of Finland Emission regulations have been a major driver of combustion engine technology development since 90’s Due to stringent emission limits, a many technical solutions were developed and implemented in on-land and marine solutions e.g. SCR –catalyst, Scrubbers, Particulate filters… In the future, different emissions from different fuels and real world emission are coming to under regulations. Also fuel efficiency (consumption) is rising theme in heavy-duty vehicles and in off- road engines