Let us see some major crops <ul><li>A large variety of crops are grown to meet the requirement of the growing population. Crops also supply raw materials for agro based industries. Major food crops are Wheat, rice, maize and millets. </li></ul><ul><li>Jute and Cotton are Fibre Crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Important beverage [drink] crops are Tea and Coffee </li></ul>
Rice is the major crops of the world. It is the staple diet of the people rice needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall. It grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water. China leads in the production of rice followed by India Japan and Sri Lanka
Clay soil <ul><li>Clay Soil- Clay is very fine grained soil and hence there is very less air spaces between the particles. Water logging might harm the roots of the plant. Clay soil becomes very heavy when wet. </li></ul>
ALLUVIAL SOIL :- It is formed when the soil or upper layer of the earth is washed or carried away by water or rain water and deposited somewhere.
Loamy Soil- This soil is the perfect soil for plantation. The granular soil retains water very easily, yet the drainage is well. Loamy soil is composed of 40 % sand, 40% silt and 20% clay
Wheat requires moderate temperature and rainfall during growing season and bright sunshine at the time of harvest. It grows best in well drained loamy soil. In India it is grown in Winter and it is grown extensively in U.S.A.
Millets or coarse crops can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils. It is a hardy [bold] crops that needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperature. Bajra, jowar and ragi are grown in India.
Maize requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine. It needs well-drained fertile soils. It is grown in North America, China, India etc.
Cotton requires high temperature, light rainfall, two hundred and ten frost-free days and bright sunshine for its growth . It grows best on black and alluvial soils. Its leading producers are China USA, India and Pakistan.
Coffee needs warm and wet climate and well-drained loamy soil. Hill slopes are more suitable for growth of this crop Brazil is the leading producer followed by Columbia and India.
Jute is also known as the Golden Fibre. It grows well on alluvial soil and requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate. Its leading producers are Bangladesh and India.
Tea is a beverage crop. This requires cool climate and well distributed high rainfall throughout the year for the growth of its tender leaves. It needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes. Kenya, India, China, and Sri Lanka produces the best quality tea in the world.
Let ’s have some exercise. <ul><li>1. What is known as Golden Fiber ? </li></ul><ul><li>2.Cotton requires high temperature. True/False. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Name two Beverage crops? </li></ul><ul><li>4. In India Wheat is grown in Winter. True/False. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Leading producer of Coffee is – </li></ul><ul><li>[ I ] Brazil [ ii ] India [ iii ] Russia. </li></ul>