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Energy resources & types

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Energy resources & types

  1. 1. ENERGY & ENERGY RESOURCES 1
  2. 2. Energy & Energy Resources • Energy & energy resources important to economies – Hunter-gatherer – Agricultural – Industrial 2
  3. 3. Energy & Energy Resources 3 • Sources of energy for the modern industrial economy
  4. 4. Energy & Energy Resources 4 • Energy use related to – Prosperity – Quality of life • More energy used: more GNP per capita. Is this correct? – but, Switzerland, Japan, Denmark, Germany have achieved high GNP using less energy than USA
  5. 5. How we use Energy 5 • Electrical – lighting (room, street, advertising) – heating & air conditioning – air circulation • Heat – residential & commercial buildings – hot water – industrial processes • Kinetic. – transportation • cars • trucks • trains • airplanes
  6. 6. Energy & Economy • Electricity • (In)efficiency: 2nd Law • ~ 75% of energy lost in generation from coal and “stepping down” to household voltage • Inefficient incandescent light bulbs 6
  7. 7. Electrical generation sources 7 – Fossil fuels, 66.6% – Nuclear, 15.2% – Hydro, 16.0% – Renewable, 2.2%
  8. 8. Energy Formation 8 • Fossil fuels – Coal – Petroleum • crude oil • tar sands • oil shales – Natural gas
  9. 9. Energy Source 9 • Coal – Fossilized plant remains, mostly 250- 300 Million yr old – Abundant – Enough to last ~200 years at present rate of use
  10. 10. Energy & Economy 10 • Coal mining – Subsurface mining • Dangerous to miners – Open cast mining • Destroys surface landscape • Acid drainage
  11. 11. Energy & Economy 11 • Electrical generation from coal – Source, quality of coal – Emissions – Ash disposal
  12. 12. Energy & Economy 12 • Petroleum • crude oil • tar sands • oil shales • Production • transport • Consumption
  13. 13. Energy & Economy 13 • Crude oil refined to: – fuel • gasoline • diesel – lubricants • motor oil, etc. – asphalt paving – plastics • By-products
  14. 14. When will we run out of oil? 14
  15. 15. Energy & Economy 15 • Other uses for petroleum: Plastics, solvents, asphalt, rubber
  16. 16. Energy & Economy 16 • Natural gas – Clean burning • CO2 • H2O – Difficult & dangerous to store and transport • Pipelines • Liquid natural gas
  17. 17. Energy & Economy 17 • Alternatives to fossil fuels – Nuclear energy
  18. 18. Energy & Economy 18 • Alternatives to fossil fuels – Nuclear power for electrical generation
  19. 19. Energy & Environmental Impact 19
  20. 20. Energy & Economy 20 • Alternatives to fossil fuels – Biomass energy • Wood • Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) • Vegetable oil – Land dedicated to biomass production • Unavailable for food • Nutrient depletion
  21. 21. Energy & Economy 21 • Alternatives to fossil fuels – Hydroelectric energy – Dams
  22. 22. Energy & Economy 22 • Alternatives to fossil fuels – Wind energy
  23. 23. Energy & Economy Solar Energy 23
  24. 24. Energy & Economy 24 • Alternatives to fossil fuels – Hydrogen fuel cells • Used in space capsules, shuttles, International Space Station, since 1960s • Strip hydrogen atoms of electrons – Electrons flow (current) – Protons pass through membrane – Waste = water vapor
  25. 25. Energy Conservation 25 • Drive less – Carpool – Mass Transport – Walk, bike • Drive a more efficient car • Use stairs • Recycle • Make home more energy efficient • Buy locally grown food • Buy locally produced goods

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