a person who influences a group of
people towards the achievement of a
o Leadership is a ‘process’ [focusing on what
leaders actually do] and a ‘property’.
o As a process, leadership is the use of non-
coercive influence to shape the group’s or
organization’s goals, to motivate behavior toward
the achievement of those goals, and to help
define group or organizational culture.
o As a property, leadership is the set of
characteristics attributed to individuals who are
perceived to be leaders.
Is leadership a position of office or
Is leadership an ability in the sense that
he is a leader because he leads?
A leader by its meaning is one who goes
first and leads by example, so that
others are motivated to follow him.
To be a leader, a person must have a
deep-rooted commitment to the goal
that he will strive to achieve it even if
nobody follows him!
A requirement for leadership is personal vision -
the ability to visualize your goal as an
accomplished fact; a thing already achieved.
“The very essence of leadership is that you have
to have vision. You can't blow an uncertain
trumpet.” Theodore M. Hesburgh
The leader has to be practical and a realist, yet
must talk the language of the visionary and the
idealist.” Eric Hoffer
To be a leader, one must have followers.
To have followers, one must have their trust.
How do you win their trust?
Why would others trust you?
Most important, are you worthy of their trust?
Leadership and management are
related, but they are not the same.
Organizations need both leadership
and management if they are to be
Leadership is necessary to create
change; management is necessary to
achieve orderly results.
While many different leadership theories have emerged,
most can be classified as one of eight major types:
1. “Great Man” 7. “Management”
2. “Trait” 8. “Relationship”
According to this point of view,
great leaders are simply born with the necessary internal
characteristics such as charisma, confidence,
intelligence, and social skills that make them natural-
Great man theories assume that the capacity for
leadership is inherent – that great leaders are born, not
made. These theories often portray great leaders as
heroic, mythic and destined to rise to leadership when
The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time,
Similar in some ways to Great Man theories,
Trait theories assume that people inherit certain
qualities and traits that make them better suited
Trait theories often identify particular personality
or behavioural characteristics shared by leaders.
For example, traits like extraversion, self-
confidence, and courage are all traits that could
potentially be linked to great leaders.
Contingency theories of leadership focus on
particular variables related to the environment
that might determine which particular style of
leadership is best suited for the situation.
According to this theory, no leadership style is
best in all situations. Success depends upon a
number of variables, including the leadership
style, qualities of the followers and aspects of
Situational theories propose that leaders choose the best
course of action based upon situational variables.
Different styles of leadership may be more appropriate
for certain types of decision-making. For example, in a
situation where the leader is the most knowledgeable
and experienced member of a group, an authoritarian
style might be most appropriate.
In other instances where group members are skilled
experts, a democratic style would be more effective.
Behavioural theories of leadership are based upon the
belief that great leaders are made, not born. Consider it
the flip-side of the Great Man theories.
Rooted in behaviourism, this leadership theory focuses
on the actions of leaders, not on mental qualities or
According to this theory, people can learn to become
leaders through teaching and observation.
Participative leadership theories suggest that the ideal
leadership style is one that takes the input of others into
These leaders encourage participation and contributions
from group members and help group members feel more
relevant and committed to the decision-making process.
In participative theories, however, the leader retains the
right to allow the input of others.
Management theories, also known as transactional
theories, focus on the role of supervision, organization
and group performance.
These theories base leadership on a system of rewards
Managerial theories are often used in business; When
employees are successful, they are rewarded; when they
fail, they are reprimanded or punished.
Relationship theories, also known as transformational
theories, focus upon the connections formed between
leaders and followers.
Transformational leaders motivate and inspire people by
helping group members see the importance and higher
good of the task. These leaders are focused on the
performance of group members, but also want each
person to fulfil his or her potential.
Leaders with this style often have high ethical and moral
Power can be explained as the ability of one
person or group to cause another person to
do that they might not have done on their
own. It resides in individuals, formal groups
and informal groups. Power is also a major
resource of directing and controlling
organizational goals and activities.
It is very important aspect and plays
significant role in the organizations. It’s not
only organizations but people in the
organization also seek power. It is
important for the organization and for its
people due to the following reasons and
1. Power helps in controlling the people and other resources in the organizations
so that they cooperate and help to achieve an organization's current goals.
2. Power is used to engage in politics and influence decision-making process. It
helps in promoting new and more appropriate organizational goals.
3. Power influences complexity, formality and centralization of activities in the
4. The individuals who posses power can determine the size of the organization,
allocation of rewards, selection of technology etc.
5. Power is an important aspect that is required for the efficient functioning of the
The simplest form of power is that vested
in the position of 'manager'. A manager
has subordinates who must do his or her
bidding, only within legal and
organizational rules. The basic
employment transaction is 'we give you
money, you do as your are told'.
o The authority that a manager has by virtue of
his or her position in the firm
o The ability of a manager to give or withhold
tangible and intangible rewards.
o Effective managers use reward power to
signal to employees that they are doing a
o The ability of a manager to punish others.
• Examples: verbal reprimand, pay cuts, and
• Limited in effectiveness and application; can have
serious negative side effects
o Power that is based on special knowledge,
skills, and expertise that the leader
o Tends to be used in a guiding or coaching
o Power that comes from subordinates’
and coworkers’ respect , admiration, and
o Possessed by managers who are likable
and whom subordinates wish to use as
a role model
Leadership styles may vary among different
countries or cultures.
European managers tend to be more people-
oriented than American or Japanese
Japanese managers are group-oriented,
while U.S managers focuses more on
This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they
want to be done and how they want it accomplished, without
getting the advice of their followers. Some of the appropriate
conditions to use it is when you have all the information to solve
the problem, you are short on time, and your employees are well
The authoritarian style should normally only be used on rare
This style involves the leader including one or more employees in
the decision making process (determining what to do and how to
do it). However, the leader maintains the final decision making
authority. Using this style is not a sign of weakness, rather it is a
sign of strength that your employees will respect.
A leader is not expected to know everything—this is why you
employ knowledgeable and skilled people. Using this style is of
mutual benefit as it allows them to become part of the team and
allows you to make better decisions.
In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the
decisions. However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions
that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze
the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do
it. You cannot do everything! You must set priorities and delegate
This is a style to be used when you fully trust and have confidence
in the people below you.
Leadership is a key factor in making any
It is aptly mentioned by Stephen covey, a
famous management consultant, that managers
are important but leaders are vital for lasting
A leader not only commits his followers to
organisational growth but also pool the needed
resources, guides and motivates his
Leadership influences the behavior of
people and makes them positively
contribute their energies for the benefit
of the organization.
A leader maintains personal relations an
helps the followers to fulfill their needs.
He provides the follower with needed
confidence, support and encouragement
and thereby creates pleasant work
Leader plays a key role in
changes in the
He persuades, clarifies
and inspires people to
accept the changes.
A leader handles conflicts effectively and does not allow
adverse effect resulting from the conflict. A good leader
always allow his followers to share their feeling and
disagreement but persuades them by giving suitable
A leader provides training to their subordinates.
A good leader always builds up his successor
and helps in smooth succession process.
1. Employees need to be supervised closely,
or they are not likely to do their work ?
2. Employees want to be a part of the
decision-making process ?
3. In complex situations, leaders should let
subordinates work problems out on their own ?
4. It is fair to say that most employees in the
general population are lazy ?
5. Providing guidance without pressure is the
key to being a good leader ?
6. Leadership requires staying out of the way
of subordinates as they do their work ?
7. As a rule, employees must be given
rewards or punishments in order to
motivate them to achieve organizational
8. Most workers want frequent and
supportive communication from their
9. As a rule, leaders should allow
10. Most employees feel insecure about their
work and need direction ?
11. Leaders need to help subordinates
accept responsibility for completing their
12. Leaders should give subordinates
complete freedom to solve problems on their
13. The leader is the chief judge of the
achievements of the members of the group
14. It is the leader’s job to help subordinates
find their “passion.” ?
15. In most situations, workers prefer little
input from the leader ?
16. Effective leaders give orders and clarify
17. People are basically competent and if
given a task will do a good job ?
18. In general, it is best to leave
subordinates alone ?