Role of govt in environment


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  • Figure 24.2
    The policy life cycle, including positions of some major environmental problems within the cycle in most developed countries.
  • Figure 24.3
    Greatly simplified overview of how individuals, corporations, and environmental organizations interact with each other and with the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the U.S. government. The bottom of this diagram also shows some ways in which individuals can bring about environmental change through their own lifestyles. (See the website for this book for details on contacting elected representatives.)
  • Figure 24.9
    Good and bad news about international efforts to deal with global environmental problems. Question: What single piece of good news and what single piece of bad news do you think are the most important?
  • Figure 24.10
    Global outlook: major problems with global environmental treaties and agreements and solutions to these problems. Question: Which problem and which solution do you think are the most important?
  • Role of govt in environment

    1. 1. Role of Govt. in environmental protection
    2. 2. 24-1 The Role of Government in the Transition to More Sustainable Societies • Concept 24-1 A government can help to protect environmental and public interests and help to encourage more environmentally sustainable economic development through its policies.
    3. 3. Government Can Serve Environmental and Other Public Interests (1) • Balance between government intervention and free enterprise • Is the government the best mechanism to deal with – Full-cost pricing – Market failures – The tragedy of the commons
    4. 4. Government Can Serve Environmental and Other Public Interests (2) • Policies and politics • Environmental policy • Policy life cycle: 4 stages – Recognition – Formulation – Implementation – Control
    5. 5. Fig. 24-2, p. 636 Recognition Identify the problem Nonpoint-source water pollution Indoor air pollution Electronic waste Mining wastes Groundwater contamination Environmentally harmful subsidies Exclusion of environmentally harmful costs from market prices Control Monitor and adjust Outdoor air pollution Sewage treatment problems Drinking water pollution Point-source water pollution Some infectious diseases Municipal solid waste Stepped Art Implementation Implement solutions Acid deposition Ozone depletion Municipal solid waste Endangered species Pest damage Soil erosion Formulation Look for solutions Global warming Urban sprawl Nuclear wastes Biodiversity losses Toxic wastes Aquifer depletion
    6. 6. Democracy Does Not Always Allow for Quick Solutions (1) • Democracy • Framework – Constitutional democracy – Three branches of government • Legislative • Executive • Judicial
    7. 7. Democracy Does Not Always Allow for Quick Solutions (2) • Special-interest groups pressure the government – Profit-making organizations – Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) • Politicians focus on problems with short-term effects, not long-term
    8. 8. Certain Principles Can Guide Us in Making Environmental Policy (1) • The humility principle • The reversibility principle • The precautionary principle • The net energy principle • The preventive principle
    9. 9. Certain Principles Can Guide Us in Making Environmental Policy (2) • The polluter-pays principle • The public access and participation principle • The human rights principle • The environmental justice principle • How will these principles be implemented?
    10. 10. 24-2 How Is Environmental Policy Made? (1) • Concept 24-2A Policy making involves law making, program funding, rule writing, and enforcement of rules by agencies—a complex process that is affected at each stage by political processes.
    11. 11. 24-2 How Is Environmental Policy Made? (2) • Concept 24-2B Individuals can work with each other to become part of political processes that influence how environmental policies are made and whether or not they succeed. (Individuals matter.)
    12. 12. How Democratic Government Works: The U.S. Model • Three branches – Legislative branch – Executive branch – Judicial branch • Develop and implement policy – Laws, regulation, and funding – Lobbying
    13. 13. Fig. 24-3, p. 639 Laws Legislative branch Executive branch Courts Lobbyists Lobbyists Regulators Public hearing Civil suits Environmental organizations Corporations and small businesses Membership support Patronize or boycott Individuals Purchase recyclable, recycled, and environmentally safe products Recycle cans, bottles, paper, and plastic Plant a garden Donate clothes and used goods to charities Use water, energy, and other resources efficiently Use mass transit, walk, ride a bike, or carpool
    14. 14. What Can You Do? Influencing Environmental Policy
    15. 15. Environmental Leaders Can Make a Big Difference • Lead by example • Campaign and vote for informed and eco-friendly candidates • Run for local office • Propose and work for better solutions to environmental problems
    16. 16. 24-3 What Is the Role of Environmental Law in Dealing with Environmental Problems? • Concept 24-3 Environmental laws and regulations can be used to control pollution, set safety standards, encourage resource conservation, and protect species and ecosystems.
    17. 17. Fig. 24-9, p. 654 TRADE-OFFS Global Efforts to Solve Environmental Problems Good News Bad News Environmental protection agencies in 115 nations Most international environmental treaties lack criteria for evaluating their effectiveness Over 500 international environmental treaties and agreements 1992 Rio Earth Summit led to nonbinding agreements with inadequate funding UN Environment Programme (UNEP) created in 1972 to negotiate and monitor international environmental treaties By 2008 there was little improvement in the major environmental problems discussed at the 1992 Rio summit 1992 Rio Earth Summit adopted key principles for dealing with global environmental problems 2002 Johannesburg Earth Summit failed to deal with global environmental problems such as climate change, biodiversity loss, and poverty 2002 Johannesburg Earth Summit attempted to implement 1992 Rio summit policies and goals and reduce poverty
    18. 18. Fig. 24-10, p. 655 SOLUTIONS International Environmental Treaties Problems Solutions Take a long time to develop and are weakened by requiring full consensus Do not require full consensus among regulating parties Poorly monitored and enforced Establish procedures for monitoring and enforcement Lack of funding for monitoring and enforcement Increase funding for monitoring and enforcement Treaties are not integrated with one another Harmonize or integrate existing agreements
    19. 19. Corporations Can Play a Key Role in Moving Toward Environmental Sustainability • Eco-efficiency • World Business Council for Sustainable Development
    20. 20. 24-6 Implementing More Sustainable and Just Environmental Policies • Concept 24-6 Making the transition to more sustainable societies will require that nations implement green plans and that people and nations cooperate, agree on principles, and make the political commitment to achieve this transition.
    21. 21. Green Planning Can Be a National Priority • The Netherlands focused on four themes – Implement life-cycle management – Improve energy efficiency – Invent more environmentally sustainable technologies – Public education • Is the plan in the Netherlands working? • EPI rank for the Netherlands is 55/149 countries
    22. 22. We Can Shift to More Environmentally Sustainable Societies • Emphasize preventing or minimizing environmental problems • Use market-place solutions • Win-win solutions or trade-offs to environmental problems or injustices • Be honest and objective